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1 — 50 / 108
  1. added 2020-03-10
    Option Value, Substitutable Species, and Ecosystem Services.Erik Persson - 2016 - Environmental Ethics 38 (2):165-181.
    The concept of ecosystem services is a way of visualizing the instrumental value that nature has for human beings. Most ecosystem services can be performed by more than one species. This fact is sometimes used as an argument against the preservation of species. However, even though substitutability does detract from the instrumental value of a species, it also adds option value to it. The option value cannot make a substitutable species as instrumentally valuable as a non-substitutable species, but in many (...)
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  2. added 2020-02-25
    Life: the Center of our Existence.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Ludus Vitalis 26 (50):257-260.
    Life is the center of our existence. One would be tempted to say that first of all we live. However, our existence does not seem to pass in that modality. The exacerbated materialism in which our existence takes place, displaces life from the center of the scene. Our society is organized around production, consumerism, exploitation, efficiency, trade and propaganda. That is to say, our existence seems to have economy as the center of organization of our activities. The struggle of this (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-19
    The Organism and its Umwelt: A Counterpoint Between the Theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - In Jakob von Uexküll and Philosophy: Life, Environments, Anthropology. Londres, Reino Unido: pp. 158-171.
    The topic of the relationship between the organism and its environment runs through the theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem with equal importance. In this work a counterpoint will be established between their theories, in the attempt to assess at which points the melodies are concordant and at which points they are discordant. As fundamental basis to his theory, Uexküll relies on the concept of conformity to a plan, which allows him to account for the congruity and perfect adjustment between (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-11
    Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist.David Keller - 2001 - Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):119-124.
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  5. added 2019-11-01
    The Hologenome Concept of Evolution: A Philosophical and Biological Study.Javier Suárez - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Exeter
    The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis about the evolution of animals and plants. It asserts that the evolution of animals and plants was partially triggered by their interactions with their symbiotic microbiomes. In that vein, the hologenome concept posits that the holobiont (animal host + symbionts of the microbiome) is a unit of selection. -/- The hologenome concept has been severely criticized on the basis that selection on holobionts would only be possible if there were a tight transgenerational (...)
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  6. added 2019-10-27
    Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation and Wrongful Species Discrimination.C. E. Abbate & Bob Fischer - 2019 - Animals 871 (9).
    It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as “invasive”. We argue that the classification of any species as “invasive” constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals—assuming that conservationists “kill equally”. It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Enzymes as Ecosystems: A Panexperientialist Account of Biocatalytic Chemical Transformation.Ross L. Stein - 2005 - Process Studies 34 (1):62-80.
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    “„Book Review: Schwarz, Astrid E. (Ed.), Wasserwüste – Mikrokosmos – Ökosystem. Eine Geschichte der “Eroberung” Des Wasserraums [Water Desert – Microcosm – Ecosystem. A History of the, Conquest“ of Aquatic Space]. Freiburg, Rombach-Verlag, 350 Pp., 2003, ISBN 3-7930-9318-. [REVIEW]Kurt Jax - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):49-51.
  9. added 2019-06-06
    Eugene P. Odum: Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems. [REVIEW]Linda G. Lockwood - 1990 - Environmental Ethics 12 (4):375-378.
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  10. added 2019-06-05
    New Wine in Old Bottles: Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems Andrés Moya and Enrique Font , Eds Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (350 Pp; $185.00 Hbk; ISBN 978019851425).Ana Barahona - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):201-203.
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  11. added 2019-03-11
    Global Climate Destabilization and the Crisis of Civilization.Arran Gare - 2010 - Chromatikon: Annales de la Philosophie En Procès / Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 6:11-24.
    James Hansen, the world’s leading climate scientist, argues that global climate destabilization could totally destroy the conditions for life on Earth, and further, that politicians are not taking effective action. Instead, they are using their power to cripple science. This situation is explained in this paper as the outcome of the successful alliance between a global class of predators and people who must be recognized as idiots taking over the institutions of government, research and education and transforming governments into governments (...)
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  12. added 2019-03-07
    Rewilding in Cultural Layered Landscapes.Martin Drenthen - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (4):325-330.
    introduction to the theme issue of Environmental Values on Rewilding in cultural layered landscapes. Rewilding projects, especially in culturally saturated landscapes, are often being opposed by those who deeply care about the old cultural landscapes (for cultural or ecological reasons). Indeed, some proponents of rewilding today fall back on the language that was developed by the early proponents of wilderness preservation, starting off from an opposition between wild nature and culture, and claiming that nature needs to be protected against human (...)
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  13. added 2019-03-07
    Rewilding in Layered Landscapes as a Challenge to Place Identity.Martin Drenthen - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (4):405-425.
    Rewilding is an increasingly popular strategy in landscape management, yet it is also controversial, especially when applied in culturally 'layered' landscapes. In this paper I examine what is morally at stake in debates between proponents of rewilding and those that see traditional cultural landscapes as worthy of protection. I will argue that rewilding should not only be understood as a conservation practice, but that we also need to understand its hermeneutic aspect. Rewilding implies a radical non-anthropocentric normative reinterpretation of landscape (...)
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  14. added 2019-01-07
    Anchoring in Ecosystemic Kinds.Matthew Slater - 2018 - Synthese 195 (4):1487-1508.
    The world contains many different types of ecosystems. This is something of a commonplace in biology and conservation science. But there has been little attention to the question of whether such ecosystem types enjoy a degree of objectivity—whether they might be natural kinds. I argue that traditional accounts of natural kinds that emphasize nomic or causal–mechanistic dimensions of “kindhood” are ill-equipped to accommodate presumptive ecosystemic kinds. In particular, unlike many other kinds, ecosystemic kinds are “anchored” to the contingent character of (...)
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  15. added 2018-10-26
    The instability of field experiments: building an experimental research tradition on the rocky seashores.Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl, Franco Porto & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):45.
    In many experimental sciences, like particle physics or molecular biology, the proper place for establishing facts is the laboratory. In the sciences of population biology, however, the laboratory is often seen as a poor approximation of what occurs in nature. Results obtained in the field are usually more convincing. This raises special problems: it is much more difficult to obtain stable, repeatable results in the field, where environmental conditions vary out of the experimenter’s control, than in the laboratory. We examine (...)
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  16. added 2018-10-13
    Africanizing Science in Post-colonial Kenya: Long-Term Field Research in the Amboseli Ecosystem, 1963–1989.Amanda E. Lewis - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):535-562.
    Following Kenya’s independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that (...)
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  17. added 2018-10-01
    A Dynamical Approach to Ecosystem Identity.John Collier & Graeme Cumming - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. pp. 11--201.
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  18. added 2018-09-13
    Understanding Leopold’s Concept of “Interdependence” for Environmental Ethics and Conservation Biology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):1127-1139.
    Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic, an extremely influential view in environmental ethics and conservation biology, is committed to the claim that interdependence between humans, other species, and abiotic entities plays a central role in our ethical responsibilities. Thus, a robust understanding of “interdependence” is necessary for evaluating the viability of the Land Ethic and related views, including ecological ones. I characterize and defend a Leopoldian concept of “interdependence,” arguing that it ought to include both negative and positive causal relations. I also (...)
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  19. added 2018-08-03
    Informative Ecological Models Without Ecological Forces.Justin Donhauser - forthcoming - Synthese:1-23.
    Sagoff (2016) criticizes widely used “theoretical” methods in ecology; arguing that those methods employ models that rely on problematic metaphysical assumptions and are therefore uninformative and useless for practical decision-making. In this paper, I show that Sagoff misconstrues how such model-based methods work in practice, that the main threads of his argument are problematic, and that his substantive conclusions are consequently unfounded. Along the way, I illuminate several ways the model-based inferential methods he criticizes can be, and have been, usefully (...)
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  20. added 2018-03-05
    Ecological Historicity, Functional Goals, and Novelty in the Anthropocene.Justin Donhauser, Eric Desjardins & Gillian Barker - 2018 - Environmental Values.
    While many recognize that rigid historical and compositional goals are inadequate in a world where climate and other global systems are undergoing unprecedented changes, others contend that promoting ecosystem services and functions encourages practices that can ultimately lower the bar of ecological management. These worries are foregrounded in discussions about Novel Ecosystems (NEs); where some researchers and conservationists claim that NEs provide a license to trash nature as long as some ecosystem services are provided. This criticism arises from what we (...)
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  21. added 2017-12-03
    Debunking Myths About Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic.Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - Biological Conservation 217:391–396.
    Aldo Leopold's land ethic has been extremely influential among people working in conservation biology, environmental ethics, and related fields. Others have abandoned the land ethic for purportedly being outdated or ethically untenable. Yet, both acceptance of the land ethic and rejection of the land ethic are often based on misunderstandings of Leopold's original meaning – misunderstandings that have become so entrenched as to have the status of myths. This essay seeks to identify and then debunk six myths that have grown (...)
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  22. added 2017-07-02
    Functional Biodiversity and the Concept of Ecological Function.Antoine C. Dussault - 2019 - In Elena Casetta, Davide Vecchi & Jorge Miguel Luz Marques da Silva (eds.), From Assessing to Conserving biodiversity: Beyond the Species Approach. Dordrecht, Pays-Bas: Springer. pp. 297-316.
    This chapter argues that the common claim that the ascription of ecological functions to organisms in functional ecology raises issues about levels of natural selection is ill-founded. This claim, I maintain, mistakenly assumes that the function concept as understood in functional ecology aligns with the selected effect theory of function advocated by many philosophers of biology (sometimes called “The Standard Line” on functions). After exploring the implications of Wilson and Sober’s defence of multilevel selection for the prospects of defending a (...)
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  23. added 2017-05-10
    'Natur' als kulturelles Konzept.Thomas Kirchhoff - 2011 - Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie 5 (1):69–96.
    Nature is treated as a reality that is constituted by intersubjective cultural patterns of interpretation. Views of nature are interpreted as reflexions of cultural objectivity. By the example of nature as landscape and nature as wilderness, it is shown that even concrete nature appearing to be directly present has been culturally constituted. By the example of ecology, it becomes clear that cultural ideas direct not only aesthetic and moral but also theoretical judgements of nature. -/- Natur wird thematisiert als Realität, (...)
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  24. added 2017-04-02
    A Philosophy of Theoretical Ecology for Environmental Policy.Justin Donhauser - 2015 - Dissertation, University at Buffalo
    This dissertation addresses two questions at the center of critical debate about ecology’s ability to provide scientific guidance in efforts to address mounting environmental problems. The first concerns whether and, if so, how theoretical ecological models (TEMs) can usefully inform environmental policy and resource management decision-making. The second concerns whether and, if so, in what manner the entities such models characterize (i.e., ecological populations, communities, and systems) exist. Throughout this work, I clarify how these questions are, and are not, related (...)
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  25. added 2017-03-20
    Towards an Ecological View of Immunity. [REVIEW]Swiatczak Bartlomiej - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    The immune system does not just fight pathogens but also engages in interactions with beneficial microbes and non-immune cells of the body to harmonize their behavior by means of cytokines, antibodies and effector cells (Dinarello, 2007; Moticka, 2015, pp. 217e226, 261e267). However, the importance of these “housekeeping” functions has not been fully appreciated (Cohen, 2000). In his new book Immunity: The Evolution of an Idea Alfred I. Tauber traces the history of fundamental ideas in immunology and refers to recent advances (...)
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  26. added 2017-02-15
    Model Coupling in Resource Economics: Conditions for Effective Interdisciplinary Collaboration.MacLeod Miles & Michiru Nagatsu - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (3):412-433.
    In this article we argue for the importance of studying interdisciplinary collaborations by focusing on the role that good choice and design of model-building frameworks and strategies can play overcoming the inherent difficulties of collaborative research. We provide an empirical study of particular collaborations between economists and ecologists in resource economics. We discuss various features of how models are put together for interdisciplinary collaboration in these cases and show how the use of a coupled-model framework in this case to coordinate (...)
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  27. added 2017-02-12
    Sagoff on Ecosystems as Self-Organizing Systems.Rachel Fredericks - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):258-261.
    In “What Does Environmental Protection Protect?” Mark Sagoff argues that there is no ecological way to test the claim that natural ecosystems are complex adaptive systems. In this critical commentary, I recreate that argument, object to it, and attempt to clarify its normative upshot. I show that Sagoff relies on substantive assumptions about (1) the tools and methods of ecological science, (2) what can be done with those tools and methods, and (3) ecology’s being separable from other disciplines, all of (...)
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  28. added 2017-01-28
    Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist.Betty Jean Craige - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):593-594.
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  29. added 2017-01-28
    A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts.Frank Benjamin Golley - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):470-474.
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  30. added 2017-01-28
    An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology.Joel B. Hagen & Gregg Mitman - 1994 - Journal of the History of Biology 27 (2):349-357.
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  31. added 2017-01-27
    What Constitutes Ecosystem Health.David J. Rapport - 1989 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 33 (1):120-132.
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  32. added 2017-01-25
    Parallels in Economic and Ecosystem Crises.A. C. Tsikliras, U. R. Sumaila & K. I. Stergiou - 2013 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 13 (1):23-25.
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  33. added 2017-01-14
    Ecosystem Complexity Through the Lens of Logical Depth: Capturing Ecosystem Individuality.Cédric Gaucherel - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):440-451.
    In this article, I will discuss possible differences between ecosystems and organisms on the basis of their intrinsic complexity. As the concept of complexity still remains highly debated, I propose here a practical and original way to measure the complexity of an ecosystem or an organism. For this purpose, I suggest using the concept of logical depth (LD) in a specific manner, in order to take into account the difficulty as well as the time needed to generate the studied object. (...)
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  34. added 2017-01-14
    A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts.Gregory M. Mikkelson & Mathew A. Leibold - 1995 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 38 (2):297-299.
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  35. added 2016-12-20
    Making Ecological Values Make Sense: Toward More Operationalizable Ecological Legislation.Justin Donhauser - 2016 - Ethics and the Environment 21 (2):1-25.
    Value claims about ecological entities, their functionality, and properties take center stage in so-called “ecological” ethical and aesthetic theories. For example, the claim that the biodiversity in an old-growth forest imbues it with “value in and for itself” is an explicit value claim about an ecological property. And the claim that one can study “the aesthetics of nature, including natural objects...such as ecosystems” presupposes that natural instances of a type of ecological entity exist and can be regarded as more or (...)
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  36. added 2016-12-08
    Is It Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management.Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan A. Newman - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):170-182.
    Conservationists have two types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems: instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more useful than (...)
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  37. added 2016-12-08
    Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Stephen Bocking - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1-47.
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  38. added 2016-09-09
    Is Aldo Leopold's 'Land Community' an Individual?Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - In O. Bueno, R. Chen & M. B. Fagan (eds.), Individuation, Process, and Scientific Practices. Oxford University Press. pp. 279-302.
    The “land community” (or “biotic community”) that features centrally in Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic has typically been equated with the concept of “ecosystem.” Moreover, some have challenged this central Leopoldean concept given the multitude of meanings of the term “ecosystem” and the changes the term has undergone since Leopold’s time (see, e.g., Shrader-Frechette 1996). Even one of Leopold’s primary defenders, J. Baird Callicott, asserts that there are difficulties in identifying the boundaries of ecosystems and suggests that we recognize that their (...)
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  39. added 2016-08-07
    Activity Schedule and Foraging in Protopolybia Sedula (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).Mateus Detoni, Maria do Carmo Mattos, Mariana Monteiro de Castro, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fabio Prezoto - 2015 - Revista Colombiana de Entomología 41 (2).
    Protopolybia sedula is a social swarming wasp, widely spread throughout many countries in the Americas, including most of Brazil. Despite its distribution, studies of its behavioral ecology are scarce. This study aimed to describe its foraging activity and relation to climatic variables in the city of Juiz de Fora in southeastern Brazil. Three colonies were under observation between 07:00 and 18:00 during April 2012, January 2013, and March 2013. Every 30 minutes, the number of foragers leaving and returning to the (...)
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  40. added 2016-03-18
    Change of Plans?Patrik Baard - 2015 - Environmental Philosophy 12 (2):185-204.
    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management, as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted (...)
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  41. added 2015-09-07
    Old and New World Perspectives on Environmental Philosophy. Transatlantic Conversations.Martin Drenthen & Jozef Keulartz (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This is the first collection of essays in which European and American philosophers explicitly think out their respective contributions and identities as environmental thinkers in the analytic and continental traditions. The American/European, as well as Analytic/Continental collaboration here bears fruit helpful for further theorizing and research. The essays group around three well-defined areas of questioning all focusing on the amelioration/management of environmentally, historically and traditionally diminished landscapes. The first part deals with differences between New World and the Old World perspectives (...)
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  42. added 2015-08-28
    Gut Feelings of Safety: Tolerance to the Microbiota Mediated by Innate Immune Receptors.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Irun R. Cohen - 2015 - Microbiology and Immunology 59:573-585.
    To enable microbial colonisation of the gut mucosa, the intestinal immune system must not only react to danger signals but also recognize cues that indicate safety. Safety recognition, paradoxically, is mediated by the same environmental sensors that are involved in signalling danger. Indeed, in addition to their well established role in inducing inflammation in response to stress signals, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and a variety of metabolic sensors also promote gut-microbiota symbiosis by responding to "microbial symbiosis factors", "resolution-associated molecular patterns", (...)
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  43. added 2015-04-06
    Integration of Ecosystem Theories a Pattern.Sven Erik Jøgensen - 1997
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  44. added 2015-04-06
    Integration of Ecosystem Theories a Pattern.Sven Erik J.[0]Rgensen - 1992
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  45. added 2015-03-24
    Multifunctional, Self-Organizing Biosphere Landscapes and the Future of Our Total Human Ecosystem—a New Paradigm for Transdisciplinary Landscape Ecology.Z. Naveh - 2001 - World Futures 60 (7):469-503.
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  46. added 2015-03-22
    Anthropometric Measurements of Adolescents From Two Amazonian Ecosystems: Variations According to Seasonality.Hilton P. Silva, Gloria V. Veiga, Gilberto Kac & Rosangela A. Pereira - 2010 - Journal of Biosocial Science 42 (2):145-160.
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  47. added 2015-03-19
    Conway's Game of Life and the Ecosystem Represented by Uexküll's Concept of Umwelt.Solomon Marcus - 2001 - Sign Systems Studies 29 (1):63-69.
    Inspired by a mathematical ecology of thearre (M. Dinu) and the eco-grammar systems (E. Csuhaj-Varju et al.), this paper gives a brief analysis of simple cellular automata games in order to demonstrate their primary semiotic features. In particular, the behaviour of configurations in Conway's game of life is compared to several general features of Uexküll's concept of Umwelt. It is concluded that ecological processes have a fundamental semiotic dimension.
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  48. added 2015-02-15
    Re-Examining the Darwinian Basis for Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic.Roberta L. Millstein - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):301-317.
    Many philosophers have become familiar with Leopold’s land ethic through the writings of J. Baird Callicott, who claims that Leopold bases his land ethic on a ‘protosociobiological’ argument that Darwin gives in the Descent of Man. On this view, which has become the canonical interpretation, Leopold’s land ethic is based on extending our moral sentiments to ecosystems. I argue that the evidence weighs in favor of an alternative interpretation of Leopold; his reference to Darwin does not refer to the Descent, (...)
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  49. added 2014-12-15
    Virtue Ethics and the Material Values of Nature.Kari Väyrynen - 2001 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 8 (2):137-148.
    For Aristotle, man is part of nature, a “political animal” with the faculty of reason. In this sense, Aristotelian virtue ethics can be said to relate virtues to nature. On the one hand, virtues lean on the natural dispositions of man as a social animal. On the other hand, virtues are connected to praxis, that is, with man’s active realization of his inherent biological, social and cultural potential. Recently, the material value ethics of Max Scheler and Nicolai Hartmann developed the (...)
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  50. added 2014-06-10
    Biodiversity at Twenty-Five Years: Revolution Or Red Herring?Nicolae Morar, Ted Toadvine & Brendan J. M. Bohannan - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):16-29.
1 — 50 / 108