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  1. Earth as a Life-Raft and Ethics as the Raft’s Axe.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2016 - In Irina Deretić & Stefan Lorenz Sorgner (eds.), From Humanism to Meta-, Post- and Transhumanism? Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien: pp. 227-242.
    A common metaphor on our planet portrays it as a rescue boat for life that travels in an endless see of cosmic darkness. If this metaphor is to be considered a precise one, this would mean that the earth is the only chance for life to survive the journey – at least as far as animal life is concerned. Apart from this, however, the metaphor implies that our planet is also very fragile, and that its carrying capacity is limited. Now, (...)
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  2. Environmental Ethics and Linkola’s Ecofascism: An Ethics Beyond Humanism.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2014 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 9 (4):586-601.
    Ecofascism as a tradition in Environmental Ethics seems to burgeoning with potential. The roots of Ecofascism can be traced back to the German Romantic School, to the Wagnerian narration of the Nibelungen saga, to the works of Fichte and Herder and, finally, to the so-called völkisch movement. Those who take pride in describing themselves as ecofascists grosso modo tend to prioritize the moral value of the ecosphere, while, at the same time, they almost entirely devalue species and individuals. Additionally, these (...)
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  3. Is Biodiversity Intrinsically Valuable? (And What Might That Mean?).Katie McShane - 2017 - In Justin Garson, Anya Plutynski & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. Routledge. pp. 155-167.
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  4. Ethical Extensionism.Mylan Engel Jr - 2008 - In Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, Vol. 1. Detroit, MI: Gale Cengage Learning. pp. 396-398.
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  5. The Concept of Life in Contemporary Japan.Masahiro Morioka - 2012 - The Review of Life Studies 2:23-62.
    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international discussions on life and scientific technology by examining the images and concepts of life in contemporary Japan. In English the word Inochi can be rendered as "life". However, the nuances of the Japanese term differ in certain cases, and therefore I have chosen to use the term much as is. I first discuss the linguistic meanings of the word, and then consider several important features of the images of inochi (...)
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  6. Historical Environmental Values.J. Michael Scoville - 2013 - Environmental Ethics 35 (1):7-25.
    John O’Neill, Alan Holland, and Andrew Light usefully distinguish two ways of thinking about environmental values, namely, end-state and historical views. To value nature in an end-state way is to value it because it instantiates certain properties, such as complexity or diversity. In contrast, a historical view says that nature’s value is (partly) determined by its particular history. Three contemporary defenses of a historical view are explored in order to clarify: (1) the normatively relevant history; (2) how historical considerations are (...)
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  7. Colloquium 3: Aristotle on Moral Considerability.Susanne Foster - 2003 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):75-94.
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  8. BERNSTEIN, MH-On Moral Considerability.H. Upton - 2000 - Philosophical Books 41 (3):199-200.
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  9. Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice.Hussein M. Adam, Elizabeth Bell, Robert D. Bullard, Robert Melchior Figueroa, Clarice E. Gaylord, Segun Gbadegesin, R. J. A. Goodland, Howard McCurdy, Charles Mills, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Peter S. Wenz & Daniel C. Wigley - 2001 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  10. The Role of Love in Animal Ethics.Anca Gheaus - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):583-600.
    Philosophers working on animal ethics have focused, with good reason, on the wrongness of cruelty toward animals and of devaluing their lives. I argue that the theoretical resources of animal ethics are far from exhausted. Moreover, reflection on what makes animals ethically significant is relevant for thinking about the roots of morality and therefore about ethical relationships between human beings. I rely on a normative approach to animal ethics grounded in the importance of meeting needs in general and, in particular, (...)
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  11. Environmental Values. [REVIEW]Evelyn Brister - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):123-125.
    Review of Environmental Values by John O’Neill, Alan Holland and Andrew Light, Routledge, 2007.
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  12. Philosophy and Ecology.Howard P. Kainz - 1973 - New Scholasticism 47 (4):516-519.
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  13. Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology.William O. Stephens - 1994 - Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  14. Interaction of the Natural, Technological, and Social Sciences in Ecology.I. T. Frolov - 1974 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 13 (2):155-157.
    We do not usually draw conclusions and summarize the results of our round table meetings. The speakers share their ideas, divergent viewpoints are discussed, and a certain level of approach to the problems under discussion is formulated. Therefore, today I will also not attempt to draw a conclusion.
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  15. The Eschatological Dimension of Ecology.Hans Schwarz - 1974 - Zygon 9 (4):323-338.
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  16. Toward an Evolutionary Ecology of Meaning.Jeffrey S. Wicken - 1989 - Zygon 24 (2):153-184.
  17. Caring for the Future: Where Ethics and Ecology Meet.Curl E. Braaten - 1974 - Zygon 9 (4):311-322.
  18. Book Review:Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Michael E. Zimmerman. [REVIEW]Roger S. Gottlieb - 1996 - Ethics 106 (3):650-.
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  19. Book Reviews:On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. [REVIEW]Mary Anne Warren - 2000 - Ethics 111 (1):160-162.
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  20. Environmental Risks, Uncertainty and Intergenerational Ethics.Kristian Skagen Ekeli - 2004 - Environmental Values 13 (4):421-448.
    The way our decisions and actions can affect future generations is surrounded by uncertainty. This is evident in current discussions of environmental risks related to global climate change, biotechnology and the use and storage of nuclear energy. The aim of this paper is to consider more closely how uncertainty affects our moral responsibility to future generations, and to what extent moral agents can be held responsible for activities that inflict risks on future people. It is argued that our moral responsibility (...)
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  21. Valuing Species and Valuing Individuals.Nicholas Agar - 1995 - Environmental Ethics 17 (4):397-415.
    My goal in this paper is to account for the value of species in terms of the value of individual organisms that make them up. Many authors have pointed to an apparent conflict between a species preservationist ethic and moral theories that place value on individuals. I argue for an account of the worth of individual organisms grounded in the representational goals of those organisms. I claim thatthis account leads to an acceptably extensive species preservationist ethic.
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  22. The Community Vs. The Market and the State: Forest Use Inuttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas. [REVIEW]Arun Agrawal - 1996 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):1-15.
    Most writers on resource management presume that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural populations can often use resources sustainably and successfully, even under assumptions of self-interested rationality. Under a set of specified social and environmental conditions, conditions that prevail in large areas of the Himalayas and may also exist in other (...)
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  23. Moral Planes and Intrinsic Values.James C. Anderson - 1991 - Environmental Ethics 13 (1):49-58.
    In his book, Earth and Other Ethics, Christopher Stone attempts to account for the moral dimension of our lives insofar as it extends to nonhuman animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and even inanimate objects. In his effort to do this, he introduces a technical notion, the moral plane. Moral planes are defined both by the ontological commitments they make and by the governance mIes (moral maxims) that pertain to the sorts of entities included in the plane. By introducing these planes, Stone (...)
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  24. The Environmental Crisis: Understanding the Value of Nature.Jennifer Baker - 2002 - Environmental Ethics 24 (3):321-324.
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  25. An Inquiry Into the Nature of Environmentally Sound Thinking.Jennifer Bates - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (2):183-197.
    Many philosophers advocate a change in our thinking in order to move beyond an anthropocentric view of the environment. In order to achieve the kind of thinking that makes for sound environmental thinking, we have to look more deeply into the nature of thought and to revise the relation between thought directed outward to the world and thought directed inwardly to thought itself. Only with such insight can we begin to think soundly about the environment. Thought exhibits a characteristic that (...)
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  26. Animal Pragmatism: Rethinking Human-Nonhuman Relationships.Mark Bernstein - 2006 - Environmental Ethics 28 (1):107-110.
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  27. Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community.J. Baird Callicott - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
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  28. Queering Ecological Feminism: Erotophobia, Commodification, Art, and Lesbian Identity.Wendy Lynne Lee & Laura M. Dow - 2001 - Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):1-21.
    : Utilizing examples from recent art, we critique Greta Gaard's argument that an inclusive ecofeminism must account for the role played by erotophobia in oppression. We suggest that while Gaard offers valuable insight into how fear of the erotic contributes to maintaining heteropatriarchal institutions, it fails to account for forms of oppression specific to lesbians. Moreover, Gaard's analysis unwittingly reinforces the conceptual, hence political, economic, and social invisibility of lesbians that, following Marilyn Frye, we argue is not merely consequent to (...)
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  29. Beyond the Nature-Culture Dualism: The Ecology of Earth-Homeland.Kerry H. Whiteside - 2004 - World Futures 60 (5 & 6):357 – 369.
    Morin's thoughts on environmental destruction flow from the perspective of a metatheorist of political ecology. His early writings emphasize the interaction of nature and culture; his "acentric" interpretations of systems theory challenge ecological theorists who overemphasize centralized programming as a remedy for destructive patterns of subsystem interaction. Morin also criticizes defenders of "sustainable development" who fail to see system-renewing potential in cultural diversity. As an environmental metatheorist, he offers not rules for a new green ethic, but a way of thinking (...)
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Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis
  1. The Social Cost of Carbon: Valuing Inequality, Risk, and Population for Climate Policy.Marc Fleurbaey, Maddalena Ferranna, Mark Budolfson, Francis Dennig, Kian Mintz-Woo, Robert Socolow, Dean Spears & Stéphane Zuber - 2019 - The Monist 102 (1):84-109.
    We analyze the role of ethical values in the determination of the social cost of carbon, arguing that the familiar debate about discounting is too narrow. Other ethical issues are equally important to computing the social cost of carbon, and we highlight inequality, risk, and population ethics. Although the usual approach, in the economics of cost-benefit analysis for climate policy, is confined to a utilitarian axiology, the methodology of the social cost of carbon is rather flexible and can be expanded (...)
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  2. On the Limits of the Precautionary Principle.H. Orri Stefansson - forthcoming - Risk Analysis.
    The Precautionary Principle (PP) is an influential principle of risk management. It has been widely introduced into environmental legislation, and it plays an important role in most international environmental agreements. Yet, there is little consensus on precisely how to understand and formulate the principle. In this paper I prove some impossibility results for two plausible formulations of the PP as a decision-rule. These results illustrate the difficulty in making the PP consistent with the acceptance of any trade-offs between catastrophic risks (...)
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  3. Two Moral Arguments for a Global Social Cost of Carbon.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):60-63.
    [Comment] Donald Trump’s executive order on energy limits the costs and benefits of carbon to domestic sources. The argument for this executive order is that carbon policies should not be singled out from other policies as globally inclusive. Two independent arguments are offered for adopting a global social cost of carbon. The first is based on reinforcing norms in the face of commons tragedies. The second is based on the limitations of consequentialist analyses. We can distinguish consequences for which probabilistic (...)
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  4. Counting the Cost of Global Warming.John Broome - 1992 - Strond: White Horse Press.
    Since the last ice age, when ice enveloped most of the northern continents, the earth has warmed by about five degrees. Within a century, it is likely to warm by another four or five. This revolution in our climate will have immense and mostly harmful effects on the lives of people not yet born. We are inflicting this harm on our descendants by dumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. We can mitigate the harm a little by taking measures to control (...)
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  5. Regretful Decisions and Climate Change.Rebecca Livernois - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (2):168-191.
    Climate change has made pressing the question of why we do little to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By analogy to the puzzle of the self-torturer, I argue that even if interpersonal and intergenerational conflicts of interest were resolved, we may still end up in a regretful environmental state when we aim to maximize our net benefit derived from polluting activities. This is because a rational agent with transitive preferences making climate change decisions faces incentives to over-pollute. This is caused by (...)
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  6. Ethics and Genetically Modified Foods.Gary Comstock - 2001 - In David M. Kaplan (ed.), The Philosophy of Food. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 122-139.
    Gary Comstock considers whether it is ethically justified to pursue genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. He first considers intrinsic objections to GM crops that allege that the process of making GMOs is objectionable in itself. He argues that there is no justifiable basis for the objections — i.e. GM crops are not intrinsically ethically problematic. He then considers extrinsic objections to GM crops, including objections based on the precautionary principle, which focus on the potential harms that may result from (...)
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  7. Mischaracterizing Uncertainty in Environmental-Health Sciences.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2017 - Diametros 53:96-124.
    Researchers doing welfare-related science frequently mischaracterize either situations of decision-theoretic mathematical/scientific uncertainty as situations of risk, or situations of risk as those of uncertainty. The paper outlines this epistemic/ethical problem ; surveys its often-deadly, welfare-related consequences in environmental-health sciences; and uses recent research on diesel particulate matter to reveal 7 specific methodological ways that scientists may mischaracterize lethal risks instead as situations of uncertainty, mainly by using methods and assumptions with false-negative biases. The article closes by outlining two normative strategies (...)
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  8. Intrinsic Values and Economic Valuation.Katie McShane - 2017 - In Clive L. Spash (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Ecological Economics: Nature and Society. Routledge. pp. 237-245.
  9. Descriptive Versus Prescriptive Discounting in Climate Change Policy Analysis.Kelleher J. Paul - forthcoming - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 15:957-977.
    This paper distinguishes between five different approaches to social discount rates in climate change economics, criticizes two of these, and explains how the other three are to some degree mutually compatible. It aims to shed some new light on a longstanding debate in climate change economics between so-called “descriptivists” and “prescriptivists” about social discounting. The ultimate goal is to offer a sketch of the conceptual landscape that makes visible some important facets of the debate that very often go unacknowledged.
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  10. “My Emissions Make No Difference”: Climate Change and the Argument From Inconsequentialism.Joakim Sandberg - 2011 - Environmental Ethics 33 (3):229-248.
    “Since the actions I perform as an individual only have an inconsequential effect on the threat of climate change,” a common argument goes, “it cannot be morally wrong for me to take my car to work everyday or refuse to recycle.” This argument has received a lot of scorn from philosophers over the years, but has actually been defended in some recent articles. A more systematic treatment of a central set of related issues shows how maneuvering around these issues is (...)
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  11. Is Harry Potter More Evil Than JK Rowling or You? (2013).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization Articles and Reviews 2006-2016 by Michael Starks 662p (2016). Michael Starks. pp. 575-576.
    How about a different take on the rich and famous? First the obvious—these novels are primitive superstition that encourages children to believe in fantasy rather than take responsibility for the world-- the norm of course. JKR is just as clueless about herself and the world as all the other monkeys, but about 200 times as destructive as the average American and about 800 times more than the average Chinese. She has been responsible for the destruction of maybe 30,000 hectares of (...)
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  12. How Not to Save the Planet.Thom Brooks - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):119-135.
    Climate change presents us with perhaps the most pressing challenge today. But is it a problem we can solve? This article argues that existing conservationist and adaptation approaches fail to satisfy their objectives. A second issue that these approaches disagree about how best to end climate change, but accept that it is a problem that can be solved. I believe this view is mistaken: a future environmental catastrophe is an event we might at best postpone, but not avoid. This raises (...)
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  13. Making Our Children Pay for Mitigation.Aaron Maltais - 2015 - In Aaron Maltais Catriona McKinnon (ed.), The Ethics of Climate Governance. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 91-110.
    Investments in mitigating climate change have their greatest environmental impact over the long-term. As a consequence the incentives to invest in cutting greenhouse gas emissions today appear to be weak. In response to this challenge there has been increasing attention given to the idea that current generations can be motivated to start financing mitigation at much higher levels today by shifting these costs to the future through national debt. Shifting costs to the future in this way benefits future generations by (...)
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  14. GMOs, Future Generations, and the Limits of the Precautionary Principle.Duncan Purves - 2015 - Social Philosophy Today 31:99-109.
    The Precautionary Principle is frequently invoked as a guiding principle in environmental policy. In this article, I raise a couple of problems for the application of the Precautionary Principle when it comes to policies concerning Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). First, I argue that if we accept Stephen Gardiner’s sensible conditions under which it is appropriate to employ the Precautionary Principle for emerging technologies, it is unclear that GMOs meet those conditions. In particular, I contend that GM crops hold the potential (...)
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  15. Add to Cart: Environmental ‘Amenities’ and Cost-Benefit Analysis.Chrisoula Andreou - 2012 - In Michael O'Rourke and Matthew H. Slater William P. Kabasenche (ed.), Topics in Contemporary Philosophy 9: The Environment.
    This chapter discusses the utility of cost-benefit analysis in decision making, specifically environmental decision making. For the purposes of the discussion here, it uses a type of CBA that incorporates two controversial characteristics, namely, the assumption of comparability and the willingness-to-pay measure. The chapter aims to show that the recognition of a well motivated holistic decision-making strategy can shed light on debates regarding CBA. This strategy is concerned with patterns of choices rather than individual ones, and corresponds with two familiar (...)
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  16. Granice troski o przyszłe pokolenia.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2010 - Diametros 26:206-225.
    W artykule rozważam następujący problem: czy powinniśmy przykładać taką samą wagę do interesów i dobrobytu ludzi istniejących w przyszłości, jak do interesów i dobrobytu jednostek żyjących obecnie? Staram się wykazać, że traktowanie wymiaru czasowego analogicznie do przestrzennego jest problematyczne, zarówno jeśli chodzi o wymogi moralne, jak i o zasady sprawiedliwości, którymi powinny kierować się instytucje społeczne. Analizuję problem społecznej stopy dyskontowej, a także wskazuję na ograniczenia, jakie napotyka w związku z nim konsekwencjalistyczny rachunek zysków i strat w kontekście sprawiedliwości międzypokoleniowej.
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  17. Ecological Restoration in Context: Ethics and the Naturalization of Former Military Lands.Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):69-89.
  18. This American Life.Jay Odenbaugh - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):27-29.
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  19. Beware of Averages: A Response to John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'.Ronald Sandler - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):31-33.
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  20. Nolt, Future Harm and Future Quality of Life.Robin Attfield - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):11-13.
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  21. Responsibility for Emissions: A Commentary on John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'.Lauren Hartzell - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):15-17.
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