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  1. Future-Crafting.Alexandra Fall - manuscript
    This thesis is organized into two parts. In the first, I focus on concepts, ones which include a series of critiques on past human behaviors and mindsets. I trace how rationalist ideologies and worldviews developed into conformist schematics, and how these schematics have been implemented via central state authority. I also examine the results of this process, focusing on dehumanization, silencing, and objectification. Informed by Scott, I describe legibility construction. In the process of making people and places legible to central (...)
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  2. Earth Consciousness and Evolving Frameworks.Deepa Kansra & Kirat Sodhi - manuscript
    Earth consciousness involves an understanding of our relationship with earth. It involves the study of earth forms, their life processes and inherent needs. The concept has created a field of frameworks and knowledge systems permeating into the day to day lives of humans including their political-economic-cultural spaces. The expression earth consciousness can be interpreted in many ways to include human awareness of nature & its processes, or the bond with mother earth and all its forms . Earth consciousness or the (...)
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  3. 'Distributive Justice and Climate Change'.Simon Caney - forthcoming - In Serena Olsaretti (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This paper discusses two distinct questions of distributive justice raised by climate change. Stated very roughly, one question concerns how much protection is owed to the potential victims of climate change (the Just Target Question), and the second concerns how the burdens (and benefits) involved in preventing dangerous climate change should be distributed (the Just Burden Question). In Section II, I focus on the first of these questions, the Just Target Question. The rest of the paper examines the second question, (...)
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  4. Beyond Ideal Theory: Foundations for a Critical Rawlsian Theory of Climate Justice.Paul Clements & Paul Formosa - forthcoming - New Political Science:1-20.
    Rawls’s contractualist approach to justice is well known for its adoption of ideal theory. This approach starts by setting out the political goal or ideal and leaves it to non-ideal or partial compliance theory to map out how to get there. However, Rawls’s use of ideal theory has been criticized by Sen from the right and by Mouffe from the left. We critically address these concerns in the context of developing a Rawlsian approach to climate justice. While the importance of (...)
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  5. Waging Love from Detroit to Flint.Michael Doan, Shea Howell & Ami Harbin - forthcoming - In Graham Cassano & Terressa Benz (eds.), Urban Emergency (Mis)Management and the Crisis of Neoliberalism. Boston, MA, USA: Brill. pp. 241-280.
    Over the past five years the authors have been working in Detroit with grassroots coalitions resisting emergency management. In this essay, we explore how community groups in Detroit and Flint have advanced common struggles for clean, safe, affordable water as a human right, offering an account of activism that has directly confronted neoliberalism across the state. We analyze how solidarity has been forged through community organizing, interventions into mainstream media portrayals of the water crises, and the articulation of counternarratives that (...)
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  6. The Goods of Priceless Values: Realizing Equitable Retail Markets for Solar Self-Service.Eloy LaBrada - forthcoming - Georgetown Environmental Law Review.
  7. Just fodder: The ethics of feeding animals. [REVIEW]Serrin Rutledge-Prior - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
  8. Intercultural Philosophy and Environmental Justice between Generations: Indigenous, African, Asian, and Western Perspectives.Hiroshi Abe, Matthias Fritsch & Mario Wenning (eds.) - 2024 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    The primary objective of this anthology is to make intergenerational justice an issue for intercultural philosophy, and, conversely, to allow the latter to enrich the former. In times of large-scale environmental destabilization, fair- ness between generations is an urgent issue of justice across time, but it is also a global issue of justice across geographical and nation-state borders. This means that the future generations envisioned by the currently living also cross these borders. Thus, different philosophical cultures and traditions of thought (...)
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  9. Deep ecology and the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas: the importance of moving from biocentric responsibility to environmental justice.Pehuén Barzola-Elizagaray & Ofelia Agoglia - 2024 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 24:31-45.
    Environmental theory and practice can benefit greatly from Emmanuel Levinas’ non-ontological philosophy of the Other in order to address the current global environmental crisis. From this viewpoint, this article focuses on 2 major positions within deep ecology. We discuss the significance of transitioning from one of them, which represents biocentric responsibility, to the other, which seeks to achieve environmental justice by challenging the hegemony of institutionalised environmentalism. In Levinasian terms, this is represented by moving from the anarchic realm of ethics (...)
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  10. Environmental Justice in and of Healthcare.Caroline Burkholder & Nora L. Jones - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):47-50.
    Ray and Cooper (2024) present a clear and compelling argument for giving greater prioritization to environmental injustice in the work we do as bioethicists. Their discussion of justice and vulnera...
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  11. Expertise, moral subversion, and climate deregulation.Ahmad Elabbar - 2024 - Synthese 203 (5):1-28.
    The weaponizing of scientific expertise to oppose regulation has been extensively studied. However, the relevant studies, belonging to the emerging discipline of agnotology, remain focused on the analysis of empirical corruption: of misinformation, doubt mongering, and other practices that cynically deploy expertise to render audiences ignorant of empirical facts. This paper explores the wrongful deployment of expertise beyond empirical corruption. To do so, I develop a broader framework of morally subversive expertise, building on recent work in political philosophy (Howard, 2016). (...)
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  12. Ecology and Justice: From Environmental Justice to Integral Ecology of «Laudato si’».Jerzy Gocko - 2024 - Studia Ecologiae Et Bioethicae 22 (1).
    Until recently, in the social teaching of the Church, the principle of social justice has been primarily related to issues of poverty, social inequalities, wealth distribution, and goods. Pope Francis extends this understanding to environmental issues. While diagnosing and describing the contemporary ecological crisis (our inability to resolve it in particular), he identifies the same mindset and mechanisms underlying both the social and ecological crises. Pope Francis's encyclical Laudato si’ is, therefore, a revolutionary text, which, based on integral ecology, reintroduces (...)
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  13. Challenges for Environmental Justice Under Bioethical Principlism.Jack Harris - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):65-67.
    In “The Bioethics of Environmental Injustice: Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Implications of Unhealthy Environments,” Keisha Ray and Jane Fallis Cooper argue that one aspect of environmental health h...
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  14. Being Algae: Transformations in Water, Plants.Yogi Hale Hendlin, Johanna Weggelaar, Natalia Derossi & Sergio Mugnai (eds.) - 2024 - Leiden: BRILL.
    Water plants of all sizes, from the 60-meter long Pacific Ocean giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) to the micro ur-plant blue-green algae, deserve attention from critical plant studies. This is the first book in environmental humanities to approach algae, swimming across the sciences, humanities, and arts, to embody the mixed nature and collaborative identity of algae. Ranging from Medieval Islamic texts describing algae and their use, Japanese and Nordic cultural practices based in seaweed and algae, and confronting the instrumentalization of seaweed (...)
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  15. Global Environmental Justice and Bioethics: Overcoming Beneficence and Individual Responsibility.Komi Kadja & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):55-57.
    Ray and Cooper (2024) argue for the need to incorporate the fight for environmental justice into the bioethics agenda. While they convincingly argue that the principle of justice involves environme...
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  16. Rawlsian Anti-Capitalist Environmental Justice.Tyra Lennie - 2024 - Ethics, Politics, and Society 6 (2):22-49.
    In this paper, I examine John Rawls’ claim in the first edition of A Theory of Justice that Justice as Fairness cannot include considerations about the environment and non-human animals. The paper aims to resolve the tension in this statement, as the idea of a Rawlsian well-ordered society without concern for the rest of nature presents as a contradiction. Through a more charitable reading of Rawlsian theory that borrows from anti-capitalist and environmental justice frameworks, we can see how Rawlsian justice (...)
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  17. Carbon Pricing is Not Unjust.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2024 - Global Challenges 8 (1):2300089.
    While there are a variety of moral issues that relate to carbon pricing policies, I will focus on one that has received a large amount of attention: is carbon pricing unjust? Campaigners and civil society groups, especially those involved in environmental and climate justice spaces, have rejected carbon pricing as unjust. This claim deserves some discussion and, in this perspective, I discuss a few potential dimensions of justice that could be relevant to this claim. My goal is to show that, (...)
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  18. A directional dilemma in climate innovation.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2024 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 11 (1):2346972.
    One branch of the responsible innovation literature involves the direction of innovation: if the public or decision-makers can or should direct innovation, how should innovation be directed? This paper explicates a case study where directionality – the plurality of plausible values for innovation – is directly implicated. In this case, a key technology may require a strategy for innovation, but there are contrasting normative reasons to drive that innovation in different ways, reflecting two distinct moral values, ‘effectiveness’ and responsiveness to (...)
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  19. No Elder Left Behind: The Role of Environmental Justice in Geriatrics and Palliative Care.Zamina Z. Mithani, Lydia S. Dugdale & Cynthia X. Pan - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):44-47.
    We wish to extend the concepts in Ray and Cooper’s (2024) article entitled “The Bioethics of Environmental Injustice: Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Implications of Unhealthy Environments” to palliat...
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  20. May Artificial Intelligence take health and sustainability on a honeymoon? Towards green technologies for multidimensional health and environmental justice.Cristian Moyano-Fernández, Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado & Txetxu Ausín - 2024 - Global Bioethics 35 (1).
    The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare and epidemiology undoubtedly has many benefits for the population. However, due to its environmental impact, the use of AI can produce social inequalities and long-term environmental damages that may not be thoroughly contemplated. In this paper, we propose to consider the impacts of AI applications in medical care from the One Health paradigm and long-term global health. From health and environmental justice, rather than settling for a short and fleeting green honeymoon between (...)
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  21. Environmental Justice: More Hard Work yet to Be Done.David B. Resnik - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):18-20.
    The environmental justice movement began in 1982, when residents of Shocco Township, a low-income, African-American community located in Warren County, North Carolina, protested the state’s plan to...
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  22. Climate Change, Automation, and the Viability of a Post-Work Future.Kory P. Schaff & Tonatiuh Rodriguez-Nikl - 2024 - In Kory P. Schaff, Michael Cholbi, Jean-Phillipe Deranty & Denise Celentano (eds.), _Debating a Post-Work Future: Perspectives from Philosophy and the Social Sciences_. New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    We claim the climate crisis is the proper baseline for establishing the terms of debate about the viability of a post-work future. In this paper, we aim to assess the viability of a post-work future in which automation replaces a significant portion of human labor. We do this by laying out the possible outcomes of what such a future will look like based on three related axes: technological capacity, politics and social distribution, and alternative conceptions of the good. The purpose (...)
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  23. Moral hazards and solar radiation management: Evidence from a large-scale online experiment.Philipp Schoenegger & Kian Mintz-Woo - 2024 - Journal of Environmental Psychology 95:102288.
    Solar radiation management (SRM) may help to reduce the negative outcomes of climate change by minimising or reversing global warming. However, many express the worry that SRM may pose a moral hazard, i.e., that information about SRM may lead to a reduction in climate change mitigation efforts. In this paper, we report a large-scale preregistered, money-incentivised, online experiment with a representative US sample (N = 2284). We compare actual behaviour (donations to climate change charities and clicks on climate change petition (...)
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  24. Conflicts of Integrity: Research Ethics Practice and Environmental Justice.Vishnu Subrahmanyam & Emma Tumilty - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):62-64.
    In their recent article, scholars Keisha Ray and Jane Fallis Cooper claim that “bioethicists should not be deterred from advocating for a healthy environment […] instead, […] underscore the importa...
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  25. Bioethics Interested in Environmental Justice Should First and Foremost Criticize Capitalism.Konrad Szocik - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):57-59.
    Environmental issues are rarely present in mainstream bioethics; the situation is somewhat better with feminist bioethics. The problem, then, is allowing a feminist perspective into mainstream bioe...
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  26. Eco-Rational Education An Educational Response to Environmental Crisis.Simone Thornton - 2024 - New York: Routledge.
    Eco-Rational Education proposes an educational response to climate change, environmental degradation, and desctructive human relations to ecology through the delivery of critical land-responsive environmental education. -/- The book argues that education is a powerful vehicle for both social change and cultural reproduction. It proposes that the prioritisation and integration of environmental education across the curriculum is essential to the development of ecologically rational citizens capable of responding to the environmental crisis and an increasingly changing world. Using philosophical analysis, particularly environmental (...)
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  27. Environmental Justice for Whom?Sean A. Valles - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):24-26.
    Ray and Cooper (2024) make a very compelling argument for vastly increasing bioethicists’ engagement with environmental justice. I strongly support this proposal and agree with their arguments. Yet...
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  28. Environmental Justice: A Missing Core Tenet of Global Health.Redeat Workneh, Merhawit Abadi, Krystle Perez, Sharla Rent, Elliott Mark Weiss, Stephanie Kukora, Olivia Brandon, Gal Barbut, Sahar Rahiem, Shaphil Wallie, Joseph Mhango, Benjamin C. Shayo, Friday Saidi, Gesit Metaferia, Mahlet Abayneh & Gregory C. Valentine - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):20-23.
    Reducing health disparities and improving health outcomes are fundamental principles in global health. Environmental justice remains underrecognized and undervalued as a key driver of health dispar...
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  29. Should We Blow Up a Pipeline?Alexander S. Arridge - 2023 - Environmental Ethics 45 (4):403-425.
    Ecotage, or the destruction of property for the sake of promoting environmental ends, is beginning to (re)establish itself both as a topic of public discussion and as a radical activist tactic. In response to these developments, a small but growing academic literature questions whether, and if so under what conditions, ecotage can be morally justified. This paper contributes to the literature by arguing that instances of ecotage are pro tanto justified insofar as they are instances of effective and proportionate self- (...)
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  30. Land as a Global Commons?Megan Blomfield - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 40 (4):577-592.
    Land is becoming increasingly scarce relative to the demands of the global economy; a problem significantly exacerbated by climate change. In response, some have suggested that land should be conceptualised as a global commons. This framing might seem like an appealing way to promote sustainable and equitable land use. However, it is a poor fit for the worldʼs land because global commons are generally understood as resources located beyond state borders. I argue that land can be seen to fit the (...)
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  31. Who is responsible for the climate change problem?Megan Blomfield - 2023 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 123 (2):126-149.
    According to the Polluter Pays Principle, excessive emitters of greenhouse gases have special obligations to remedy the problem of climate change, because they are the ones who have caused it. But what kind of problem is climate change? In this paper I argue that as a moral problem, climate change has a more complex causal structure than many proponents of the Polluter Pays Principle seem to recognize: it is a problem resulting from the interaction of anthropogenic climate effects with the (...)
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  32. On Injustices Raised by the Implementation of Low-Carbon Technologies.Eric Brandstedt - 2023 - PLoS Climate 2 (1).
    Some ethical imperatives pertaining to climate change are mostly uncontroversial. Humanity has caused the problem and must do something to mitigate it and this job must to a large extent be carried by the current generations, as time is short. There is also wide agreement, at least among climate justice scholars, that the reason for why this is so is a combination of causal responsibility and ability to pay, and that the affluent therefore must lead the transition away of fossil (...)
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  33. A politics of reminding: Khoisan resurgence and environmental justice in South Africa’s Sarah Baartman district.Scott Burnett, Nettly Ahmed, Tahn-dee Matthews, Junaid Oliephant & Aylwyn M. Walsh - 2023 - Critical Discourse Studies 20 (5):524-539.
    In the wake of colonial fragmentation and genocide, Indigenous ‘Khoisan resurgence’ movements in South Africa have mobilised subversive forms of authenticity, including heteroglossic and inventive translanguaging from fragments of Khoekhoegowab. In our analysis of video ethnographic texts produced in collaboration with the Gamtkwa Khoisan Council (GKC) in Hankey, the birthplace of Sarah Baartman, we explore how memory, language politics, and environmental activism are interwoven in acts of linguistic citizenship that constitute the ‘rememorying’ of a history that has remained persistently obscured. (...)
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  34. Climate Displacement.Jamie Draper - 2023 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Climate change is reshaping patterns of displacement around the world. Extreme weather events destroy homes, environmental degradation threatens the viability of livelihoods, sea level rise and coastal erosion force communities to relocate, and risks to food and resource security magnify the sources of political instability. Climate displacement—the displacement of people driven at least in part by the impacts of climate change—is a pressing moral challenge that is incumbent upon us to address. -/- This book develops a political theory of climate (...)
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  35. Why Democrats Should Be Committed to Future Generations.Matthias Fritsch - 2023 - Dialogue 62 (3):459-474.
    In response to the claim that democracies are inherently short-termist, this article argues for a new way to understand them as being committed to future generations. If taking turns among rulers and ruled is a normative idea inherent to the concept of democracy, then such turn-taking commits democrats to a fair turn with future generations.
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  36. Democratic Representation, Environmental Justice, and Future People.Matthias Fritsch - 2023 - In Sally Lamalle & Peter Stoett (eds.), Representations and Rights of the Environment. cambridge UP. pp. 310-333.
    In the context of current environmental crises, which threaten to seriously harm living conditions for future generations, liberal-capitalist democracies have been accused of inherent short-termism, that is, of favouring the currently living at the expense of mid- to long-term sustainability. I will review some of the reasons for this short-termism as well as proposals as to how best to represent future people in today’s democratic decision-making. I will then present some ideas of my own as to how to reconceive the (...)
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  37. "Diversifying Effective Altruism's Long Shots in Animal Advocacy: An Invitation to Prioritize Black Vegans, Higher Education, and Religious Communities".Matthew C. Halteman - 2023 - In Carol J. Adams, Alice Crary & Lori Gruen (eds.), The Good It Promises, The Harm It Does: Critical Essays on Effective Altruism. New York, US: Oxford University Press. pp. 76-93.
    In “Diversifying Effective Altruism’s Longshots in Animal Advocacy”, Matthew C. Halteman acknowledges the value of aspects of the EA method but considers two potential critical concerns. First, it isn’t always clear that effective altruism succeeds in doing the most good, especially where long-shots like foiling misaligned AI or producing meat without animals are concerned. Second, one might worry that investing large sums of money in long-shots like these, even if they do succeed, has the opportunity cost of failing adequately to (...)
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  38. Climate Change and Environmental Justice.Clement Loo - 2023 - In Pellegrino Gianfranco & Marcello Di Paola (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Climate Change. Springer Nature. pp. 601-622.
    This chapter provides a broad overview of the relationship between climate change and environmental justice. It provides (1) a brief review of the concept of environmental justice, (2) discussion about how environmental justice applies to climate change, and (3) several examples of how environmental justice has been integrated into climate governance.
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  39. Infrastructures of Harm, Communities of Knowledge and Environmental Justice.Ysabel Munoz Martinez & Jerome Nenger - 2023 - Studies in Social Justice 17 (3):323-332.
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  40. On environmental justice, Part I: an intuitive conservation dilemma.Joseph Mazor - 2023 - Economics and Philosophy 39 (2):230-255.
    This article introduces an intuitive conservation dilemma called the Canyon Dilemma: Is it possible to condemn the mining of the Grand Canyon, even by a poor generation, while also permitting this generation’s mining of an unremarkable small canyon? It then argues that not one of several prominent theories of environmental justice, including various forms of egalitarianism, welfarism, deep-ecological theories, communitarianism and free-market environmentalism, can navigate this dilemma. The article concludes by highlighting the dilemma-navigating potential of the equal-claims idea – the (...)
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  41. On environmental justice, Part II: non-absolute equal division of rights to the natural world.Joseph Mazor - 2023 - Economics and Philosophy 39 (2):256-284.
    This article considers whether any interpretation of the idea of equal claims to the natural world can resolve the Canyon Dilemma (i.e. can justify protecting the Grand Canyon but not a small canyon from mining by a poor generation). It first considers and ultimately rejects the idea of subjecting natural resource rights to an intergenerational equal division. It then demonstrates that a pluralist theory of environmental justice committed to both respect for the separateness of persons and to the collective good (...)
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  42. Rethinking a 1970s Timeline for a History of Enviornmental Ethics.Áila O'Loughlin & Ryan Mulloy - 2023 - Apa Studies on Native American and Indigenous Philosophy 23 (1):8-11.
  43. Exploitation: A Missing Element to Our Understanding of Environmental Justice.Christopher H. Pearson - 2023 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 26 (3):374-386.
    Environmental justice crucially depends on issues of distributive justice. However, absent from philosophical examinations of environmental justice has been careful consideration of the role exploitation should occupy in our moral evaluations of some cases the initially present as instances of environmental injustice. This paper seeks to both motivate the importance of understanding the significance exploitation has in select cases of environmental justice, as well as provide a conceptual framework for how to assess the ethics of those cases.
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  44. Mining Thacker Pass: Environmental Justice and the Demands of Green Energy.Manuel Rodeiro - 2023 - Environmental Justice 16 (2):91-95.
    This paper considers the environmental justice issues presented by the proposed open-pit lithium mine in Thacker Pass, Nevada (Peehee mm’huh). Unlike the environmental destruction wrought from fossil fuel extraction, lithium is used to create lithium-ion batteries for storing and using electricity from “green energy” sources. Can the potential reduction in carbon emissions resulting from the lithium mined morally and politically justify the destruction of the Pass’s sagebrush sea – a critical wildlife habitat and sacred land to the People of Red (...)
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  45. How to Win Multispecies Friends and Influence Anthropocentric People: Review of Jane Mummery and Debbie Rodan, Imagining New Human–Animal Futures in Australia. [REVIEW]Serrin Rutledge-Prior - 2023 - Humanimalia 13 (2):247–252.
  46. Environmental Justice.Wolfgang Sachs - 2023 - In Nathanaël Wallenhorst & Christoph Wulf (eds.), Handbook of the Anthropocene. Springer. pp. 591-595.
    This article addresses some of the power asymmetries which divide mankind, the so-called “we” in the discourse about the Anthropocene. Humanity is beset with long-running cleavages between Northern and Southern countries, just as between the wealthy and the poor across countries. Power is wielded environmentally, too. First, responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions around the world is highly skewed towards the Global North, while impacts of climate change on society and biosphere fall disproportionately onto the Global South. Second, human rights of (...)
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  47. How Data Governance Principles Influence Participation in Biodiversity Science.Beckett Sterner & Steve Elliott - 2023 - Science as Culture.
    Biodiversity science is in a pivotal period when diverse groups of actors—including researchers, businesses, national governments, and Indigenous Peoples—are negotiating wide-ranging norms for governing and managing biodiversity data in digital repositories. These repositories, often called biodiversity data portals, are a type of organization for which governance can address or perpetuate the colonial history of biodiversity science and current inequities. Researchers and Indigenous Peoples are developing and implementing new strategies to examine and change assumptions about which agents should count as salient (...)
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  48. Max Power: Implementing the Capabilities Approach to Identify Thresholds and Ceilings in Energy Justice.Patrik Baard & Anders Melin - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, we apply the capabilities approach—with the addition of capability ceilings—to energy justice. We argue that, to ensure energy justice, energy policies and scenarios should consider enabling not only minimal capability thresholds but also maximum capability ceilings. It is permissible, perhaps even morally required, to limit the capabilities of those above the threshold if it is necessary for enabling those below the threshold to reach the level required by justice. We make a distinction between tragic and non-tragic conflicts (...)
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  49. Do We Impose Undue Risk When We Emit and Offset? A Reply to Stefansson.Christian Barry & Garrett Cullity - 2022 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 25 (3):242-248.
    ABSTRACT We have previously argued that there are forms of greenhouse gas offsetting for which, when one emits and offsets, one imposes no risk. Orri Stefansson objects that our argument fails to distinguish properly between the people who stand to be harmed by one’s emissions and the people who stand to be benefited by one’s offsetting. We reply by emphasizing the difference between acting with a probability of making a difference to the distribution of harm and acting in a way (...)
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  50. Offsetting and Risk Imposition.Christian Barry & Garrett Cullity - 2022 - Ethics 132 (2):352-381.
    Suppose you perform two actions. The first imposes a risk of harm that, on its own, would be excessive; but the second reduces the risk of harm by a corresponding amount. By pairing the two actions together to form a set of actions that is risk-neutral, can you thereby make your overall course of conduct permissible? This question is theoretically interesting, because the answer is apparently: sometimes Yes, sometimes No. It is also practically important, because it bears on the moral (...)
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