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  1. Prevention of Disease and the Absent Body: A Phenomenological Approach to Periodontitis.Dylan Rakhra & Māra Grīnfelde - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    A large part of contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to accounts of health and illness, arguing that they contribute to the improvement of healthcare. Less focus has been paid to the issue of prevention of disease and the associated difficulty of adhering to health-promoting behaviours, which is arguably of equal importance. This article offers a phenomenological account of this disease prevention, focusing on how we – as embodied beings – engage with health-promoting behaviours. It specifically considers how we (...)
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  2. Reframing the Environment in Data-Intensive Health Sciences.Stefano Canali & Sabina Leonelli - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 93:203-214.
    In this paper, we analyse the relation between the use of environmental data in contemporary health sciences and related conceptualisations and operationalisations of the notion of environment. We consider three case studies that exemplify a different selection of environmental data and mode of data integration in data-intensive epidemiology. We argue that the diversification of data sources, their increase in scale and scope, and the application of novel analytic tools have brought about three significant conceptual shifts. First, we discuss the EXPOsOMICS (...)
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  3. Against COVID‐19 Vaccination of Healthy Children.Steven R. Kraaijeveld, Rachel Gur-Arie & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (6):687-698.
  4. THE IMPROVED MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CONTINUOUS FORECASTING OF THE EPIDEMIC.V. R. Manuraj - 2022 - Journal of Science Technology and Research (JSTAR) 3 (1):55-64.
    COVID-19 began in China in December 2019. As of January 2021, over a hundred million instances had been reported worldwide, leaving a deep socio-economic impact globally. Current investigation studies determined that artificial intelligence (AI) can play a key role in reducing the effect of the virus spread. The prediction of COVID-19 incidence in different countries and territories is important because it serves as a guide for governments, healthcare providers, and the general public in developing management strategies to battle the disease. (...)
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  5. Jacob Steere-Williams. The Filth Disease: Typhoid Fever and the Practices of Epidemiology in Victorian England. (Rochester Studies in Medical History.) 340 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2020. $99 (Cloth); ISBN 9781648250026. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Tabitha Sparks - 2022 - Isis 113 (2):456-457.
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  6. Pandemics at Work: Convergence of Epidemiology and Ethics.Michele Thornton & William “Marty” Martin - 2022 - Business Ethics Quarterly 32 (1):41-74.
    Like COVID-19, new infectious disease outbreaks emerge almost annually, and studies predict that this trend will continue due to a variety of factors, including an aging population, ease of travel, and globalization of the economy. In response to episodic public health crises, governments and organizations develop, implement, and enforce policies, procedures, protocols, and programs. The epidemiological triad is both a model of disease causation and fundamentally used to design and deploy such control measures. Here we adapt this model to the (...)
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  7. Historical Epidemiology and the Single Pathogen Model of Epidemic Disease. Webb Jr - 2022 - Centaurus 64 (1):197-206.
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  8. When is Lockdown Justified?Lucie White, Philippe van Basshuysen & Mathias Frisch - 2022 - Philosophy of Medicine 3 (1):1-22.
    How could the initial, drastic decisions to implement “lockdowns” to control the spread of COVID-19 infections be justifiable, when they were made on the basis of such uncertain evidence? We defend the imposition of lockdowns in some countries by first, and focusing on the UK, looking at the evidence that undergirded the decision, second, arguing that this provided us with sufficient grounds to restrict liberty given the circumstances, and third, defending the use of poorly-empirically-constrained epidemiological models as tools that can (...)
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  9. Non-Epistemic Factors in Epidemiological Models. The Case of Mortality Data.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - Mefisto 1 (5):65-78.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has made it especially visible that mortality data are a key component of epidemiological models, being a single indicator that provides information about various health aspects, such as disease prevalence and effectiveness of interventions, and thus enabling predictions on many fronts. In this paper we illustrate the interrelation between facts and values in death statistics, by analyzing the rules for death certification issued by the World Health Organization. We show how the notion of the underlying cause of (...)
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  10. COVID-19 as the Underlying Cause of Death: Disentangling Facts and Values.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people’s feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization’s rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts and values.
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  11. Identification of Causal Intervention Effects Under Contagion.Forrest W. Crawford, Wen Wei Loh & Xiaoxuan Cai - 2021 - Journal of Causal Inference 9 (1):9-38.
    Defining and identifying causal intervention effects for transmissible infectious disease outcomes is challenging because a treatment – such as a vaccine – given to one individual may affect the infection outcomes of others. Epidemiologists have proposed causal estimands to quantify effects of interventions under contagion using a two-person partnership model. These simple conceptual models have helped researchers develop causal estimands relevant to clinical evaluation of vaccine effects. However, many of these partnership models are formulated under structural assumptions that preclude realistic (...)
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  12. Sustaining Surveillance: The Importance of Information for Public Health.John G. Francis & Leslie P. Francis - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This book presents a comprehensive theory of the ethics and political philosophy of public health surveillance based on reciprocal obligations among surveillers, those under surveillance, and others potentially affected by surveillance practices. Public health surveillance aims to identify emerging health trends, population health trends, treatment efficacy, and methods of health promotion--all apparently laudatory goals. Nonetheless, as with anti-terrorism surveillance, public health surveillance raises complex questions about privacy, political liberty, and justice both of and in data use. Individuals and groups can (...)
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  13. Epidemiological Models and COVID-19: A Comparative View.Valeriano Iranzo & Saúl Pérez-González - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (3):1-24.
    Epidemiological models have played a central role in the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly when urgent decisions were required and available evidence was sparse. They have been used to predict the evolution of the disease and to inform policy-making. In this paper, we address two kinds of epidemiological models widely used in the pandemic, namely, compartmental models and agent-based models. After describing their essentials—some real examples are invoked—we discuss their main strengths and weaknesses. Then, on the basis of this analysis, we make (...)
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  14. Imagination and Remembrance: What Role Should Historical Epidemiology Play in a World Bewitched by Mathematical Modelling of COVID-19 and Other Epidemics?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & George S. Heriot - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.
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  15. Applying Deep Learning Methods on Time-Series Data for Forecasting COVID-19 in Egypt, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia.Nahla F. Omran, Sara F. Abd-el Ghany, Hager Saleh, Abdelmgeid A. Ali, Abdu Gumaei & Mabrook Al-Rakhami - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-13.
    The novel coronavirus disease is regarded as one of the most imminent disease outbreaks which threaten public health on various levels worldwide. Because of the unpredictable outbreak nature and the virus’s pandemic intensity, people are experiencing depression, anxiety, and other strain reactions. The response to prevent and control the new coronavirus pneumonia has reached a crucial point. Therefore, it is essential—for safety and prevention purposes—to promptly predict and forecast the virus outbreak in the course of this troublesome time to have (...)
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  16. Mathematical Analysis of an Industrial HIV/Aids Model That Incorporates Carefree Attitude Towards Sex.Baba Seidu, O. D. Makinde & Christopher S. Bornaa - 2021 - Acta Biotheoretica 69 (3):257-276.
    A nonlinear differential equation model is proposed to study the dynamics of HIV/aids and its effects on workforce productivity. The disease-free equilibrium point of the model is shown to be locally asymptotically stable when the associated basic reproduction number R0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathcal{{R}}_{0}$$\end{document} is less than unity. The model is also shown to exhibit multiple endemic states for some parameter values when R0 1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathcal{{R}}_{0}>1$$\end{document}. Global asymptotic (...)
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  17. Recomposing Persons: Scavenging and Storytelling in a Birth Cohort Archive.Penny Tinkler, Resto Cruz & Laura Fenton - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):266-289.
    Birth cohort studies can be used not only to generate population-level quantitative data, but also to recompose persons. The crux is how we understand data and persons. Recomposition entails scavenging for various data. It foregrounds the perspective and subjectivity of survey participants, but without forgetting the partiality and incompleteness of the accounts that it may generate. Although interested in the singularity of individuals, it attends to the historical and relational embeddedness of personhood. It examines the multiple and complex temporalities that (...)
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  18. Were Lockdowns Justified? A Return to the Facts and Evidence.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - 2021 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 31 (4):405-428.
    Were governments justified in imposing lockdowns to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic? We argue that a convincing answer to this question is to date wanting, by critically analyzing the factual basis of a recent paper, “How Government Leaders Violated Their Epistemic Duties During the SARS-CoV-2 Crisis” (Winsberg et al. 2020). In their paper, Winsberg et al. argue that government leaders did not, at the beginning of the pandemic, meet the epistemic requirements necessitated to impose lockdowns. We focus on (...)
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  19. The Epistemic Duties of Philosophers: An Addendum.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - 2021 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 31 (4):447-451.
    We were slightly concerned, upon having read Eric Winsberg, Jason Brennan and Chris Surprenant’s reply to our paper “Were Lockdowns Justified? A Return to the Facts and Evidence”, that they may have fundamentally misunderstood the nature of our argument, so we issue the following clarification, along with a comment on our motivations for writing such a piece, for the interested reader.
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  20. Three Ways in Which Pandemic Models May Perform a Pandemic.Philippe van Basshuysen, Lucie White, Donal Khosrowi & Mathias Frisch - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):110-127.
    Models not only represent but may also influence their targets in important ways. While models’ abilities to influence outcomes has been studied in the context of economic models, often under the label ‘performativity’, we argue that this phenomenon also pertains to epidemiological models, such as those used for forecasting the trajectory of the Covid-19 pandemic. After identifying three ways in which a model by the Covid-19 Response Team at Imperial College London may have influenced scientific advice, policy, and individual responses, (...)
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  21. The Primacy of Duty and Its Efficacy in Combating COVID-19.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (2):179-189.
    Nyansa nye sika na w'akyekyere asie. One critical factor that has contributed to the spread of the virus COVID-19 and resulting illnesses and deaths is both the conceptual and the ethical confusion between the prioritization of individual rights over social duties. The adherence to the belief in the priority of rights over duties has motivated some individuals to refrain from social distancing and, as a result, has placed themselves and other individuals at serious risk to health and life. My argument (...)
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  22. Making Evidential Claims in Epidemiology: Three Strategies for the Study of the Exposome.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 82:101248.
    How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. (...)
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  23. Effects of the Awareness-Driven Individual Resource Allocation on the Epidemic Dynamics.Xiaolong Chen, Ruijie Wang, Dan Yang, Jiajun Xian & Qing Li - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-12.
    We investigate the effects of self-protection awareness on the spread of disease from the aspect of resource allocation behavior in populations. To this end, a resource-based epidemiological model and a self-awareness-based resource allocation model in complex networks are proposed, respectively. First of all, we study the coupled disease-awareness dynamics in complex networks with fixed degree heterogeneity. Through extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that overall the self-awareness inhibits the spread of disease. More importantly, the influence of the self-awareness on the (...)
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  24. Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia A. Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - 2020 - New York, USA: Oup Usa.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, producing critical data for researchers, policy-makers, and health workers about more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Such an undertaking is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises complex ethical and philosophical questions. In this volume, a group of leading philosophers, economists, epidemiologists, and policy scholars identify and discuss these philosophical questions. Better appreciating the philosophical dimensions of a (...)
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  25. Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga: What is the Right Dose? [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 81.
  26. Human Flourishing and Population Health: Meaning, Measurement, and Implications.Jeff Levin - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):401-419.
    In recent decades, social and behavioral scientists have begun to explore how and why human beings thrive or flourish and to consider whether traits indicative of thriving or flourishing may themselves influence physical well-being. This stands in contrast to the historical tendency in these fields to focus on pathology: mental illness, psychological dysfunction, deviant behavior, social problems, and so on. In epidemiology, too, the influence of pathology is seen in a tacit emphasis on risk factors for disease outcomes and for (...)
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  27. Ethical Dimensions of the Global Burden of Disease.Christopher J. L. Murray & S. Andrew Schroeder - 2020 - In Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.), Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions. New York, NY, USA: pp. 24-47.
    This chapter suggests that descriptive epidemiological studies like the Global Burden of Disease Study can usefully be divided into four tasks: describing individuals’ health states over time, assessing their health states under a range of counterfactual scenarios, summarizing the information collected, and then packaging it for presentation. The authors show that each of these tasks raises important and challenging ethical questions. They comment on some of the philosophical issues involved in measuring health states, attributing causes to health outcomes, choosing the (...)
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  28. Concepto de Riesco: (Dis)Continuidades Entre Corrientes Epidemiológicas.Carolina Ocampo, Anibal Eduardo Carbajo & Guillermo Folguera - 2020 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 24 (3):633-656.
    In the present study we analyze if the risk concept of the hegemonic epidemiologychanges its nature in purportedly alternative currents as ecoepidemiology and socialepidemiology focused in multilevel analysis.We analyze the way this concept is distinguishedin every current and its relationship with other epidemiologic key notions as cause. We findthat the risk concept and the notion of cause remain relatively unchanged among the differentcurrents even when there is some theoretical discussion about the complexity of multilevelsystems and other explanations for the events. (...)
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  29. 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, Crisis, and Isolation.Dev Roychowdhury - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The highly contagious 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has not only impacted health systems, economies, and governments, it has also rapidly grown into a global health crisis, which is now threatening the lives of millions of people globally. While, on one hand, medical institutions are critically attempting to find a cure, on the other hand, governments have introduced striking measures and policies to curtail the rapid spread of the disease. Although COVID-19 has achieved pandemic status and is predominantly viewed (...)
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  30. Introduction.Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi - 2019 - In Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi (eds.), Making Sense of Health, Disease, and the Environment in Cross-Cultural History: The Arabic-Islamic World, China, Europe, and North America. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-23.
    One need only look in any newspaper and observe the flourishing market in promises of good health through diets or ways of inhabiting the earth to find evidence that the “configurationist model,” suggested by Charles Rosenberg in 1992 to characterize one archetypal response to explain epidemics in the history of the West, is still very much alive. For Rosenberg, in the long history of attempts to explain epidemic diseases, two fundamental approaches existed and often coexisted in the West: contamination and (...)
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  31. The C-Word, the P-Word, and Realism in Epidemiology.Alex Broadbent - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2613-2628.
    This paper considers an important recent contribution by Miguel Hernán to the ongoing debate about causal inference in epidemiology. Hernán rejects the idea that there is an in-principle epistemic distinction between the results of randomized controlled trials and observational studies: both produce associations which we may be more or less confident interpreting as causal. However, Hernán maintains that trials have a semantic advantage. Observational studies that seek to estimate causal effect risk issuing meaningless statements instead. The POA proposes a solution (...)
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  32. Evaluating Evidential Pluralism in Epidemiology: Mechanistic Evidence in Exposome Research.Stefano Canali - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):4.
    In current philosophical discussions on evidence in the medical sciences, epidemiology has been used to exemplify a specific version of evidential pluralism. According to this view, known as the Russo–Williamson Thesis, evidence of both difference-making and mechanisms is produced to make causal claims in the health sciences. In this paper, I present an analysis of data and evidence in epidemiological practice, with a special focus on research on the exposome, and I cast doubt on the extent to which evidential pluralism (...)
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  33. Reflecting on What Philosophy of Epidemiology is and Does, as the Field Comes Into its Own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2383-2392.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  34. Epidemiology.Kate A. McBride, Felix Ogbo & Andrew Page - 2019 - In Pranee Liamputtong (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences. Springer Singapore. pp. 559-579.
    Epidemiology is the core discipline underlying health research. Measuring health, identifying causes of ill health, and intervening to improve health are all key tenets of the discipline. Concerned with the “who,” “when,” “why,” and “where” of health, epidemiology is essential in informing clinical decision-making through evidence-based medicine. Traditionally the study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and determinants, epidemiology is a dynamic discipline that is increasingly being applied in differing disciplines, even beyond health. This chapter is designed as a (...)
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  35. Health of the Population and Health Promotion as the Objects of Sociological Research.Олеся Миколаївна Кириленко - 2019 - Вісник Нюу Імені Ярослава Мудрого: Серія: Філософія, Філософія Права, Політологія, Соціологія 4 (43):23-43.
    Problem setting. Studying the factors that determine health shows that medicine is important along with biogenetic and environmental factors. However, the leading factors of health in modern conditions are the level and quality of life of people, the level of their health culture and lifestyle. This increases the role of researches on social and cultural conditions and determinants of health in the framework of not only medical sciences, but also the sociology of medicine, health and disease, wellness studies. Recent research (...)
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  36. Hill's Heuristics and Explanatory Coherentism in Epidemiology.Olaf Dammann - 2018 - American Journal of Epidemiology 187 (1):1-6.
    In this essay, I argue that Ted Poston's theory of explanatory coherentism is well-suited as a tool for causal explanation in the health sciences, particularly in epidemiology. Coherence has not only played a role in epidemiology for more than half a century as one of Hill's viewpoints, it can also provide background theory for the development of explanatory systems by integrating epidemiologic evidence with a diversity of other error-independent data. I propose that computational formalization of Hill's viewpoints in an explanatory (...)
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  37. Inequality in Political Philosophy and in Epidemiology: A Remarriage.Nir Eyal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In political philosophy and in economics, unfair inequality is usually assessed between individuals, nowadays often on luck-egalitarian grounds. You have more than I do and that's unfair. By contrast, in epidemiology and sociology, unfair inequality is traditionally assessed between groups. More is concentrated among people of your class or race than among people of mine, and that's unfair. I shall call this difference the egalitarian ‘divorce’. Epidemiologists, and their ‘divorce lawyers’ Paula Braveman, Norman Daniels, and Iris Marion Young, explain that (...)
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  38. Data Ethics in Epidemiology: Autonomy, Privacy, Confidentiality and Justice.Vijayaprasad Gopichandran & Varalakshmi Elango - 2018 - In Arima Mishra & Kalyani Subbiah (eds.), Ethics in Public Health Practice in India. Springer Singapore. pp. 121-137.
    Epidemiology is an essential tool of public health, which largely relies on collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data and actions based on the information gleaned from the data. Such data-intensive processes lead to unique ethical issues relating to autonomy of the data generator, privacy, confidentiality and justice. In this chapter, we attempt to describe the ethical issues in data handling in epidemiology using two examples, public health surveillance and Big Data analytics in digital epidemiology. One of the unique ethical (...)
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  39. Symptoms, Signs, and Risk Factors: Epidemiological Reasoning in Coronary Heart Disease and Depression Management.Mikko Jauho & Ilpo Helén - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (1):56-73.
    In current mental health care psychiatric conditions are defined as compilations of symptoms. These symptom-based disease categories have been severely criticised as contingent and boundless, facilitating the rise to epidemic proportions of such conditions as depression. In this article we look beyond symptoms and stress the role of epidemiology in explaining the current situation. By analysing the parallel development of cardiovascular disease and depression management in Finland, we argue, firstly, that current mental health care shares with the medicine of chronic (...)
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  40. Is It Possible to Conduct Science Under an Engaged Epistemology?Kelly Koide - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 72:65-69.
    In this paper, I aim to identify the different cognitive, contextual and social values involved in epidemiological research on Chagas disease. As it is considered as a ‘neglected tropical disease’ by the World Health Organization, I will try to unfold the many senses of ‘neglected’ and in which sense different non-cognitive values can be manifested in research on this disease through a pluralism of disciplines and methods. The point of departure of this investigation is a model that explains the dynamics (...)
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  41. Is There a Duty to Participate in Digital Epidemiology?Brent Mittelstadt, Justus Benzler, Lukas Engelmann, Barbara Prainsack & Effy Vayena - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-24.
    This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first describe traditional justifications for epidemiology that imply a duty to participate for the general public, which take account of the immediacy and plausibility of threats, and the identifiability of (...)
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  42. Congenital and Blood Transfusion Transmission of Chagas Disease: A Framework Using Mathematical Modeling.Edneide Ramalho, Jones Albuquerque, Cláudio Cristino, Virginia Lorena, Jordi Gómez I. Prat, Clara Prats & Daniel López - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-10.
    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is an important health problem in Latin America. Due to the mobility of Latin American population around the world, countries without vector presence started to report disease cases. We developed a deterministic compartmental model in order to gain insights into the disease dynamics in a scenario without vector presence, considering congenital transmission and transmission by blood transfusion. The model was used to evaluate the epidemiological effect of control measures. It was applied to demographic data from (...)
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  43. If the Framingham Heart Study Did Not Invent the Risk Factor, Who Did?David Shumway Jones & Gerald M. Oppenheimer - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (2):131-150.
    Medical theory and practice in the second half of the 20th century were transformed by the idea of risk, and, in particular, by the concept of the "risk factor." Many historians have described how the concept of the risk factor emerged in the actuarial science of the life insurance industry in the early 20th century and entered medicine through the Framingham Heart Study, specifically with its July 1961 article, "Factors of Risk in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease," in the (...)
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  44. Legal Epidemiology: The Science of Law.Tara Ramanathan, Rachel Hulkower, Joseph Holbrook & Matthew Penn - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (s1):69-72.
    The importance of legal epidemiology in public health law research has undoubtedly grown over the last five years. Scholars and practitioners together have developed guidance on best practices for the field, including: placing emphasis on transdisciplinary collaborations; creating valid, reliable, and repeatable research; and publishing timely products for use in decision-making and change. Despite the energy and expertise researchers have brought to this important work, they name significant challenges in marshalling the diverse skill sets, quality controls, and funding to implement (...)
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  45. Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine.Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.) - 2017 - Springer.
    This is the first wide-ranging, multi-authored handbook in the field of philosophy of medicine, covering the underlying conceptual issues of many important social, political and ethical issues in health care. It introduces and develops over 70 topics, concepts, and issues in the field. It is written by distinguished specialists from multiple disciplines, including philosophy, health sciences, nursing, sociology, political theory, and medicine. Many difficult social and ethical issues in health care are based on conceptual problems, most prominently on the definitions (...)
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  46. Epidemiological Explanations. [REVIEW]Olaf Dammann - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):509-519.
  47. Cultural Conundrums: The Ethics of Epidemiology and the Problems of Population in Implementing Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis.Kirk Fiereck - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):27-39.
    The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of the knowledge production practices of epidemiology. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively (...)
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  48. Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine.Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:45-48.
  49. Epidemiology and the Bio-Statistical Theory of Disease: A Challenging Perspective.Élodie Giroux - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics: Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice 36 (3):175-195.
    Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of health and disease argues that the central discipline on which theoretical medicine relies is physiology. His theory has been much discussed but little has been said about its focus on physiology or, conversely, about the role that other biomedical disciplines may play in establishing a theoretical concept of health. Since at least the 1950s, epidemiology has gained in strength and legitimacy as an independent medical science that contributes to our knowledge of health and disease. Indeed, (...)
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  50. Germs, Genes, and Memes: Functional and Fitness Dynamics on Information Networks.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):219-243.
    It is widely accepted that the way information transfers across networks depends importantly on the structure of the network. Here, we show that the mechanism of information transfer is crucial: in many respects the effect of the specific transfer mechanism swamps network effects. Results are demonstrated in terms of three different types of transfer mechanism: germs, genes, and memes. With an emphasis on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, we explore both the dynamics of each of these across networks (...)
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