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  1. Oversights in the Respective Theorems of von Neumann and Bell Are Homologous.Joy Christian - manuscript
    We show that the respective oversights in the von Neumann's general theorem against all hidden variable theories and Bell's theorem against their local-realistic counterparts are homologous. When latter oversight is rectified, the bounds on the CHSH correlator work out to be ±2√2 instead of ±2.
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  2. On an Intrinsic Quantum Theoretical Structure Inside Einstein's Gravity Field Equations.Han Geurdes - manuscript
    As is well known, Einstein was dissatisfied with the foundation of quantum theory and sought to find a basis for it that would have satisfied his need for a causal explanation. In this paper this abandoned idea is investigated. It is found that it is mathematically not dead at all. More in particular: a quantum mechanical U(1) gauge invariant Dirac equation can be derived from Einstein's gravity field equations. We ask ourselves what it means for physics, the history of physics (...)
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  3. Entanglement of Two Josephson Junctions: Current Locking Revisited.Gary Stephens - manuscript
    In this essay we take the view that too much reality has been afforded to the notion of ‘particles’ and to ‘flow of supercurrent,’ in the superconducting state. Instead we take the original point of view of Josephson that “ It is clear that intuition is of no great help in understanding the supercurrent as a flow of Cooper pairs “ which is more akin to, and in line with, a “telegraphing of amplitudes” approach. With this conception in mind, we (...)
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  4. Many Worlds Model Resolving the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox Via a Direct Realism to Modal Realism Transition That Preserves Einstein Locality.Sascha Vongehr - 2011
    The violation of Bell inequalities by quantum physical experiments disproves all relativistic micro causal, classically real models, short Local Realistic Models (LRM). Non-locality, the infamous “spooky interaction at a distance” (A. Einstein), is already sufficiently ‘unreal’ to motivate modifying the “realistic” in “local realistic”. This has led to many worlds and finally many minds interpretations. We introduce a simple many world model that resolves the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox. The model starts out as a classical LRM, thus clarifying that the (...)
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  5. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument.Author unknown - manuscript
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  6. Is the Reality Criterion Analytic?David Glick & Florian J. Boge - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-7.
    Tim Maudlin has claimed that EPR’s Reality Criterion is analytically true. We argue that it is not. Moreover, one may be a subjectivist about quantum probabilities without giving up on objective physical reality. Thus, would-be detractors must reject QBism and other epistemic approaches to quantum theory on other grounds.
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  7. Physical systems, mathematical representation, and philosophical principles: the EPR paper and its influence.Guy Hetzroni - forthcoming - Iyyun.
    The paper portrays the influence of major philosophical ideas on the 1935 debates on quantum theory that reached their climax in the paper by Einstein, Podosky and Rosen, and describes the relevance of these ideas to the vast impact of the paper. I claim that the focus on realism in many common descriptions of the debate misses important aspects both of Einstein's and Bohr's thinking. I suggest an alternative understanding of Einstein's criticism of quantum mechanics as a manifestation of the (...)
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  8. A Sideways Look at Faithfulness for Quantum Correlations.Peter W. Evans - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (1):28-42.
    Despite attempts to apply causal modeling techniques to quantum systems, Wood and Spekkens argue that any causal model purporting to explain quantum correlations must be fine tuned; it must violate the assumption of faithfulness. This paper is an attempt to undermine the reasonableness of the assumption of faithfulness in the quantum context. Employing a symmetry relation between an entangled quantum system and a “sideways” quantum system consisting of a single photon passing sequentially through two polarizers, I argue that Wood and (...)
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  9. Reformulating Bell's Theorem: The Search for a Truly Local Quantum Theory.Mordecai Waegell & Kelvin J. McQueen - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 70:39-50.
    The apparent nonlocality of quantum theory has been a persistent concern. Einstein et al. and Bell emphasized the apparent nonlocality arising from entanglement correlations. While some interpretations embrace this nonlocality, modern variations of the Everett-inspired many worlds interpretation try to circumvent it. In this paper, we review Bell's "no-go" theorem and explain how it rests on three axioms, local causality, no superdeterminism, and one world. Although Bell is often taken to have shown that local causality is ruled out by the (...)
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  10. Bell's Theorem Versus Local Realism in a Quaternionic Model of Physical Space.Joy Christian - 2019 - IEEE Access 7:133388-133409.
    In the context of EPR-Bohm type experiments and spin detections confined to spacelike hypersurfaces, a local, deterministic and realistic model within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with a constant spatial curvature (S^3 ) is presented that describes simultaneous measurements of the spins of two fermions emerging in a singlet state from the decay of a spinless boson. Exact agreement with the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory is achieved in the model without data rejection, remote contextuality, superdeterminism or backward causation. A singularity-free Clifford-algebraic (...)
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  11. Solution to David Chalmner's "Hard Problem".Jack Sarfatti & Arik Shimansky - 2018 - Cosmos and History 14 (1):163-186.
    A completely non-statistical non-linear non-unitary framework in which "God does not play dice..." that describes the physical foundations of consciousness is presented for the first time. At its core is the insight that the missing link between current physical descriptions of reality and a credible physical framework for consciousness is provided by post-quantum mechanics : the extension of statistical linear unitary quantum mechanics for closed systems to a locally-retrocausal[i] non-statistical non-linear non-unitary theory for open systems through the introduction of a (...)
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  12. Can We Close the Bohr-Einstein Quantum Debate.Marian Kupczynski - 2017 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 375:20160392..
    Recent experiments allowed concluding that Bell-type inequalities are indeed violated thus it is important to understand what it means and how can we explain the existence of strong correlations between outcomes of distant measurements. Do we have to announce that: Einstein was wrong, Nature is nonlocal and nonlocal correlations are produced due to the quantum magic and emerge, somehow, from outside space-time? Fortunately such conclusions are unfounded because if supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly incorporated in a theoretical model (...)
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  13. Lessons of Bell's Theorem: Nonlocality, Yes; Action at a Distance, Not Necessarily.Wayne C. Myrvold - 2016 - In Shan Gao Mary Bell (ed.), Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 238-260.
    Fifty years after the publication of Bell's theorem, there remains some controversy regarding what the theorem is telling us about quantum mechanics, and what the experimental violations of Bell inequalities are telling us about the world. This chapter represents my best attempt to be clear about what I think the lessons are. In brief: there is some sort of nonlocality inherent in any quantum theory, and, moreover, in any theory that reproduces, even approximately, the quantum probabilities for the outcomes of (...)
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  14. Einstein’s Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle.Carsten Held - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (9):1002-1018.
    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics, not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and (...)
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  15. CHSH Inequality: Quantum Probabilities as Classical Conditional Probabilities.Andrei Khrennikov - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):711-725.
    In this note we demonstrate that the results of observations in the EPR–Bohm–Bell experiment can be described within the classical probabilistic framework. However, the “quantum probabilities” have to be interpreted as conditional probabilities, where conditioning is with respect to fixed experimental settings. Our approach is based on the complete account of randomness involved in the experiment. The crucial point is that randomness of selections of experimental settings has to be taken into account within one consistent framework covering all events related (...)
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  16. Quantum Frames.Matthew J. Brown - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 45:1-10.
    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space–time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external (...)
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  17. Disproof of Bell’s Theorem: Illuminating the Illusion of Entanglement.Joy Christian - 2014 - Boca Raton, Florida: BrownWalker Press.
  18. Measurement Independence, Parameter Independence and Non-Locality.Iñaki San Pedro - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (3):369-374.
    In a recent paper in this Journal San Pedro I formulated a conjecture relating Measurement Independence and Parameter Independence, in the context of common cause explanations of EPR correlations. My conjecture suggested that a violation of Measurement Independence would entail a violation of Parameter Independence as well. Leszek Wroński has shown that conjecture to be false. In this note, I review Wroński’s arguments and agree with him on the fate of the conjecture. I argue that what is interesting about the (...)
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  19. Null-Result Detection and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations.Luiz Carlos Ryff - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (1):58-70.
    It follows from Bell’s theorem and quantum mechanics that the detection of a particle of an entangled pair can (somehow) “force” the other distant particle of the pair into a well-defined state (which is equivalent to a reduction of the state vector): no property previously shared by the particles can explain the predicted quantum correlations. This result has been corroborated by experiment, although some loopholes still remain. However, it has not been experimentally proved—and it is far from obvious—that the absence (...)
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  20. Book Review Of: "Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?" by Franck Laloë. [REVIEW]Valia Allori - 2013 - Notre Dame Philosophical Review.
  21. Logical Refutation of the EPR Argument.Oscar Chavoya-Aceves - 2013 - Physics Essays 26:21-23.
    On the grounds that the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument is an example of reasoning by reductio ad absurdum, and that a counterexample is unacceptable, unless all its elements meet all the necessary conditions, its conclusions are invalidated. The arguments in this paper are strictly logical. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen made a mathematical assumption that is incompatible with quantum mechanics.
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  22. New Slant on the EPR-Bell Experiment.Peter Evans, Huw Price & Ken Wharton - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (2):297-324.
    The best case for thinking that quantum mechanics is nonlocal rests on Bell's Theorem, and later results of the same kind. However, the correlations characteristic of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)–Bell (EPRB) experiments also arise in familiar cases elsewhere in quantum mechanics (QM), where the two measurements involved are timelike rather than spacelike separated; and in which the correlations are usually assumed to have a local causal explanation, requiring no action-at-a-distance (AAD). It is interesting to ask how this is possible, in the light (...)
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  23. Non-Separability Does Not Relieve the Problem of Bell’s Theorem.Joe Henson - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (8):1008-1038.
    This paper addresses arguments that “separability” is an assumption of Bell’s theorem, and that abandoning this assumption in our interpretation of quantum mechanics (a position sometimes referred to as “holism”) will allow us to restore a satisfying locality principle. Separability here means that all events associated to the union of some set of disjoint regions are combinations of events associated to each region taken separately.In this article, it is shown that: (a) localised events can be consistently defined without implying separability; (...)
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  24. EPR States and Bell Correlated States in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory.Yuichiro Kitajima - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1182-1192.
    A mathematical rigorous definition of EPR states has been introduced by Arens and Varadarajan for finite dimensional systems, and extended by Werner to general systems. In the present paper we follow a definition of EPR states due to Werner. Then we show that an EPR state for incommensurable pairs is Bell correlated, and that the set of EPR states for incommensurable pairs is norm dense between two strictly space-like separated regions in algebraic quantum field theory.
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  25. The Kochen - Specker Theorem in Quantum Mechanics: A Philosophical Comment (Part 2).Vasil Penchev - 2013 - Philosophical Alternatives 22 (3):74-83.
    The text is a continuation of the article of the same name published in the previous issue of Philosophical Alternatives. The philosophical interpretations of the Kochen- Specker theorem (1967) are considered. Einstein's principle regarding the,consubstantiality of inertia and gravity" (1918) allows of a parallel between descriptions of a physical micro-entity in relation to the macro-apparatus on the one hand, and of physical macro-entities in relation to the astronomical mega-entities on the other. The Bohmian interpretation ( 1952) of quantum mechanics proposes (...)
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  26. The Kochen - Specker Theorem in Quantum Mechanics: A Philosophical Comment (Part 1).Vasil Penchev - 2013 - Philosophical Alternatives 22 (1):67-77.
    Non-commuting quantities and hidden parameters – Wave-corpuscular dualism and hidden parameters – Local or nonlocal hidden parameters – Phase space in quantum mechanics – Weyl, Wigner, and Moyal – Von Neumann’s theorem about the absence of hidden parameters in quantum mechanics and Hermann – Bell’s objection – Quantum-mechanical and mathematical incommeasurability – Kochen – Specker’s idea about their equivalence – The notion of partial algebra – Embeddability of a qubit into a bit – Quantum computer is not Turing machine – (...)
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  27. Simultaneous Elements of Reality for Incompatible Properties by Exploiting Locality.Angela Sestito - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (2):271-283.
    We propose an ideal experiment enabling the simultaneous assignment of the objective values, 0 or 1, of two incompatible properties of a system made up of two separated, non-interacting spin particles when a strict interpretation of the criterion of reality of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is adopted. We compare this experiment with the physical situation involving two-value observables of a system of two correlated spin-1/2 particles envisaged by Bohm; in particular, we show its inadequacy in the dual assignment at issue. (...)
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  28. Interventions and Causality in Quantum Mechanics.Mauricio Suárez - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (2):199-213.
    I argue that the Causal Markov Condition (CMC) is in principle applicable to the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) correlations. This is in line with my defence in the past of the applicability of the Principle of Common Cause to quantum mechanics. I first review a contrary claim by Dan Hausman and Jim Woodward, who endeavour to preserve the CMC against a possible counterexample by asserting that the conditions for the application of the CMC are not met in the EPR experiment. In their (...)
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  29. Bell Nonlocality, Signal Locality and Unpredictability (or What Bohr Could Have Told Einstein at Solvay Had He Known About Bell Experiments).Eric G. Cavalcanti & Howard M. Wiseman - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (10):1329-1338.
    The 1964 theorem of John Bell shows that no model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics can simultaneously satisfy the assumptions of locality and determinism. On the other hand, the assumptions of signal locality plus predictability are also sufficient to derive Bell inequalities. This simple theorem, previously noted but published only relatively recently by Masanes, Acin and Gisin, has fundamental implications not entirely appreciated. Firstly, nothing can be concluded about the ontological assumptions of locality or determinism independently of each (...)
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  30. Entanglement Between Degrees of Freedom in a Single-Particle System Revealed in Neutron Interferometry.Yuji Hasegawa - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (1):29-45.
    Initially Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and later Bell shed light on the non-local properties exhibited by subsystems in quantum mechanics. Separately, Kochen and Specker analyzed sets of measurements of compatible observables and found that a consistent coexistence of these results is impossible, i.e., quantum indefiniteness of measurement results. As a consequence, quantum contextuality, a more general concept compared to non-locality, leads to striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. Here, we report neutron interferometric experiments which investigate entangled states in a (...)
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  31. Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?Franck Laloë - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction; 1. Historical perspective; 2. Present situation, remaining conceptual difficulties; 3. The theorem of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen; 4. Bell theorem; 5. More theorems; 6. Quantum entanglement; 7. Applications of quantum entanglement; 8. Quantum measurement; 9. Experiments, quantum reduction seen in real time; 10. Various interpretations; Conclusion; Appendices; Index.
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  32. Reconstructing Bohr’s Reply to EPR in Algebraic Quantum Theory.Masanao Ozawa & Yuichiro Kitajima - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (4):475-487.
    Halvorson and Clifton have given a mathematical reconstruction of Bohr’s reply to Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), and argued that this reply is dictated by the two requirements of classicality and objectivity for the description of experimental data, by proving consistency between their objectivity requirement and a contextualized version of the EPR reality criterion which had been introduced by Howard in his earlier analysis of Bohr’s reply. In the present paper, we generalize the above consistency theorem, with a rather elementary (...)
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  33. Ephemeral Properties and the Illusion of Microscopic Particles.Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi - 2011 - Foundations of Science 16 (4):393-409.
    Founding our analysis on the Geneva-Brussels approach to quantum mechanics, we use conventional macroscopic objects as guiding examples to clarify the content of two important results of the beginning of twentieth century: Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen’s reality criterion and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. We then use them in combination to show that our widespread belief in the existence of microscopic particles is only the result of a cognitive illusion, as microscopic particles are not particles, but are instead the ephemeral spatial and local manifestations of (...)
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  34. Quantum Mechanics, Can It Be Consistent with Locality?Giuseppe Nisticò & Angela Sestito - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1263-1278.
    We single out an alternative, strict interpretation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion of reality, and identify the implied extensions of quantum correlations. Then we prove that the theorem of Bell, and the non-locality theorems without inequalities, fail if the new extensions are adopted. Therefore, these theorems can be interpreted as arguments against the wide interpretation of the criterion of reality rather than as a violation of locality.
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  35. Парадоксът на Скулем и квантовата информация. Относителност на пълнота по Гьодел.Vasil Penchev - 2011 - Philosophical Alternatives 20 (2):131-147.
    In 1922, Thoralf Skolem introduced the term of «relativity» as to infinity от set theory. Не demonstrated Ьу Zermelo 's axiomatics of set theory (incl. the axiom of choice) that there exists unintended interpretations of anу infinite set. Тhus, the notion of set was also «relative». We сan apply his argurnentation to Gödel's incompleteness theorems (1931) as well as to his completeness theorem (1930). Then, both the incompleteness of Реапо arithmetic and the completeness of first-order logic tum out to bе (...)
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  36. Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Correct?Gilles Brassard & André Allan Méthot - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (4):463-468.
    In an earlier paper written in loving memory of Asher Peres, we gave a critical analysis of the celebrated 1935 paper in which Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) challenged the completeness of quantum mechanics. There, we had pointed out logical shortcomings in the EPR paper. Now, we raise additional questions concerning their suggested program to find a theory that would “provide a complete description of the physical reality”. In particular, we investigate the extent to which the EPR argumentation could have (...)
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  37. On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. II. Insight in the Real Random Delayed-Choice Erasure Experiment.F. Herbut - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (3):301-312.
    It was pointed out in the first part of this study (Herbut in Found. Phys. 38:1046–1064, 2008) that EPR-type entanglement is defined by the possibility of performing any of two mutually incompatible distant, i.e., direct-interaction-free, measurements. They go together under the term ‘EPR-type disentanglement’. In this second part, quantum-mechanical insight is gained in the real random delayed-choice erasure experiment of Kim et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:1–5, 2000) by a relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach (explained in the first part). Finally, it is (...)
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  38. Warum Gott Nicht Würfelt: Einstein Und Die Quantenmechanik Im Licht Neuerer Forschungen.Gregor Schiemann - 2010 - In R. Breuniger (ed.), Bausteine zur Philosophie. Bd. 27: Einstein.
    Zuerst werden die Argumente rekonstruiert, die dafür sprechen, Einsteins Wort, dass Gott nicht würfelt, als Ausdruck eines überholten deterministischen Weltbildes anzusehen. Anschließend werden Forschungsergebnisse der letzten Jahrzehnte benannt, die für eine Neubewertung seiner Position zur dominanten Interpretation der Quantenmechanik sprechen. Den Abschluß bildet die Diskussion der Möglichkeiten einer Reinterpretation seines Satzes vom nicht würfelnden Gott.
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  39. Rovelli’s World.Bas C. van Fraassen - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (4):390-417.
    Carlo Rovelli’s inspiring “Relational Quantum Mechanics” serves several aims at once: it provides a new vision of what the world of quantum mechanics is like, and it offers a program to derive the theory’s formalism from a set of simple postulates pertaining to information processing. I propose here to concentrate entirely on the former, to explore the world of quantum mechanics as Rovelli depicts it. It is a fascinating world in part because of Rovelli’s reliance on the information-theory approach to (...)
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  40. A New Look at Relational Holism in Quantum Mechanics.Matteo Morganti - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):1027--1038.
    Teller argued that violations of Bell’s inequalities are to be explained by interpreting quantum entangled systems according to ‘relational holism’, that is, by postulating that they exhibit irreducible (‘inherent’) relations. Teller also suggested a possible application of this idea to quantum statistics. However, the basic proposal was not explained in detail nor has the additional idea about statistics been articulated in further work. In this article, I reconsider relational holism, amending it and spelling it out as appears necessary for a (...)
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  41. Does the Superfluid Part of a Supersolid, Superfluid, or Superconducting Body Have, of Itself, “Inertia?”.Gary Stephens - 2009 - Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie 34 (1):89-101.
    The contention discussed here, is that one might be able to get around the puzzle contained in the results of Kim and Chan:— That a quantity of inertial mass is effectively lost, (a so called non-classical-rotational inertia NCRI,) but that being a “supersolid” there is no path for the normal fraction to slip past the 1 – 2 % supersolid fraction, which (it is supposed) remains stationary within the annulus. As a solution we argue that the effective loss of inertial (...)
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  42. Multinomial Distribution, Quantum Statistics and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Like Phenomena.Ratan Dasgupta & Sisir Roy - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (4):384-394.
    Bose-Einstein statistics may be characterized in terms of multinomial distribution. From this characterization, an information theoretic analysis is made for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen like situation; using Shannon’s measure of entropy.
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  43. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument in Quantum Theory.Arthur Fine - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In the May 15, 1935 issue of Physical Review Albert Einstein co-authored a paper with his two postdoctoral research associates at the Institute for Advanced Study, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen. The article was entitled “Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?” (Einstein et al. 1935). Generally referred to as “EPR”, this paper quickly became a centerpiece in the debate over the interpretation of the quantum theory, a debate that continues today. The paper features a striking case (...)
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  44. On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. I. The Micromaser Case and Delayed-Choice Quantum Erasure.F. Herbut - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1046-1064.
    Delayed-choice erasure is investigated in two-photon two-slit experiments that are generalizations of the micromaser experiment of Scully et al. (Nature 351:111–116, 1991). Applying quantum mechanics to the localization detector, it is shown that erasure with delayed choice in the sense of Scully, has an analogous structure as simple erasure. The description goes beyond probabilities. The EPR-type disentanglement, consisting in two mutually incompatible distant measurements, is used as a general framework in both parts of this study. Two simple coherence cases are (...)
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  45. The Limits of Common Cause Approach to EPR Correlation.Katsuaki Higashi - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (7):591-609.
    It is often argued that no local common cause models of EPR correlation exist. However, Szabó and Rédei pointed out that such arguments have the tacit assumption that plural correlations have the same common causes. Furthermore, Szabó showed that for EPR correlation a local common cause model in his sense exists. One of his requirements is that common cause events are statistically independent of apparatus settings on each side. However, as Szabó knows, to meet this requirement does not entail that (...)
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  46. The Principle of the Common Cause, the Causal Markov Condition, and Quantum Mechanics: Comments on Cartwright.Iain Martel - 2008 - In Luc Bovens, Carl Hoefer & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Nancy Cartwright’s Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 242-262.
    Nancy Cartwright believes that we live in a Dappled World– a world in which theories, principles, and methods applicable in one domain may be inapplicable in others; in which there are no universal principles. One of the targets of Cartwright’s arguments for this conclusion is the Causal Markov condition, a condition which has been proposed as a universal condition on causal structures.1 The Causal Markov condition, Cartwright argues, is applicable only in a limited domain of special cases, and thus cannot (...)
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  47. Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness.Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The most successful theory in all of science--and the basis of one third of our economy--says the strangest things about the world and about us. Can you believe that physical reality is created by our observation of it? Physicists were forced to this conclusion, the quantum enigma, by what they observed in their laboratories. Trying to understand the atom, physicists built quantum mechanics and found, to their embarrassment, that their theory intimately connects consciousness with the physical world. Quantum Enigma explores (...)
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  48. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument and the Bell Inequalities.László E. Szabó - 2008 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) published an important paper in which they claimed that the whole formalism of quantum mechanics together with what they called a “Reality Criterion” imply that quantum mechanics cannot be complete. That is, there must exist some elements of reality that are not described by quantum mechanics. They concluded that there must be a more complete description of physical reality involving some hidden variables that can characterize the state of affairs in the world in (...)
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  49. Event-by-Event Simulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Experiments.Shuang Zhao, Hans De Raedt & Kristel Michielsen - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (4):322-347.
    We construct an event-based computer simulation model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments with photons. The algorithm is a one-to-one copy of the data gathering and analysis procedures used in real laboratory experiments. We consider two types of experiments, those with a source emitting photons with opposite but otherwise unpredictable polarization and those with a source emitting photons with fixed polarization. In the simulation, the choice of the direction of polarization measurement for each detection event is arbitrary. We use three different procedures (...)
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  50. Review of Tomasz F. Bigaj, Non-Locality and Possible Worlds: A Counterfactual Perspective on Quantum Entanglement[REVIEW]Michael Dickson - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (7).
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