About this topic
Summary

The Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c. 55 – c. 135 CE) came originally from Asia Minor and was a slave in Rome under Epaphroditus, one of Nero’s ministers. He attended the lectures of the Stoic philosopher Musonius Rufus in Rome, at some point gained his freedom, and initially lectured in Rome but fled in the wake of Domitian’s ban against philosophers (c. 92-3 CE). He went on to found his own philosophical school in Nicopolis, Greece, which attracted many famous visitors, including the emperor Hadrian.

Epictetus is regularly referred to as the author of two works, the Dissertationes (Discourses) and the Enchiridion (Handbook, Manual) although they are in fact both are the work of his pupil Arrian, the noted historian. The Dissertationes contains lively records of discussions with students and visitors that supposedly took place in Epictetus’s classroom, sometime around 108 CE. The Enchridion is a short summary distilling the central ideas found in the Dissertationes. Four books of the Dissertationes survive out of an original eight or perhaps even twelve (cf. Photius, Bibliotheca cod. 58, who refers to eight books of discourses (Diatribai) and twelve books of conversations (Homiliai); these could be different titles for the same work), and there are a number of fragments from the lost books preserved by other authors.

Key works

Epictetus has been edited and translated numerous times. The best recent translation of all his works is Hard & Gill 2014

Introductions

The best introduction to the thought of Epictetus is Long 2002. The essays in Scaltsas & Mason 2007 are all by leading scholars and examine topics in more detail. Graver 2009 offers a much shorter but well-informed overview. For a fuller annotated guide to work on Epictetus see Sellars 2016.

Related categories

198 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 198
  1. added 2020-08-14
    The Phenomenal-Intentional Nature of Happiness: A Contemporary Approach to Epictetus and Stoicism.Allan Arturo González Estrada - 2019 - Siwô’ Revista De Teología/Revista De Estudios Sociorreligiosos 12 (1):133-149.
    The present paper offers a contrast between the philosophical ideas of Stoicism and contemporary ideas in philosophy of the mind, to understand the nature of intentionality and phenomenal experience as a fundamental element in a theory of "happiness". The metaphysical foundation that I fallow is based on a physicalist approach in non-reductive terms, from a perspective derived from a phenomenal-intentionality program, that is, the idea that intentionality depends on its phenomenal characteristics, in this way, an analysis of popular psychology and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. added 2020-07-28
    Discovering Will:From Aristotle to Augustine.Charles H. Kahn - 1988 - In John M. Dillon & A. A. Long (eds.), The Question of "Eclecticism": Studies in Later Greek Philosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 235-260.
  3. added 2020-07-21
    Stoic Cosmopolitanism and Environmental Ethics.Simon Shogry - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. pp. 397-409.
    This essay considers how ancient Stoic cosmopolitanism – roughly, the claim all human beings are members of the same “cosmopolis”, or universal city, and so are entitled to moral concern in virtue of possessing reason – informs Stoic thinking about how we ought to treat non-human entities in the environment. First, I will present the Stoic justification for the thesis that there are only rational members of the cosmopolis – and so that moral concern does not extend to any non-human (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. added 2020-06-16
    Digestion and Moral Progress in Epictetus.Michael Tremblay - 2019 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):100-119.
    The Stoic Epictetus famously criticizeshis students for studying Stoicism as ‘mere theory’ and encouraged them to add training to their educational program. This is made all the more interesting by the fact that Epictetus, as a Stoic, was committed to notion that wisdom is sufficient to be virtuous, so theory should be all that’s required to achieve virtue. How are we then to make sense of Epictetus criticism of an overreliance on theory, and his insistence on adding training? This paper (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. added 2020-06-16
    Tabli Et Traduit Par.John Ferguson - 1952 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 72:136.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. added 2020-06-15
    Real Men Are Stoics: An Interpretation of Tom Wolfe's A Man in Full.William O. Stephens - 2000 - Stoic Voice Journal 1 (3).
    Charlie Croker, a self-made real estate tycoon, ex-Georgia Tech football star, horseback rider, quail-hunter, snakecatcher, and good old boy from Baker county Georgia, is the protagonist in Tom Wolfe’s latest novel, the deliciously provocative A Man in Full (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998).  In this article I examine the evolving conception of manhood in Wolfe’s novel.  Two different models of manliness will be delineated and compared. The first model—represented by Charlie Croker—gradually weakens and is replaced by the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. added 2020-02-11
    Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life.Peter Adamson - 2003 - Mind 112 (446):363-366.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  8. added 2019-12-11
    Epictetus on How the Stoic Sage Loves.William O. Stephens - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:193-210.
    I show that in Epictetus’ view (1) the wise man genuinely loves (στέργειv) and is affectionate (φιλόστoργoς) to his family and friends; (2) only the Stoic wise man is, properly speaking, capable of loving—that is, he alone actually has the power to love; and (3) the Stoic wise man loves in a robustly rational way which excludes passionate, sexual, ‘erotic’ love (’έρως). In condemning all ’έρως as objectionable πάθoς Epictetus stands with Cicero and with the other Roman Stoics, Seneca and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  9. added 2019-09-14
    More or Less Within My Power: Nature, Virtue, and the Modern Stoic.Christian Coseru - 2018 - Reason Papers 40 (2):8-18.
    Can the Stoic conception of what is within our power be adapted to fit our scientifically informed view of nature in general and of human nature in particular? This paper argues that it can, but not without a revision of the Stoic’s classical dichotomy of power principle, namely that some things are up to us, while others are beyond our control. Given the extent to which the Stoic way of life flows from a certain conception of what is real, a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. added 2019-07-31
    Akrasia in Epictetus: A Comparison with Aristotle.Michael Tremblay - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):397-417.
    This paper argues that Epictetus’ ethics involves three features which are also present in Aristotle’s discussion of akrasia in the Nicomachean Ethics: 1) A major problem for agents is when they fail to render a universal premise effective at motivating a particular action in accordance with that premise. 2) There are two reasons this occurs: Precipitancy and Weakness. 3) Precipitancy and Weakness can be prevented by gaining a fuller understanding of our beliefs and commitments. This comparison should make clear that (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. added 2019-07-27
    Ética E Atitude Filosófica Em Epicteto.Diogo da Luz - 2019 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 11 (29).
    O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar como a ética proferida por Epicteto se relaciona com uma postura filosófica, mais precisamente com uma atitude filosófica. Essa atitude não é especificamente uma exigência prévia para pensar a ética filosoficamente, pois não se trata de tê-la para então começar a filosofar, mas trata-se da manifestação de autenticidade daquele que se diz filósofo, porque evidencia a real assimilação das opiniões e teorias que defende. Para Epicteto, o progresso do filósofo necessariamente está unido ao progresso (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. added 2019-06-07
    Bonhoeffer on the Stoic Philosophy. [REVIEW]R. D. Hicks - 1896 - The Classical Review 10 (2):112-114.
  13. added 2019-06-06
    Stoicism’s Integration Problem and Epictetus’ Metaphors.Scott F. Aikin - 2013 - Southwest Philosophy Review 29 (1):185-193.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. added 2019-06-06
    Paul and Epictetus on Law: A Comparison. By Niko Huttunen. Pp. X, 187, Library of New Testament Studies 405, T & T Clark, London, 2009, £60.00. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Turner - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (1):147-148.
  15. added 2019-06-06
    Epictetus’ Handbook and the Tablet of Cebes: Guides to Stoic Living. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2008 - Ancient Philosophy 28 (2):460-466.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    Necesidad, lo que depende de nosotros y posibilidades alternativas en los estoicos. Réplica a Ricardo Salles.Marcelo D. Boeri - 2007 - Critica 39 (115):97-111.
    Ésta es la respuesta a la crítica hecha por Ricardo Salles a mi interpretación del compatibilismo estoico. Aunque en parte admito sus objeciones, intento mostrar que algunos textos nos permiten pensar que, aunque lo que depende de nosotros no implique necesariamente acciones alternativas, eso no significa que no pueda implicarlas. También trato de mostrar que un reexamen de la noción crisipea de posibilidad que tenga en cuenta el deseo y la creencia permite explicar por qué no es posible llevar a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17. added 2019-06-06
    Epictetus: Socratic, Cynic, Stoic.Malcolm Schofield - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (216):448-456.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  18. added 2019-06-06
    Simplicius. On Epictetus’ Handbook 1–26. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2004 - Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):519-523.
  19. added 2019-06-06
    The Encheiridion of Epictetus and its Three Christian Adaptations: Transmission and Critical Editions. [REVIEW]Iain S. Maclean - 2001 - Ancient Philosophy 21 (2):528-531.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. added 2019-06-06
    The Discourses of Epictetus. The Handbook, Fragments. [REVIEW]Allan Girdwood - 1996 - The Classical Review 46 (2):374-375.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. added 2019-06-06
    The Hellenistic Philosophers: Volume 1, Translations of the Principal Sources with Philosophical Commentary.A. A. Long & D. N. Sedley - 1987 - Cambridge University Press.
    Volume 1 presents the texts in new translations by the authors, and these are accompanied by a philosophical and historical commentary designed for use by all readers, including those with no background in the classical world. With its glossary and indexes, this volume can stand alone as an independent tool of study.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   81 citations  
  22. added 2019-06-06
    Epictetus on the Cynics. [REVIEW]Brian Hillyard - 1980 - The Classical Review 30 (1):55-56.
  23. added 2019-06-06
    Niccolo Perotti's Version of the Enchiridion of Epictetus. [REVIEW]D. C. C. Young - 1956 - The Classical Review 6 (2):178-179.
  24. added 2019-06-06
    Notes on Epictetus, Lucian, and the ‘Edict of Ptolemy IV’.G. Zuntz - 1950 - Classical Quarterly 44 (1-2):69-72.
    In Epictetus‘ chapter on Providence, the eighteenth section contains an evident corruption: ταντα επ’ εκαοτον επνειν εδει και και νον μεγιστον υμνονεπνμνειν… The duplication of cannot be genuine. It is not an iteration of the kind which heightens the effect of a passage: it just falls flat. Wilamowitz, in his Lesebuch, printed in the first place. This is an improvement, but I doubt whether this conjecture really settles the point. The duplication is stressed, and not eased, by the noun and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. added 2019-06-06
    Epictetus: The Discourses and Manual. [REVIEW]A. C. Pearson - 1917 - The Classical Review 31 (7):172-173.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. added 2019-06-05
    Epictetus: Discourses Book 1.Brad Inwood - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (4):639-642.
    One might argue that Epictetus has been the most influential Stoic writer of all time. A former slave, he lectured and taught in Rome and later in Nicopolis during the late first and early second centuries C.E. He was famous in his own lifetime, exercised considerable impact on Marcus Aurelius, and inspired one of his students, Lucius Flavianus Arrianus, to preserve the record of his oral teaching and publish it for posterity. Four books of Discourses, plus the compendium of Epictetus’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. added 2019-05-08
    I. Hadot: Simplicius. Commentaire sur le Manuel d’Épictète. Tome I . Pp. clxxii + 184. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2001. Cased, frs. 380. ISBN: 2-251-00493-9. [REVIEW]Anne Sheppard - 2002 - The Classical Review 52 (2):377-378.
  28. added 2019-04-21
    Exercícios Filosóficos em Epicteto.Diogo Luz - 2018 - Intuitio 11 (2):17-33.
    O presente artigo trata do pensamento de Epicteto pelo viés do exercício (áskēsis), ou seja, por meio de práticas que conduzem ao aperfeiçoamento de quem elege para si o ofício de filósofo. Para tal, inicialmente esclarecemos o que significam os exercícios na filosofia antiga, tendo como subsídio as teses de Pierre Hadot. Logo depois, exploramos seis exercícios que consideramos centrais para o filósofo de Nicópolis, contextualizando com os ensinamentos que estão envolvidos e descrevendo as principais características de seu método. Por (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. added 2019-04-12
    Colóquio de Pascal com o senhor de Saci: sobre Epicteto e Montaigne, de Blaise Pascal.Jaimir Conte - 2005 - Princípios 12 (17):12.
    Tradução para o português de "L'Entretien de Pascal avec M. de Saci" - Colóquio com o Senhor de Saci Sobre Epicteto e Montaigne". Tradução realizada com base na edição das Œuvres completes de Pascal, estabelecida e anotada por Jacques Chevalier, da Bibliothèque de la Plêiade, Paris, 1954, p. 560-574.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. added 2019-04-01
    Epictetus and the New Testament. [REVIEW]W. A. Parker Mason - 1917 - The Classical Review 31 (7):173-175.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. added 2019-03-22
    Not Even Zeus: A Discussion of A. A. Long, Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life.Margaret Graver - 2003 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 24:345-361.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  32. added 2018-08-26
    Paraenesis and Argument in Arrian’s Dissertations of Epictetus.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Michael Erler (ed.), Argument und literarische Form in antiker Philosophie. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter. pp. 411-434.
    Close reading of the argumentative and logical structure of Diatribe 1.4 and the means of protreptic persuasion used in it. The paper argues that Arrian represents Epictetus as using deliberately bad arguments to showcase and exemplify the audience's muddled thinking.
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. added 2018-08-26
    Delimiting a Self by God in Epictetus.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Jörg Rüpke & Greg Woolf (eds.), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 23-45.
    Epictetus' thought is defined by an antithesis of mine and not-mine, which is an antithesis of externals and self. From this arise a number of questions for Epictetus‘ theology, which are addressed in this paper: How is the self delimited from God, given that God is all-pervading? Is God inside or outside the self? In which way is God the cause, creator and shaper of the self? And how does human agency and self-shaping through prohairesis spell out within this determinst (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. added 2018-02-17
    How It's Not the Chrisippus You Read.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - Philosophy Today 58 (3):367-392.
    This article challenges John M. Cooper’s reading of ancient Stoicism as a way of life, one which sets its back against Pierre Hadot’s notion that Stoicism could have philosophically advocated regimens of non-cognitive practices of the kind documented by Hadot. Part 1 examines Arrian’s Discourses, following A. A. Long in seeing in this text Arrian’s portrait of Epictetus as a philosophical persona: one bringing together the different virtues of Socrates, Diogenes, and Zeno. Part 2 then examines Epictetus’s Handbook , seeing (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  35. added 2017-04-10
    DALY & SUCHIER, Altercatio Hadriani Augusti Et Epicteti Philosophi. [REVIEW]Alexander Alexander - 1940 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 33 (23):266.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. added 2017-01-29
    Die Funktion der Dialogstruktur in Epiktets Diatriben, by Barbara Wehner; Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life, by A.A. Long. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Ancient Philosophy 23 (2):472.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. added 2017-01-29
    Epictetus. A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life. [REVIEW]F. Alesse - 2003 - Elenchos 24 (2).
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. added 2017-01-29
    The Ethics of the Stoic Epictetus an English Translation.Adolf Friedrich Bonhöffer & William O. Stephens - 2001 - New York, USA: Peter Lang.
    Born a slave, but later earning his freedom and founding a school for teaching Stoicism to the sons of Roman noblemen, Epictetus (c. 50-120 A.D.) has been a popular source of Stoic philosophy for centuries. Originally published in 1894 by the German scholar Adolf Bonhoeffer and here translated into English for the first time, this work remains the most systematic and detailed study of Epictetus' ethics. The basis, content, and acquisition of virtue are methodically described, while important related points in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. added 2017-01-29
    Epictetus on Speech: The Argument.Raymond Joseph Heisler - 1989 - Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    This thesis consists of a critical text, translation and running commentary on Epictetus II.23 which is entitled On the faculty of speech. In this diatribe, Epictetus discusses the proper role of speech, rhetoric and logic in the philosophical life. The commentary attempts to elucidate Epictetus' views, to show how he himself employs rhetoric and to make clear the principles of Stoic physics and ethics which underlie the text.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. added 2017-01-29
    The Sense of Self in Epictetus: Prohairesis and Prosopon.Robert Francis Dobbin - 1989 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    The thesis concerns the sense of self in Epictetus, with special reference to two key terms in his philosophy: prohairesis and prosopon. ;The first chapter explores the range of meaning behind the word prohairesis as Epictetus employs it. I begin by reviewing the background of the word, particularly in Aristotle. A discussion of the problem of free will and determinism in Stoic ethics follows, with reference to prohairesis in Epictetus. The implications of equating prohairesis with "the will" are then explored, (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. added 2017-01-29
    "Oldfather", W. A., Epictetus, Translated, II.Charles Knapp - 1928 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 22:145-146.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. added 2017-01-29
    "Oldfather," W. A., Epictetus. The Discourses as Reported by Arrian, The Manual and Fragments, Translated.Charles Knapp - 1927 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 21:9.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. added 2017-01-29
    The Christianity of Stoicism: Or, Selections From Arrian's Discourses of Epictetus. [Tr. By E. Carter. Ed.] by the Bishop of St. David's. [REVIEW]Flavius Arrianus, Thomas Burgess & Elizabeth Carter - 1818
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. added 2017-01-28
    Epictetus and Stoicism.Martin O'hagan - 2002 - Philosophy Pathways 30.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. added 2017-01-28
    Epictetus the Discourses and Manual Together with Fragments of His Writings.P. E. Epictetus & Matheson - 1916 - Clarendon Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. added 2017-01-28
    The Discourses of Epictetus with the Enceiridion and Fragments.George Epictetus, Long & Epictetus - 1890 - George Bell and Sons.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  47. added 2017-01-28
    The Works of Epictetus Consisting of His Discourses, in Four Books, the Enchiridion, and Fragments. Epictetus - 1890 - Thomas Nelson and Sons.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. added 2017-01-28
    The Discourses of Epictetus Being the Manual or Encheiridion Together with Selections From the Discourses.T. W. Epictetus, Rolleston & Epictetus - 1890 - Peter Pauper Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. added 2017-01-28
    The Teaching of Epictetus Being the 'Encheiridion of Epictetus,' with Selections From the 'Dissertations' and 'Fragments'. Epictetus & T. W. Rolleston - 1888 - Walter Scott.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50. added 2017-01-28
    The Manual of Epictetus Being an Abridgment of His Philosophy.George Epictetus & Stanhope - 1792 - Printed and Sold by Thomas Lang, No. 21, Church-Alley.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 198