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  1. Add to Cart: Environmental ‘Amenities’ and Cost-Benefit Analysis.Chrisoula Andreou - 2012 - In Michael O'Rourke and Matthew H. Slater William P. Kabasenche (ed.), The Environment, vol. 9 of Topics in Contemporary Philosophy.
    This chapter discusses the utility of cost-benefit analysis in decision making, specifically environmental decision making. For the purposes of the discussion here, it uses a type of CBA that incorporates two controversial characteristics, namely, the assumption of comparability and the willingness-to-pay measure. The chapter aims to show that the recognition of a well motivated holistic decision-making strategy can shed light on debates regarding CBA. This strategy is concerned with patterns of choices rather than individual ones, and corresponds with two familiar (...)
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  2. Nolt, Future Harm and Future Quality of Life.Robin Attfield - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):11-13.
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  3. On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters.H. Bernstein Mark - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  4. How Not to Save the Planet.Thom Brooks - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):119-135.
    Climate change presents us with perhaps the most pressing challenge today. But is it a problem we can solve? This article argues that existing conservationist and adaptation approaches fail to satisfy their objectives. A second issue that these approaches disagree about how best to end climate change, but accept that it is a problem that can be solved. I believe this view is mistaken: a future environmental catastrophe is an event we might at best postpone, but not avoid. This raises (...)
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  5. Counting the Cost of Global Warming.John Broome - 1992 - Strond: White Horse Press.
    Since the last ice age, when ice enveloped most of the northern continents, the earth has warmed by about five degrees. Within a century, it is likely to warm by another four or five. This revolution in our climate will have immense and mostly harmful effects on the lives of people not yet born. We are inflicting this harm on our descendants by dumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. We can mitigate the harm a little by taking measures to control (...)
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  6. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy.Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.) - 2008 - Macmillan Reference.
  7. Ethics and Genetically Modified Foods.Gary Comstock - 2001 - In David M. Kaplan (ed.), The Philosophy of Food. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 122-139.
    Gary Comstock considers whether it is ethically justified to pursue genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. He first considers intrinsic objections to GM crops that allege that the process of making GMOs is objectionable in itself. He argues that there is no justifiable basis for the objections — i.e. GM crops are not intrinsically ethically problematic. He then considers extrinsic objections to GM crops, including objections based on the precautionary principle, which focus on the potential harms that may result from (...)
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  8. What's so Moral About the Moral Hazard?Benjamin Hale - 2009 - Public Affairs Quarterly 23 (1):1-26.
    A "moral hazard" is a market failure most commonly associated with insurance, but also associated by extension with a wide variety of public policy scenarios, from environmental disaster relief, to corporate bailouts, to natural resource policy, to health insurance. Specifically, the term "moral hazard" describes the danger that, in the face of insurance, an agent will increase her exposure to risk. If not immediately clear, such terminology invokes a moral notion, suggesting that changing one's exposure to risk after becoming insured (...)
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  9. Takings.Benjamin Hale - 2008 - In Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  10. Responsibility for Emissions: A Commentary on John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'.Lauren Hartzell - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):15-17.
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  11. Morally Significant Effects of Ordinary Individual Actions.Avram Hiller - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):19-21.
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  12. Ecological Restoration in Context: Ethics and the Naturalization of Former Military Lands.Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):69-89.
  13. The Moral Justification of Benefit/Cost Analysis.Donald C. Hubin - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):169.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  14. Book Review:Thoughtful Economic Man: Essays on Rationality, Moral Rules and Benevolence. Gay Meeks. [REVIEW]Donald C. Hubin - 1993 - Ethics 103 (3):572-.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  15. Descriptive Versus Prescriptive Discounting in Climate Change Policy Analysis.Kelleher J. Paul - forthcoming - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 15:957-977.
    This paper distinguishes between five different approaches to social discount rates in climate change economics, criticizes two of these, and explains how the other three are to some degree mutually compatible. It aims to shed some new light on a longstanding debate in climate change economics between so-called “descriptivists” and “prescriptivists” about social discounting. The ultimate goal is to offer a sketch of the conceptual landscape that makes visible some important facets of the debate that very often go unacknowledged.
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  16. Future Harms and Current Offspring.Jason Kawall - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):23-26.
    By providing an explicit estimate of the harms caused by personal greenhouse gas emissions, John Nolt (in his “How Harmful are the Average American’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions?”) hopes to undermine tendencies to downplay these emissions and their impacts on global climate change. He estimates that an average American would be responsible for one two-billionth of the suffering or death of two billion people (over 1000 years). He treats this as equivalent to being responsible for the suffering or death of one (...)
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  17. Regretful Decisions and Climate Change.Rebecca Livernois - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (2):168-191.
    Climate change has made pressing the question of why we do little to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By analogy to the puzzle of the self-torturer, I argue that even if interpersonal and intergenerational conflicts of interest were resolved, we may still end up in a regretful environmental state when we aim to maximize our net benefit derived from polluting activities. This is because a rational agent with transitive preferences making climate change decisions faces incentives to over-pollute. This is caused by (...)
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  18. Making Our Children Pay for Mitigation.Aaron Maltais - 2015 - In Aaron Maltais Catriona McKinnon (ed.), The Ethics of Climate Governance. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 91-110.
    Investments in mitigating climate change have their greatest environmental impact over the long-term. As a consequence the incentives to invest in cutting greenhouse gas emissions today appear to be weak. In response to this challenge there has been increasing attention given to the idea that current generations can be motivated to start financing mitigation at much higher levels today by shifting these costs to the future through national debt. Shifting costs to the future in this way benefits future generations by (...)
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  19. Intrinsic Values and Economic Valuation.Katie McShane - 2017 - In Clive L. Spash (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Ecological Economics: Nature and Society. Routledge. pp. 237-245.
  20. How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?John Nolt - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):3-10.
    It has sometimes been claimed (usually without evidence) that the harm caused by an individual's participation in a greenhouse-gas-intensive economy is negligible. Using data from several contemporary sources, this paper attempts to estimate the harm done by an average American. This estimate is crude, and further refinements are surely needed. But the upshot is that the average American is responsible, through his/her greenhouse gas emissions, for the suffering and/or deaths of one or two future people.
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  21. This American Life.Jay Odenbaugh - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):27-29.
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  22. GMOs, Future Generations, and the Limits of the Precautionary Principle.Duncan Purves - 2015 - Social Philosophy Today 31:99-109.
    The Precautionary Principle is frequently invoked as a guiding principle in environmental policy. In this article, I raise a couple of problems for the application of the Precautionary Principle when it comes to policies concerning Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). First, I argue that if we accept Stephen Gardiner’s sensible conditions under which it is appropriate to employ the Precautionary Principle for emerging technologies, it is unclear that GMOs meet those conditions. In particular, I contend that GM crops hold the potential (...)
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  23. “My Emissions Make No Difference”: Climate Change and the Argument From Inconsequentialism.Joakim Sandberg - 2011 - Environmental Ethics 33 (3):229-248.
    “Since the actions I perform as an individual only have an inconsequential effect on the threat of climate change,” a common argument goes, “it cannot be morally wrong for me to take my car to work everyday or refuse to recycle.” This argument has received a lot of scorn from philosophers over the years, but has actually been defended in some recent articles. A more systematic treatment of a central set of related issues shows how maneuvering around these issues is (...)
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  24. Beware of Averages: A Response to John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'.Ronald Sandler - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):31-33.
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  25. Mischaracterizing Uncertainty in Environmental-Health Sciences.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2017 - Diametros 53:96-124.
    Researchers doing welfare-related science frequently mischaracterize either situations of decision-theoretic mathematical/scientific uncertainty as situations of risk, or situations of risk as those of uncertainty. The paper outlines this epistemic/ethical problem ; surveys its often-deadly, welfare-related consequences in environmental-health sciences; and uses recent research on diesel particulate matter to reveal 7 specific methodological ways that scientists may mischaracterize lethal risks instead as situations of uncertainty, mainly by using methods and assumptions with false-negative biases. The article closes by outlining two normative strategies (...)
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  26. Is Harry Potter More Evil Than JK Rowling or You? (2013).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization Articles and Reviews 2006-2016 by Michael Starks 662p (2016). Michael Starks. pp. 575-576.
    How about a different take on the rich and famous? First the obvious—these novels are primitive superstition that encourages children to believe in fantasy rather than take responsibility for the world-- the norm of course. JKR is just as clueless about herself and the world as all the other monkeys, but about 200 times as destructive as the average American and about 800 times more than the average Chinese. She has been responsible for the destruction of maybe 30,000 hectares of (...)
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  27. Granice troski o przyszłe pokolenia.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2010 - Diametros 26:206-225.
    W artykule rozważam następujący problem: czy powinniśmy przykładać taką samą wagę do interesów i dobrobytu ludzi istniejących w przyszłości, jak do interesów i dobrobytu jednostek żyjących obecnie? Staram się wykazać, że traktowanie wymiaru czasowego analogicznie do przestrzennego jest problematyczne, zarówno jeśli chodzi o wymogi moralne, jak i o zasady sprawiedliwości, którymi powinny kierować się instytucje społeczne. Analizuję problem społecznej stopy dyskontowej, a także wskazuję na ograniczenia, jakie napotyka w związku z nim konsekwencjalistyczny rachunek zysków i strat w kontekście sprawiedliwości międzypokoleniowej.
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