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  1. added 2020-06-18
    Epidemiology.Kate A. McBride, Felix Ogbo & Andrew Page - 2019 - In Pranee Liamputtong (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences. Springer Singapore. pp. 559-579.
    Epidemiology is the core discipline underlying health research. Measuring health, identifying causes of ill health, and intervening to improve health are all key tenets of the discipline. Concerned with the “who,” “when,” “why,” and “where” of health, epidemiology is essential in informing clinical decision-making through evidence-based medicine. Traditionally the study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and determinants, epidemiology is a dynamic discipline that is increasingly being applied in differing disciplines, even beyond health. This chapter is designed as a (...)
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  2. added 2020-06-18
    Introduction.Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi - 2019 - In Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi (eds.), Making Sense of Health, Disease, and the Environment in Cross-Cultural History: The Arabic-Islamic World, China, Europe, and North America. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-23.
    One need only look in any newspaper and observe the flourishing market in promises of good health through diets or ways of inhabiting the earth to find evidence that the “configurationist model,” suggested by Charles Rosenberg in 1992 to characterize one archetypal response to explain epidemics in the history of the West, is still very much alive. For Rosenberg, in the long history of attempts to explain epidemic diseases, two fundamental approaches existed and often coexisted in the West: contamination and (...)
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  3. added 2020-06-18
    Data Ethics in Epidemiology: Autonomy, Privacy, Confidentiality and Justice.Vijayaprasad Gopichandran & Varalakshmi Elango - 2018 - In Arima Mishra & Kalyani Subbiah (eds.), Ethics in Public Health Practice in India. Springer Singapore. pp. 121-137.
    Epidemiology is an essential tool of public health, which largely relies on collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data and actions based on the information gleaned from the data. Such data-intensive processes lead to unique ethical issues relating to autonomy of the data generator, privacy, confidentiality and justice. In this chapter, we attempt to describe the ethical issues in data handling in epidemiology using two examples, public health surveillance and Big Data analytics in digital epidemiology. One of the unique ethical (...)
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  4. added 2020-06-18
    Visualization as Heuristics: The Use of Maps and Diagrams in 19th Century Epidemiology.Giulia Miotti - 2006 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer Verlag.
    In this paper, I argue that visualization and the use of figures represent genuine heuristic, knowledge-enhancing tools in scientific inquiry; in fact, visualization shows a distinctive ability in producing genuinely new knowledge by filling theoretical gaps and in solving problems. I show, then, how visualization can be rightfully appraised as a plausible model for the growth of knowledge, gaining a paramount importance when used at the frontier of research. Unrelated here to the notion of intuition, visualization is treated as an (...)
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  5. added 2020-05-26
    Reflecting on What Philosophy of Epidemiology is and Does, as the Field Comes Into its Own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - forthcoming - Synthese:1-10.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-26
    Evaluating Evidential Pluralism in Epidemiology: Mechanistic Evidence in Exposome Research.Stefano Canali - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):4.
    In current philosophical discussions on evidence in the medical sciences, epidemiology has been used to exemplify a specific version of evidential pluralism. According to this view, known as the Russo–Williamson Thesis, evidence of both difference-making and mechanisms is produced to make causal claims in the health sciences. In this paper, I present an analysis of data and evidence in epidemiological practice, with a special focus on research on the exposome, and I cast doubt on the extent to which evidential pluralism (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-26
    Inequality in Political Philosophy and in Epidemiology: A Remarriage.Nir Eyal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In political philosophy and in economics, unfair inequality is usually assessed between individuals, nowadays often on luck-egalitarian grounds. You have more than I do and that's unfair. By contrast, in epidemiology and sociology, unfair inequality is traditionally assessed between groups. More is concentrated among people of your class or race than among people of mine, and that's unfair. I shall call this difference the egalitarian ‘divorce’. Epidemiologists, and their ‘divorce lawyers’ Paula Braveman, Norman Daniels, and Iris Marion Young, explain that (...)
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  8. added 2020-05-26
    Is There a Duty to Participate in Digital Epidemiology?Brent Mittelstadt, Justus Benzler, Lukas Engelmann, Barbara Prainsack & Effy Vayena - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-24.
    This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first describe traditional justifications for epidemiology that imply a duty to participate for the general public, which take account of the immediacy and plausibility of threats, and the identifiability of (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-26
    Epidemiology and Social Justice in Light of Social Determinants of Health Research.Sridhar Venkatapuram & Michael Marmot - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (2):79-89.
    The present article identifies how social determinants of health raise two categories of philosophical problems that also fall within the smaller domain of ethics; one set pertains to the philosophy of epidemiology, and the second set pertains to the philosophy of health and social justice. After reviewing these two categories of ethical concerns, the limited conclusion made is that identifying and responding to social determinants of health requires inter-disciplinary reasoning across epidemiology and philosophy. For the reasoning used in epidemiology to (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-26
    Can Ethical Reasoning Contribute to Better Epidemiology? A Case Study in Research on Racial Health Disparities.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2007 - European Journal of Epidemiology 22 (4):215-21.
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  11. added 2020-05-25
    The C-Word, the P-Word, and Realism in Epidemiology.Alex Broadbent - forthcoming - Synthese:1-16.
    This paper considers an important recent contribution by Miguel Hernán to the ongoing debate about causal inference in epidemiology. Hernán rejects the idea that there is an in-principle epistemic distinction between the results of randomized controlled trials and observational studies: both produce associations which we may be more or less confident interpreting as causal. However, Hernán maintains that trials have a semantic advantage. Observational studies that seek to estimate causal effect risk issuing meaningless statements instead. The POA proposes a solution (...)
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  12. added 2020-05-25
    Hill's Heuristics and Explanatory Coherentism in Epidemiology.Olaf Dammann - 2018 - American Journal of Epidemiology 187 (1):1-6.
    In this essay, I argue that Ted Poston's theory of explanatory coherentism is well-suited as a tool for causal explanation in the health sciences, particularly in epidemiology. Coherence has not only played a role in epidemiology for more than half a century as one of Hill's viewpoints, it can also provide background theory for the development of explanatory systems by integrating epidemiologic evidence with a diversity of other error-independent data. I propose that computational formalization of Hill's viewpoints in an explanatory (...)
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  13. added 2020-05-25
    Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine.Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:45-48.
  14. added 2020-05-25
    Cultural Conundrums: The Ethics of Epidemiology and the Problems of Population in Implementing Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis.Kirk Fiereck - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):27-39.
    The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of the knowledge production practices of epidemiology. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively (...)
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  15. added 2020-05-25
    Invited Commentary: Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity-a Fundamental Critique of the Current Probabilistic Risk Factor Epidemiology. Http://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/24925064.Juan Merlo - 2014 - American Journal of Epidemiology 180 (2):213-214.
    In this issue of the Journal, Dundas et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):197–207) apply a hitherto infrequent multilevel analytical approach: multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) models. Specifically, by adopting a life-course approach, they use a multilevel regression with individuals cross-classified in different contexts (i.e., families, early schools, and neighborhoods) to investigate self-reported health and mental health in adulthood. They provide observational evidence suggesting the relevance of the early family environment for launching public health interventions in childhood in order to improve (...)
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  16. added 2020-05-25
    Book Review. Philosophy of Epidemiology by A. Broadbent. [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):1002-1004.
  17. added 2020-05-25
    Inferring Causation in Epidemiology: Mechanisms, Black Boxes, and Contrasts.Alex Broadbent - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 45--69.
    This chapter explores the idea that causal inference is warranted if and only if the mechanism underlying the inferred causal association is identified. This mechanistic stance is discernible in the epidemiological literature, and in the strategies adopted by epidemiologists seeking to establish causal hypotheses. But the exact opposite methodology is also discernible, the black box stance, which asserts that epidemiologists can and should make causal inferences on the basis of their evidence, without worrying about the mechanisms that might underlie their (...)
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  18. added 2020-05-25
    Clinical Research: Up From 'Clinical Epidemiology'.Olli S. Miettinen, Lucas M. Bachmann & Johann Steurer - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1208-1213.
    Clinical research must be understood to be the foundation of scientific medicine of the clinical type. But the essence of scientific clinical medicine remains a matter of profound confusion, even in clinical academia, and so does the essence of clinical research. The confusion now revolves, principally, around ‘clinical epidemiology’. We address clinical research in the meaning of quintessentially ‘applied’ clinical research, which we take to be the foundation of the scientific knowledge base of clinical medicine, of gnosis (dia‐, etio‐, pro‐) (...)
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  19. added 2020-05-25
    Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine.Hillel D. Braude - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through (...)
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  20. added 2020-05-25
    Applied Epistemology and Argumentation in Epidemiology.Mark Battersby - 2006 - Informal Logic 26 (1):41-62.
    The general goal is to encourage informal logicians and those interested in applied epistemology to look at epidemiology as a paradigmatic science crucially dependant on argumentation to justify its claims. Three specific goals are: 1. exemplify applied epistemology by looking critically at causal argumentation in epidemiology, 2. show that justification of causal claims in epidemiology is a form of “argument to the best explanation,” 3. show that there could be a symbiotic relationship between epidemiology and work in various applied reasoning (...)
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  21. added 2020-05-25
    American College of Epidemiology Ethics Guidelines: Foundations and Dissemination.Robert E. McKeown, Douglas L. Weed, Jeffrey P. Kahn & Michael A. Stoto - 2003 - Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2):207-214.
    Epidemiology is a core science of public health, focusing on research related to the distribution and determinants of both positive and adverse health states and events and on application of knowledge gained to improve public health. The American College of Epidemiology (ACE) is a professional organization devoted to the professional practice of epidemiology. As part of that commitment, and in response to concerns for more explicit attention to core values and duties of epidemiologists in light of emerging issues and increased (...)
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  22. added 2020-05-25
    Causation in Epidemiology.M. Parascandola & D. L. Weed - 2001 - Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55:905--912.
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  23. added 2020-05-25
    Philosophy in Epidemiology and Public Health.Dale R. Tavris - 1997 - Nova Science Publishers.
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  24. added 2020-05-25
    Ethics and Epidemiology.Steven S. Coughlin & Tom L. Beauchamp - 1996
  25. added 2020-05-25
    Industrial Epidemiology Forum's Conference on Ethics in Epidemiology.William E. Fayerweather, John Higginson, Tom L. Beauchamp & E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company - 1991 - Pergamon Press.
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  26. added 2020-05-25
    Healing the Schism Epidemiology, Medicine, and the Public's Health.Kerr L. White - 1991
    My conviction is that the matters addressed in this volume are of transcendental importance if we are to face up to the challenges of the 1990s and beyond. How, for instance, are we to cope with a truly ecological approach to public health and all its concomitant changes of risk groups worldwide unless there is a full appre ciation of the popUlation perspective throughout the health establishment? The global village has achieved a measure of interdependence requiring recognition by all concerned (...)
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  27. added 2020-05-25
    Ethics and Epidemiology International Guidelines : Proceedings of the Xxvth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 7-9 November 1990. [REVIEW]Z. Bankowski, John Bryant, John M. Last & World Health Organization - 1991
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  28. added 2020-05-22
    Participants' Perceptions of Research Benefits in an African Genetic Epidemiology Study.John Appiah-Poku, Sam Newton & Nancy Kass - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):128-135.
    Background: Both the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences and the Helsinki Declaration emphasize that the potential benefits of research should outweigh potential harms; consequently, some work has been conducted on participants' perception of benefits in therapeutic research. However, there appears to be very little work conducted with participants who have joined non-therapeutic research. This work was done to evaluate participants' perception of benefits in a genetic epidemiological study by examining their perception of the potential benefits of enrollment.Methods: In-depth (...)
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  29. added 2020-05-21
    From Administrative Infrastructure to Biomedical Resource: Danish Population Registries, the “Scandinavian Laboratory,” and the “Epidemiologist's Dream”.Susanne Bauer - 2014 - Science in Context 27 (2):187-213.
    ArgumentSince the 1970s, Danish population registries were increasingly used for research purposes, in particular in the health sciences. Linked with a large number of disease registries, these data infrastructures became laboratories for the development of both information technology and epidemiological studies. Denmark's system of population registries had been centralized in 1924 and was further automated in the 1960s, with individual identification numbers introduced in 1968. The ubiquitous presence of CPR-numbers in administrative routines and everyday lives created a continually growing data (...)
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  30. added 2020-05-20
    Transmission Modes and the Evolution of Virulence.Paul W. Ewald - 1991 - Human Nature 2 (1):1-30.
    Application of evolutionary principles to epidemiological problems indicates that cultural characteristics influence the evolution of parasite virulence by influencing the success of disease transmission from immobilized, infected hosts. This hypothesis is supported by positive correlations between virulence and transmission by biological vectors, water, and institutional attendants. The general evolutionary argument is then applied to the causes and consequences of increased virulence for three diseases: cholera, influenza and AIDS.
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  31. added 2020-05-18
    Dynamics of Epidemiological Models.Alberto Pinto, Maíra Aguiar, José Martins & Nico Stollenwerk - 2010 - Acta Biotheoretica 58 (4):381-389.
    We study the SIS and SIRI epidemic models discussing different approaches to compute the thresholds that determine the appearance of an epidemic disease. The stochastic SIS model is a well known mathematical model, studied in several contexts. Here, we present recursively derivations of the dynamic equations for all the moments and we derive the stationary states of the state variables using the moment closure method. We observe that the steady states give a good approximation of the quasi-stationary states of the (...)
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  32. added 2020-05-15
    Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Christopher Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - forthcoming - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, distilling a wide range of health information to provide estimates and projections for more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 195 countries. Its results are a critical tool informing researchers, policy-makers, and others working to promote health around the globe. A study like the GBD is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises a large number of (...)
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  33. added 2020-05-15
    Making Evidential Claims in Epidemiology: Three Strategies for the Study of the Exposome.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 82:101248.
    How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. (...)
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  34. added 2020-05-15
    Congenital and Blood Transfusion Transmission of Chagas Disease: A Framework Using Mathematical Modeling.Edneide Ramalho, Jones Albuquerque, Cláudio Cristino, Virginia Lorena, Jordi Gómez I. Prat, Clara Prats & Daniel López - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-10.
    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is an important health problem in Latin America. Due to the mobility of Latin American population around the world, countries without vector presence started to report disease cases. We developed a deterministic compartmental model in order to gain insights into the disease dynamics in a scenario without vector presence, considering congenital transmission and transmission by blood transfusion. The model was used to evaluate the epidemiological effect of control measures. It was applied to demographic data from (...)
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  35. added 2020-05-15
    Is It Possible to Conduct Science Under an Engaged Epistemology?Kelly Koide - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 72:65-69.
    In this paper, I aim to identify the different cognitive, contextual and social values involved in epidemiological research on Chagas disease. As it is considered as a ‘neglected tropical disease’ by the World Health Organization, I will try to unfold the many senses of ‘neglected’ and in which sense different non-cognitive values can be manifested in research on this disease through a pluralism of disciplines and methods. The point of departure of this investigation is a model that explains the dynamics (...)
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  36. added 2020-05-15
    Mining Data, Gathering Variables and Recombining Information: The Flexible Architecture of Epidemiological Studies.Susanne Bauer - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (4):415-428.
    Since the second half of the twentieth century, biomedical research has made increasing use of epidemiological methods to establish empirical evidence on a population level. This paper is about practices with data in epidemiological research, based on a case study in Denmark. I propose an epistemology of record linkage that invites exploration of epidemiological studies as heterogeneous assemblages. Focusing on data collecting, sampling and linkage, I examine how data organisation and processing become productive beyond the context of their collection. The (...)
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  37. added 2020-05-15
    Epidemiological Causality.Alfredo Morabia - 2005 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (3/4):365 - 379.
    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining (...)
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  38. added 2020-05-15
    Elementary Concepts of Medicine: XI. Illness in a Community: Morbidity, Epidemiology.Olli S. Miettinen & Kenneth M. Flegel - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (3):345-348.
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  39. added 2020-05-15
    Criteria of Causal Association in Epidemiology.Anders Ahlbom - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 93--98.
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  40. added 2020-05-15
    Comments on Ahlbom's 'Criteria of Causal Association in Epidemiology'.Germund Hesslow - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 99--100.
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  41. added 2020-05-15
    Models of Causation in Epidemiology.Staffan Norell - 1984 - In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. pp. 129--135.
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  42. added 2020-05-15
    The Epidemiology of the Origin and Perpetuation of a New Disease.Richard E. Shope - 1964 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 7 (3):263-278.
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  43. added 2020-04-30
    Epidemiology and the Bio-Statistical Theory of Disease: A Challenging Perspective.Élodie Giroux - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics: Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice 36 (3):175-195.
    Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of health and disease argues that the central discipline on which theoretical medicine relies is physiology. His theory has been much discussed but little has been said about its focus on physiology or, conversely, about the role that other biomedical disciplines may play in establishing a theoretical concept of health. Since at least the 1950s, epidemiology has gained in strength and legitimacy as an independent medical science that contributes to our knowledge of health and disease. Indeed, (...)
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  44. added 2020-04-30
    Epidemiology and Causation.Leen De Vreese - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):345-353.
    Epidemiologists’ discussions on causation are not always very enlightening with regard to the notion of ‘cause’ in epidemiology. Epidemiologists rightly work from a science-based approach to causation in epidemiology, but largely disagree about the matter. Disagreement may be partly due to confusion of the question of useful concepts for causal inference in epidemiological practice with the question of the metaphysical presuppositions of causal concepts used in epidemiology. In other words, epidemiologists seem to confuse the practical results of epidemiological research at (...)
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  45. added 2020-04-28
    If the Framingham Heart Study Did Not Invent the Risk Factor, Who Did?David Shumway Jones & Gerald M. Oppenheimer - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (2):131-150.
    Medical theory and practice in the second half of the 20th century were transformed by the idea of risk, and, in particular, by the concept of the "risk factor." Many historians have described how the concept of the risk factor emerged in the actuarial science of the life insurance industry in the early 20th century and entered medicine through the Framingham Heart Study, specifically with its July 1961 article, "Factors of Risk in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease," in the (...)
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  46. added 2020-04-26
    [The Vaccine Metaphor. From Inoculation to Vaccination].A. M. Moulin - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (2):271-297.
    The episodes of cowpox inoculation (1798) and rabies preventive treatment (1885) are celebrated as the landmark of modern medicine. Paradoxically, these two advances have been accomplished without any theoretical breakthrough in the understanding of immunity. Going further, they were made possible by a long past of empirical procedures among which smallpox inoculation played an outstanding role. The paper explores the paradox of 'Immunization without Immunology' and Pasteur's reconstruction of the past, through his successful use of a metaphor. 'Vaccine', originally linked (...)
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  47. added 2020-04-26
    Reconstructing the Epidemiology of Medieval Leprosy: Preliminary Efforts with Regard to Scandinavia.S. R. Ell - 1987 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (4):496-506.