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  1. The European Origins of Scientific Ecology.P. Acot (ed.) - 1998 - Gordon & Breach.
  2. Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche.Thomas R. Alley - 1985 - Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  3. Change of Plans?Patrik Baard - 2015 - Environmental Philosophy 12 (2):185-204.
    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management, as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted (...)
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  4. Andres Moya and Enrique Font, Eds, Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems.A. Barahona - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2).
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  5. New Wine in Old Bottles: Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems Andrés Moya and Enrique Font , Eds Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (350 Pp; $185.00 Hbk; ISBN 978019851425). [REVIEW]Ana Barahona - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):201-203.
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  6. Poverty, Development, and Ecological Services.Edward B. Barbier - unknown
    The importance of ecosystem services to human welfare and economic livelihoods in low-income countries is now well recognized. Poor people in developing regions are particularly vulnerable to the deteriorating ecological values resulting from the loss of tropical forests, coral reefs, mangroves, and other ecosystems. Current efforts to reconcile development pressures with maintaining key ecosystem benefits focus on payment for environmental services and other incentives to protect critical ecosystems and habitat in developing countries. But geographical targeting and other means of tackling (...)
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  7. Integrating Ecology and Evolution: Niche Construction and Ecological Engineering.Gillian Barker & John Odling-Smee - 2013 - In Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.), Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer. pp. 187-211.
  8. Towards an Ecological View of Immunity. [REVIEW]Swiatczak Bartlomiej - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    The immune system does not just fight pathogens but also engages in interactions with beneficial microbes and non-immune cells of the body to harmonize their behavior by means of cytokines, antibodies and effector cells (Dinarello, 2007; Moticka, 2015, pp. 217e226, 261e267). However, the importance of these “housekeeping” functions has not been fully appreciated (Cohen, 2000). In his new book Immunity: The Evolution of an Idea Alfred I. Tauber traces the history of fundamental ideas in immunology and refers to recent advances (...)
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  9. Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. [REVIEW]Donato Bergandi - 2002 - Environmental Conservation 29 (4):540-541.
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  10. Software Sensors to Monitor the Dynamics of Microbial Communities: Application to Anaerobic Digestion.Olivier Bernard, Zakaria Hadj-Sadok & Denis Dochain - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):197-205.
    A mass balance based model has been derived to represent the dynamical behavior of the ecosystem contained in an anaerobic digester. The model considers two bacterial populations: acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria. It forms the basis for the design of a software sensor considering both a model of the biological system and on-line gaseous measurements. The software sensor computes the concentration of inorganic carbon and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the digester. Another software sensor is dedicated to the estimation of the (...)
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  11. Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Stephen Bocking - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1-47.
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  12. Toward an Inclusive Health Ethic for Humans and Ecosystems.E. Boetzkes - 2000 - Ethics and the Environment 5 (2):143-151.
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  13. Ecosystems and Society: Implications for Sustainable Development.Hartmut Bossel - 1996 - World Futures 47 (2):143-213.
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  14. Ecosystem Evolution is About Variation and Persistence, Not Populations and Reproduction.Frédéric Bouchard - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):382-391.
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  15. Theories of Ecosystem Ecology.Ingrid C. Burke & William K. Lauenroth - 2011 - In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. University of Chicago Press. pp. 243.
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  16. The Environment Ontology: Contextualising Biological and Biomedical Entities.Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Norman Morrison, Barry Smith, Christopher J. Mungall & Suzanna E. Lewis - 2013 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (43):1-9.
    As biological and biomedical research increasingly reference the environmental context of the biological entities under study, the need for formalisation and standardisation of environment descriptors is growing. The Environment Ontology (ENVO; www.environmentontology.org) is a community-led, open project which seeks to provide an ontology for specifying a wide range of environments relevant to multiple life science disciplines and, through an open participation model, to accommodate the terminological requirements of all those needing to annotate data using ontology classes. This paper summarises ENVO’s (...)
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  17. Against the Moral Considerability of Ecosystems.Harley Cahen - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (3):195-216.
    Are ecosystems morally considerable-that is, do we owe it to them to protect their “interests”? Many environmental ethicists, impressed by the way that individual nonsentient organisms such as plants tenaciously pursue their own biological goals, have concluded that we should extend moral considerability far enough to include such organisms. There is a pitfall in the ecosystem-to-organism analogy, however. We must distinguish a system’s genuine goals from the incidental effects, or byproducts, of the behavior of that system’s parts. Goals seem capable (...)
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  18. What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems?J. Baird Callicott - 2008 - Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  19. Animats in the Modeling Ecosystem.Anthony Chemero - unknown
    There are many different kinds of model and scientists do all kind of things with them. This diversity of model type and model use is a good thing for science. Indeed, it is crucial especially for the biological and cognitive sciences, which have to solve many different problems at many different scales, ranging from the most concrete of the structural details of a DNA molecule to the most abstract and generic principles of self-organization in networks. Getting a grip (or more (...)
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  20. Animals, Ecosystems and the Liberal Ethic.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1987 - The Monist 70 (1):114-133.
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  21. A Dynamical Approach to Ecosystem Identity.John Collier & Graeme Cumming - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. pp. 11--201.
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  22. Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist.Betty Jean Craige - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):593-594.
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  23. Saving the Polar Bear, Saving the World: Can the Capabilities Approach Do Justice to Humans, Animals and Ecosystems? [REVIEW]Elizabeth Cripps - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (1):1-22.
    Martha Nussbaum has expanded the capabilities approach to defend positive duties of justice to individuals who fall below Rawls’ standard for fully cooperating members of society, including sentient nonhuman animals. Building on this, David Schlosberg has defended the extension of capabilities justice not only to individual animals but also to entire species and ecosystems. This is an attractive vision: a happy marriage of social, environmental and ecological justice, which also respects the claims of individual animals. This paper asks whether it (...)
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  24. Arthur G. Tansley’s ‘New Psychology’ and its Relation to Ecology.Joachim L. Dagg - 2007 - Web Ecology 2007.
    In 1935, A. G. Tansley, who was knighted later, proposed the ecosystem concept. Nevertheless, this concept was not without predecessors. Why did Tansley’s ecosystem prevail and not one of its competitors? The purpose of this article is to pin the distinguishing features of Tansley’s ecosystem down, as far as the published record allows. It is an exercise in finding the difference that made a difference. Besides being a pioneering ecologist, Tansley was an adept of psychoanalysis. His interest even led him (...)
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  25. Ecosystem Organization as Side-Effects of Replicator and Interactor Activities.Joachim L. Dagg - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):491-492.
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  26. Philosophy of Ecology.Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) - 2011 - North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  27. Activity Schedule and Foraging in Protopolybia Sedula (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).Mateus Detoni, Maria do Carmo Mattos, Mariana Monteiro de Castro, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fabio Prezoto - 2015 - Revista Colombiana de Entomología 41 (2).
    Protopolybia sedula is a social swarming wasp, widely spread throughout many countries in the Americas, including most of Brazil. Despite its distribution, studies of its behavioral ecology are scarce. This study aimed to describe its foraging activity and relation to climatic variables in the city of Juiz de Fora in southeastern Brazil. Three colonies were under observation between 07:00 and 18:00 during April 2012, January 2013, and March 2013. Every 30 minutes, the number of foragers leaving and returning to the (...)
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  28. The Moral Status of Non-Human Beings and Their Ecosystems.Michel Dion - 2000 - Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (2):221 – 229.
    Environmental ethics is generally searching for the intrinsic value in natural beings. However, there are very few holistic models trying to reflect the various dimensions of the experience-to-be a natural being. We are searching for that intrinsic value, in order to determine which species are holders of rights. In this article, I suggest a set of moral and rational principles to be used for identifying the intrinsic value of a given species and for comparing it to that of other species.
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  29. Informative Ecological Models Without Ecological Forces.Justin Donhauser - forthcoming - Synthese:1-23.
    Sagoff (2016) criticizes widely used “theoretical” methods in ecology; arguing that those methods employ models that rely on problematic metaphysical assumptions and are therefore uninformative and useless for practical decision-making. In this paper, I show that Sagoff misconstrues how such model-based methods work in practice, that the main threads of his argument are problematic, and that his substantive conclusions are consequently unfounded. Along the way, I illuminate several ways the model-based inferential methods he criticizes can be, and have been, usefully (...)
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  30. Making Ecological Values Make Sense: Toward More Operationalizable Ecological Legislation.Justin Donhauser - 2016 - Ethics and the Environment 21 (2):1-25.
    Value claims about ecological entities, their functionality, and properties take center stage in so-called “ecological” ethical and aesthetic theories. For example, the claim that the biodiversity in an old-growth forest imbues it with “value in and for itself” is an explicit value claim about an ecological property. And the claim that one can study “the aesthetics of nature, including natural objects...such as ecosystems” presupposes that natural instances of a type of ecological entity exist and can be regarded as more or (...)
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  31. A Philosophy of Theoretical Ecology for Environmental Policy.Justin Donhauser - 2015 - Dissertation, University at Buffalo
    This dissertation addresses two questions at the center of critical debate about ecology’s ability to provide scientific guidance in efforts to address mounting environmental problems. The first concerns whether and, if so, how theoretical ecological models (TEMs) can usefully inform environmental policy and resource management decision-making. The second concerns whether and, if so, in what manner the entities such models characterize (i.e., ecological populations, communities, and systems) exist. Throughout this work, I clarify how these questions are, and are not, related (...)
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  32. Ecological Historicity, Functional Goals, and Novelty in the Anthropocene.Justin Donhauser, Eric Desjardins & Gillian Barker - 2018 - Environmental Values.
    While many recognize that rigid historical and compositional goals are inadequate in a world where climate and other global systems are undergoing unprecedented changes, others contend that promoting ecosystem services and functions encourages practices that can ultimately lower the bar of ecological management. These worries are foregrounded in discussions about Novel Ecosystems (NEs); where some researchers and conservationists claim that NEs provide a license to trash nature as long as some ecosystem services are provided. This criticism arises from what we (...)
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  33. Old and New World Perspectives on Environmental Philosophy. Transatlantic Conversations.Martin Drenthen & Jozef Keulartz (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This is the first collection of essays in which European and American philosophers explicitly think out their respective contributions and identities as environmental thinkers in the analytic and continental traditions. The American/European, as well as Analytic/Continental collaboration here bears fruit helpful for further theorizing and research. The essays group around three well-defined areas of questioning all focusing on the amelioration/management of environmentally, historically and traditionally diminished landscapes. The first part deals with differences between New World and the Old World perspectives (...)
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  34. Functional Biodiversity, Context-Based Ecological Functions and the Function/Mere Effect Distinction.Antoine C. Dussault - manuscript
    This chapter aims to support non-selectionist elucidations of the notion of ecological role and of the idea of ecosystem-level functional organization associated with it. It does so, first, by noting how non-selectionist elucidations of ecological roles, such as those that appeal to the causal role theory of function, better accord with the context-based (rather than evolutionary-historical) understanding of ecological roles adopted in functional ecology. The chapter then discusses a serious challenge raised by the seeming accidentality of context-based ecological roles, and (...)
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  35. Africanizing Science in Post-colonial Kenya: Long-Term Field Research in the Amboseli Ecosystem, 1963–1989.Amanda E. Lewis - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):535-562.
    Following Kenya’s independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that (...)
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  36. Stoichiometry and the New Biology: The Future Is Now.James Elser & Andrew Hamilton - 2007 - PLoS Biology 5:181-183.
    The world is an untidy place, and the sciences—all of them—reflect this. One source of this untidiness is the relationship between levels of organization. Reducing macrolevels to microlevels—explaining the former in terms of the latter—has met with successes but has never been the whole story. In the biological sciences, there has been much attention lately to the shortcomings of reductionism on the grounds that (i) it changes the subject rather than explaining, (ii) it leads to a myopically molecular view of (...)
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  37. Sagoff on Ecosystems as Self-Organizing Systems.Rachel Fredericks - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):258-261.
    In “What Does Environmental Protection Protect?” Mark Sagoff argues that there is no ecological way to test the claim that natural ecosystems are complex adaptive systems. In this critical commentary, I recreate that argument, object to it, and attempt to clarify its normative upshot. I show that Sagoff relies on substantive assumptions about (1) the tools and methods of ecological science, (2) what can be done with those tools and methods, and (3) ecology’s being separable from other disciplines, all of (...)
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  38. Modeling Ecological Success of Common Pool Resource Systems Using Large Datasets.Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - World Development 59:93-103.
    The influence of many factors on ecological success in common pool resource management is still unclear. This may be due to methodological issues. These include causal complexity, a lack of large-N-studies and nonlinear relationships between factors. We address all three issues with a new methodological approach, artificial neural networks, which is discussed in detail. It allows us to develop a model with comparably high predictive power. In addition, two success factors are analyzed: legal security and institutional fairness. Both factors show (...)
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  39. "Diversité et historique des mouvements écologiques en Amérique du Nord" [Diversity and origins of the ecological movements in North America].Philippe Gagnon - 2014 - Connaître: Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 40:76-89.
    The development of ecological thinking in North America has been conditioned by the imperative aiming at a valuation of the biotic community. Since the end of WWII, the US population was warned against the dangerous and violent alterations of nature. Many then found in theology an unforeseen ally. I review the roots of the tension which led to debates involving radical ecologism or its denial, and I aim at analyzing it philosophically.
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  40. Is It Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management.Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan A. Newman - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):170-182.
    Conservationists have two types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems: instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more useful than (...)
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  41. Ecosystem Complexity Through the Lens of Logical Depth: Capturing Ecosystem Individuality.Cédric Gaucherel - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):440-451.
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  42. Evolution of Hydrothermal Ecosystems on Earth.Annabel Gillings - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (6):515-517.
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  43. A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts.Frank Benjamin Golley - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):470-474.
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  44. Biofuels: Efficiency, Ethics, and Limits to Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Services. [REVIEW]Tiziano Gomiero, Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel - 2010 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (5):403-434.
    Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing countries, and (2) the limits of the Human Appropriation of ecosystem services and Net Primary Productivity. We warn that large scale conversion of crops, grasslands, natural and semi-natural ecosystem, (such as the conversion of grasslands to cellulosic (...)
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  45. An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology.Joel B. Hagen & Gregg Mitman - 1994 - Journal of the History of Biology 27 (2):349-357.
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  46. Integration of Ecosystem Theories a Pattern.Sven Erik J.[0]Rgensen - 1992
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  47. Can We Define Ecosystems? On the Confusion Between Definition and Description of Ecological Concepts.Kurt Jax - 2007 - Acta Biotheoretica 55 (4):341-355.
    Sound definitions of its basic concepts are fundamental to every scientific discipline. In some instances, like in the case of the ecosystem concept, the question arises if we can define such concepts at all. And if we can define them, how should we choose from the multiple definitions available? And what are the preconditions for a scientifically sound and useful definition? On the basis of the ecosystem concept, this paper illustrates a major, often neglected distinction in the definition of ecological (...)
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  48. “„Book Review: Schwarz, Astrid E. (Ed.), Wasserwüste – Mikrokosmos – Ökosystem. Eine Geschichte der “Eroberung” Des Wasserraums [Water Desert – Microcosm – Ecosystem. A History of the, Conquest“ of Aquatic Space]. Freiburg, Rombach-Verlag, 350 Pp., 2003, ISBN 3-7930-9318-. [REVIEW]Kurt Jax - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):49-51.
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  49. Holocoen and Ecosystem: On the Origin and Historical Consequences of Two Concepts.Kurt Jax - 1998 - Journal of the History of Biology 31 (1):113 - 142.
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  50. Toward the Moral Considerability of Species and Ecosystems.Lawrence E. Johnson - 1992 - Environmental Ethics 14 (2):145-157.
    I develop the thesis that species and ecosystems are living entities with morally significant interests in their own right and defend it against leading objections. Contrary to certain claims, it is possible to individuate such entities sufficiently well. Indeed, there is a sense in which such entities define their own nature. I also consider and reject the argument that species and ecosystems cannot have interests or even traits in their own right because evolution does not proceed on that level. Although (...)
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