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  1. How Philosophers of Science Violated Their Epistemic Duties During the SARS-CoV-2 Crisis.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - manuscript
    Were governments justified in imposing lockdowns to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic? We argue that a convincing answer to this question is to date wanting, by critically analyzing the factual basis of a recent paper, “How Government Leaders Violated Their Epistemic Duties During the SARS-CoV-2 Crisis” (Winsberg et al. 2020). In their paper, Winsberg et al. argue that government leaders did not, at the beginning of the pandemic, meet the epistemic requirements necessitated to impose lockdowns. We focus on (...)
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  2. Three Ways in Which Pandemic Models May Perform a Pandemic.Philippe van Basshuysen, Lucie White, Donal Khosrowi & Mathias Frisch - manuscript
    Models may not only represent, but also influence their targets in important ways. While models’ ability to influence outcomes has been studied in relation to economic models, often under the label “performativity”, we argue that this phenomenon also pertains to epidemiological models, such as those used for forecasting the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic. After identifying three ways in which a model by the COVID-19 Response Team at Imperial College London (Ferguson et al. 2020) may have influenced scientific advice, policy, (...)
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  3. Prevention of Disease and the Absent Body: A Phenomenological Approach to Periodontitis.Dylan Rakhra & Māra Grīnfelde - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    A large part of contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to accounts of health and illness, arguing that they contribute to the improvement of healthcare. Less focus has been paid to the issue of prevention of disease and the associated difficulty of adhering to health-promoting behaviours, which is arguably of equal importance. This article offers a phenomenological account of this disease prevention, focusing on how we – as embodied beings – engage with health-promoting behaviours. It specifically considers how we (...)
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  4. Mathematical Analysis of an Industrial HIV/AIDS Model That Incorporates Carefree Attitude Towards Sex.Baba Seidu, O. D. Makinde & Christopher S. Bornaa - forthcoming - Acta Biotheoretica.
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  5. COVID-19 as the Underlying Cause of Death: Disentangling Facts and Values.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-4.
    In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people’s feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization’s rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts and values.
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  6. Identification of Causal Intervention Effects Under Contagion.Forrest W. Crawford, Wen Wei Loh & Xiaoxuan Cai - 2021 - Journal of Causal Inference 9 (1):9-38.
    Defining and identifying causal intervention effects for transmissible infectious disease outcomes is challenging because a treatment – such as a vaccine – given to one individual may affect the infection outcomes of others. Epidemiologists have proposed causal estimands to quantify effects of interventions under contagion using a two-person partnership model. These simple conceptual models have helped researchers develop causal estimands relevant to clinical evaluation of vaccine effects. However, many of these partnership models are formulated under structural assumptions that preclude realistic (...)
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  7. Imagination and Remembrance: What Role Should Historical Epidemiology Play in a World Bewitched by Mathematical Modelling of COVID-19 and Other Epidemics?Euzebiusz Jamrozik & George S. Heriot - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.
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  8. Applying Deep Learning Methods on Time-Series Data for Forecasting COVID-19 in Egypt, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia.Nahla F. Omran, Sara F. Abd-el Ghany, Hager Saleh, Abdelmgeid A. Ali, Abdu Gumaei & Mabrook Al-Rakhami - 2021 - Complexity 2021:1-13.
    The novel coronavirus disease is regarded as one of the most imminent disease outbreaks which threaten public health on various levels worldwide. Because of the unpredictable outbreak nature and the virus’s pandemic intensity, people are experiencing depression, anxiety, and other strain reactions. The response to prevent and control the new coronavirus pneumonia has reached a crucial point. Therefore, it is essential—for safety and prevention purposes—to promptly predict and forecast the virus outbreak in the course of this troublesome time to have (...)
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  9. Making Evidential Claims in Epidemiology: Three Strategies for the Study of the Exposome.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 82:101248.
    How is scientific data used to represent phenomena and as evidence for claims about phenomena? In this paper, I propose that a specific type of claims – evidential claims – is involved in data practices to define and restrict the representational and evidential content of a dataset. I present an account of data practices in the epidemiology of the exposome based on the notion of evidential claims, which helps unpack the approaches, assumptions and warrants that connect different stages of research. (...)
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  10. Effects of the Awareness-Driven Individual Resource Allocation on the Epidemic Dynamics.Xiaolong Chen, Ruijie Wang, Dan Yang, Jiajun Xian & Qing Li - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-12.
    We investigate the effects of self-protection awareness on the spread of disease from the aspect of resource allocation behavior in populations. To this end, a resource-based epidemiological model and a self-awareness-based resource allocation model in complex networks are proposed, respectively. First of all, we study the coupled disease-awareness dynamics in complex networks with fixed degree heterogeneity. Through extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that overall the self-awareness inhibits the spread of disease. More importantly, the influence of the self-awareness on the (...)
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  11. Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia A. Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - 2020 - New York, USA: Oup Usa.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, producing critical data for researchers, policy-makers, and health workers about more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Such an undertaking is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises complex ethical and philosophical questions. In this volume, a group of leading philosophers, economists, epidemiologists, and policy scholars identify and discuss these philosophical questions. Better appreciating the philosophical dimensions of a (...)
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  12. Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga: What is the Right Dose? [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 81.
  13. Human Flourishing and Population Health: Meaning, Measurement, and Implications.Jeff Levin - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):401-419.
    In recent decades, social and behavioral scientists have begun to explore how and why human beings thrive or flourish and to consider whether traits indicative of thriving or flourishing may themselves influence physical well-being. This stands in contrast to the historical tendency in these fields to focus on pathology: mental illness, psychological dysfunction, deviant behavior, social problems, and so on. In epidemiology, too, the influence of pathology is seen in a tacit emphasis on risk factors for disease outcomes and for (...)
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  14. Ethical Dimensions of the Global Burden of Disease.Christopher J. L. Murray & S. Andrew Schroeder - 2020 - In Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.), Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions. New York, NY, USA: pp. 24-47.
    This chapter suggests that descriptive epidemiological studies like the Global Burden of Disease Study can usefully be divided into four tasks: describing individuals’ health states over time, assessing their health states under a range of counterfactual scenarios, summarizing the information collected, and then packaging it for presentation. The authors show that each of these tasks raises important and challenging ethical questions. They comment on some of the philosophical issues involved in measuring health states, attributing causes to health outcomes, choosing the (...)
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  15. Concepto de Riesco: (Dis)Continuidades Entre Corrientes Epidemiológicas.Carolina Ocampo, Anibal Eduardo Carbajo & Guillermo Folguera - 2020 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 24 (3):633-656.
    In the present study we analyze if the risk concept of the hegemonic epidemiologychanges its nature in purportedly alternative currents as ecoepidemiology and socialepidemiology focused in multilevel analysis.We analyze the way this concept is distinguishedin every current and its relationship with other epidemiologic key notions as cause. We findthat the risk concept and the notion of cause remain relatively unchanged among the differentcurrents even when there is some theoretical discussion about the complexity of multilevelsystems and other explanations for the events. (...)
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  16. Introduction.Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi - 2019 - In Florence Bretelle-Establet, Marie Gaille & Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi (eds.), Making Sense of Health, Disease, and the Environment in Cross-Cultural History: The Arabic-Islamic World, China, Europe, and North America. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-23.
    One need only look in any newspaper and observe the flourishing market in promises of good health through diets or ways of inhabiting the earth to find evidence that the “configurationist model,” suggested by Charles Rosenberg in 1992 to characterize one archetypal response to explain epidemics in the history of the West, is still very much alive. For Rosenberg, in the long history of attempts to explain epidemic diseases, two fundamental approaches existed and often coexisted in the West: contamination and (...)
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  17. The C-Word, the P-Word, and Realism in Epidemiology.Alex Broadbent - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2613-2628.
    This paper considers an important recent contribution by Miguel Hernán to the ongoing debate about causal inference in epidemiology. Hernán rejects the idea that there is an in-principle epistemic distinction between the results of randomized controlled trials and observational studies: both produce associations which we may be more or less confident interpreting as causal. However, Hernán maintains that trials have a semantic advantage. Observational studies that seek to estimate causal effect risk issuing meaningless statements instead. The POA proposes a solution (...)
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  18. Evaluating Evidential Pluralism in Epidemiology: Mechanistic Evidence in Exposome Research.Stefano Canali - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):4.
    In current philosophical discussions on evidence in the medical sciences, epidemiology has been used to exemplify a specific version of evidential pluralism. According to this view, known as the Russo–Williamson Thesis, evidence of both difference-making and mechanisms is produced to make causal claims in the health sciences. In this paper, I present an analysis of data and evidence in epidemiological practice, with a special focus on research on the exposome, and I cast doubt on the extent to which evidential pluralism (...)
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  19. Reflecting on What Philosophy of Epidemiology is and Does, as the Field Comes Into its Own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2383-2392.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  20. Epidemiology.Kate A. McBride, Felix Ogbo & Andrew Page - 2019 - In Pranee Liamputtong (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences. Springer Singapore. pp. 559-579.
    Epidemiology is the core discipline underlying health research. Measuring health, identifying causes of ill health, and intervening to improve health are all key tenets of the discipline. Concerned with the “who,” “when,” “why,” and “where” of health, epidemiology is essential in informing clinical decision-making through evidence-based medicine. Traditionally the study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and determinants, epidemiology is a dynamic discipline that is increasingly being applied in differing disciplines, even beyond health. This chapter is designed as a (...)
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  21. Health of the Population and Health Promotion as the Objects of Sociological Research.Олеся Миколаївна Кириленко - 2019 - Вісник Нюу Імені Ярослава Мудрого: Серія: Філософія, Філософія Права, Політологія, Соціологія 4 (43):23-43.
    Problem setting. Studying the factors that determine health shows that medicine is important along with biogenetic and environmental factors. However, the leading factors of health in modern conditions are the level and quality of life of people, the level of their health culture and lifestyle. This increases the role of researches on social and cultural conditions and determinants of health in the framework of not only medical sciences, but also the sociology of medicine, health and disease, wellness studies. Recent research (...)
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  22. Hill's Heuristics and Explanatory Coherentism in Epidemiology.Olaf Dammann - 2018 - American Journal of Epidemiology 187 (1):1-6.
    In this essay, I argue that Ted Poston's theory of explanatory coherentism is well-suited as a tool for causal explanation in the health sciences, particularly in epidemiology. Coherence has not only played a role in epidemiology for more than half a century as one of Hill's viewpoints, it can also provide background theory for the development of explanatory systems by integrating epidemiologic evidence with a diversity of other error-independent data. I propose that computational formalization of Hill's viewpoints in an explanatory (...)
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  23. Inequality in Political Philosophy and in Epidemiology: A Remarriage.Nir Eyal - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    In political philosophy and in economics, unfair inequality is usually assessed between individuals, nowadays often on luck-egalitarian grounds. You have more than I do and that's unfair. By contrast, in epidemiology and sociology, unfair inequality is traditionally assessed between groups. More is concentrated among people of your class or race than among people of mine, and that's unfair. I shall call this difference the egalitarian ‘divorce’. Epidemiologists, and their ‘divorce lawyers’ Paula Braveman, Norman Daniels, and Iris Marion Young, explain that (...)
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  24. Data Ethics in Epidemiology: Autonomy, Privacy, Confidentiality and Justice.Vijayaprasad Gopichandran & Varalakshmi Elango - 2018 - In Arima Mishra & Kalyani Subbiah (eds.), Ethics in Public Health Practice in India. Springer Singapore. pp. 121-137.
    Epidemiology is an essential tool of public health, which largely relies on collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data and actions based on the information gleaned from the data. Such data-intensive processes lead to unique ethical issues relating to autonomy of the data generator, privacy, confidentiality and justice. In this chapter, we attempt to describe the ethical issues in data handling in epidemiology using two examples, public health surveillance and Big Data analytics in digital epidemiology. One of the unique ethical (...)
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  25. Symptoms, Signs, and Risk Factors: Epidemiological Reasoning in Coronary Heart Disease and Depression Management.Mikko Jauho & Ilpo Helén - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (1):56-73.
    In current mental health care psychiatric conditions are defined as compilations of symptoms. These symptom-based disease categories have been severely criticised as contingent and boundless, facilitating the rise to epidemic proportions of such conditions as depression. In this article we look beyond symptoms and stress the role of epidemiology in explaining the current situation. By analysing the parallel development of cardiovascular disease and depression management in Finland, we argue, firstly, that current mental health care shares with the medicine of chronic (...)
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  26. Is It Possible to Conduct Science Under an Engaged Epistemology?Kelly Koide - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 72:65-69.
    In this paper, I aim to identify the different cognitive, contextual and social values involved in epidemiological research on Chagas disease. As it is considered as a ‘neglected tropical disease’ by the World Health Organization, I will try to unfold the many senses of ‘neglected’ and in which sense different non-cognitive values can be manifested in research on this disease through a pluralism of disciplines and methods. The point of departure of this investigation is a model that explains the dynamics (...)
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  27. Is There a Duty to Participate in Digital Epidemiology?Brent Mittelstadt, Justus Benzler, Lukas Engelmann, Barbara Prainsack & Effy Vayena - 2018 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 14 (1):1-24.
    This paper poses the question of whether people have a duty to participate in digital epidemiology. While an implied duty to participate has been argued for in relation to biomedical research in general, digital epidemiology involves processing of non-medical, granular and proprietary data types that pose different risks to participants. We first describe traditional justifications for epidemiology that imply a duty to participate for the general public, which take account of the immediacy and plausibility of threats, and the identifiability of (...)
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  28. Congenital and Blood Transfusion Transmission of Chagas Disease: A Framework Using Mathematical Modeling.Edneide Ramalho, Jones Albuquerque, Cláudio Cristino, Virginia Lorena, Jordi Gómez I. Prat, Clara Prats & Daniel López - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-10.
    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is an important health problem in Latin America. Due to the mobility of Latin American population around the world, countries without vector presence started to report disease cases. We developed a deterministic compartmental model in order to gain insights into the disease dynamics in a scenario without vector presence, considering congenital transmission and transmission by blood transfusion. The model was used to evaluate the epidemiological effect of control measures. It was applied to demographic data from (...)
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  29. If the Framingham Heart Study Did Not Invent the Risk Factor, Who Did?David Shumway Jones & Gerald M. Oppenheimer - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (2):131-150.
    Medical theory and practice in the second half of the 20th century were transformed by the idea of risk, and, in particular, by the concept of the "risk factor." Many historians have described how the concept of the risk factor emerged in the actuarial science of the life insurance industry in the early 20th century and entered medicine through the Framingham Heart Study, specifically with its July 1961 article, "Factors of Risk in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease," in the (...)
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  30. Legal Epidemiology: The Science of Law.Tara Ramanathan, Rachel Hulkower, Joseph Holbrook & Matthew Penn - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (s1):69-72.
    The importance of legal epidemiology in public health law research has undoubtedly grown over the last five years. Scholars and practitioners together have developed guidance on best practices for the field, including: placing emphasis on transdisciplinary collaborations; creating valid, reliable, and repeatable research; and publishing timely products for use in decision-making and change. Despite the energy and expertise researchers have brought to this important work, they name significant challenges in marshalling the diverse skill sets, quality controls, and funding to implement (...)
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  31. Epidemiological Explanations. [REVIEW]Olaf Dammann - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):509-519.
  32. Cultural Conundrums: The Ethics of Epidemiology and the Problems of Population in Implementing Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis.Kirk Fiereck - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):27-39.
    The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of the knowledge production practices of epidemiology. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and therefore, normatively (...)
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  33. Prediction in Epidemiology and Medicine.Jonathan Fuller, Alex Broadbent & Luis J. Flores - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:45-48.
  34. Epidemiology and the Bio-Statistical Theory of Disease: A Challenging Perspective.Élodie Giroux - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics: Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice 36 (3):175-195.
    Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of health and disease argues that the central discipline on which theoretical medicine relies is physiology. His theory has been much discussed but little has been said about its focus on physiology or, conversely, about the role that other biomedical disciplines may play in establishing a theoretical concept of health. Since at least the 1950s, epidemiology has gained in strength and legitimacy as an independent medical science that contributes to our knowledge of health and disease. Indeed, (...)
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  35. Germs, Genes, and Memes: Functional and Fitness Dynamics on Information Networks.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82:219-243.
    It is widely accepted that the way information transfers across networks depends importantly on the structure of the network. Here, we show that the mechanism of information transfer is crucial: in many respects the effect of the specific transfer mechanism swamps network effects. Results are demonstrated in terms of three different types of transfer mechanism: germs, genes, and memes. With an emphasis on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, we explore both the dynamics of each of these across networks (...)
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  36. Alex Broadbent Philosophy of Epidemiology.Stephen John - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (3):707-711.
  37. From Administrative Infrastructure to Biomedical Resource: Danish Population Registries, the “Scandinavian Laboratory,” and the “Epidemiologist's Dream”.Susanne Bauer - 2014 - Science in Context 27 (2):187-213.
    ArgumentSince the 1970s, Danish population registries were increasingly used for research purposes, in particular in the health sciences. Linked with a large number of disease registries, these data infrastructures became laboratories for the development of both information technology and epidemiological studies. Denmark's system of population registries had been centralized in 1924 and was further automated in the 1960s, with individual identification numbers introduced in 1968. The ubiquitous presence of CPR-numbers in administrative routines and everyday lives created a continually growing data (...)
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  38. Book Review. Philosophy of Epidemiology by A. Broadbent. [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):1002-1004.
  39. Invited Commentary: Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity-a Fundamental Critique of the Current Probabilistic Risk Factor Epidemiology. Http://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/24925064.Juan Merlo - 2014 - American Journal of Epidemiology 180 (2):213-214.
    In this issue of the Journal, Dundas et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):197–207) apply a hitherto infrequent multilevel analytical approach: multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) models. Specifically, by adopting a life-course approach, they use a multilevel regression with individuals cross-classified in different contexts (i.e., families, early schools, and neighborhoods) to investigate self-reported health and mental health in adulthood. They provide observational evidence suggesting the relevance of the early family environment for launching public health interventions in childhood in order to improve (...)
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  40. Participants' Perceptions of Research Benefits in an African Genetic Epidemiology Study.John Appiah-Poku, Sam Newton & Nancy Kass - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):128-135.
    Background: Both the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences and the Helsinki Declaration emphasize that the potential benefits of research should outweigh potential harms; consequently, some work has been conducted on participants' perception of benefits in therapeutic research. However, there appears to be very little work conducted with participants who have joined non-therapeutic research. This work was done to evaluate participants' perception of benefits in a genetic epidemiological study by examining their perception of the potential benefits of enrollment.Methods: In-depth (...)
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  41. Inferring Causation in Epidemiology: Mechanisms, Black Boxes, and Contrasts.Alex Broadbent - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 45--69.
    This chapter explores the idea that causal inference is warranted if and only if the mechanism underlying the inferred causal association is identified. This mechanistic stance is discernible in the epidemiological literature, and in the strategies adopted by epidemiologists seeking to establish causal hypotheses. But the exact opposite methodology is also discernible, the black box stance, which asserts that epidemiologists can and should make causal inferences on the basis of their evidence, without worrying about the mechanisms that might underlie their (...)
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  42. Information Dynamics Across Linked Sub-Networks: Germs, Genes, and Memes.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2011 - In Proceedings, AAAI Fall Symposium on Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information and Intelligence. AAAI Press.
    Beyond belief change and meme adoption, both genetics and infection have been spoken of in terms of information transfer. What we examine here, concentrating on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, are the differences in network dynamics in these cases: the different network dynamics of germs, genes, and memes. Germs and memes, it turns out, exhibit a very different dynamics across networks. For infection, measured in terms of time to total infection, it is network type rather than degree of (...)
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  43. Robustness Across the Structure of Sub-Networks: The Contrast Between Infection and Information Dynamics.Patrick Grim, Christopher Reade, Daniel J. Singer, Stephen Fisher & Stephen Majewicz - 2010 - In Proceedings, AAAI FAll Symposium on Complex Adaptive Systems: Resilience, Robustness, and Evolvability.
    In this paper we make a simple theoretical point using a practical issue as an example. The simple theoretical point is that robustness is not 'all or nothing': in asking whether a system is robust one has to ask 'robust with respect to what property?' and 'robust over what set of changes in the system?' The practical issue used to illustrate the point is an examination of degrees of linkage between sub-networks and a pointed contrast in robustness and fragility between (...)
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  44. What You Believe Travels Differently: Information and Infection Dynamics Across Sub-Networks.Patrick Grim, Christopher Reade, Daniel J. Singer, Stephen Fisher & Stephen Majewicz - 2010 - Connections 30:50-63.
    In order to understand the transmission of a disease across a population we will have to understand not only the dynamics of contact infection but the transfer of health-care beliefs and resulting health-care behaviors across that population. This paper is a first step in that direction, focusing on the contrasting role of linkage or isolation between sub-networks in (a) contact infection and (b) belief transfer. Using both analytical tools and agent-based simulations we show that it is the structure of a (...)
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  45. Dynamics of Epidemiological Models.Alberto Pinto, Maíra Aguiar, José Martins & Nico Stollenwerk - 2010 - Acta Biotheoretica 58 (4):381-389.
    We study the SIS and SIRI epidemic models discussing different approaches to compute the thresholds that determine the appearance of an epidemic disease. The stochastic SIS model is a well known mathematical model, studied in several contexts. Here, we present recursively derivations of the dynamic equations for all the moments and we derive the stationary states of the state variables using the moment closure method. We observe that the steady states give a good approximation of the quasi-stationary states of the (...)
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  46. Clinical Intuition Versus Statistics: Different Modes of Tacit Knowledge in Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Medicine.Hillel D. Braude - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):181-198.
    Despite its phenomenal success since its inception in the early nineteen-nineties, the evidence-based medicine movement has not succeeded in shaking off an epistemological critique derived from the experiential or tacit dimensions of clinical reasoning about particular individuals. This critique claims that the evidence-based medicine model does not take account of tacit knowing as developed by the philosopher Michael Polanyi. However, the epistemology of evidence-based medicine is premised on the elimination of the tacit dimension from clinical judgment. This is demonstrated through (...)
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  47. Epidemiology and Causation.Leen De Vreese - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):345-353.
    Epidemiologists’ discussions on causation are not always very enlightening with regard to the notion of ‘cause’ in epidemiology. Epidemiologists rightly work from a science-based approach to causation in epidemiology, but largely disagree about the matter. Disagreement may be partly due to confusion of the question of useful concepts for causal inference in epidemiological practice with the question of the metaphysical presuppositions of causal concepts used in epidemiology. In other words, epidemiologists seem to confuse the practical results of epidemiological research at (...)
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  48. Clinical Research: Up From 'Clinical Epidemiology'.Olli S. Miettinen, Lucas M. Bachmann & Johann Steurer - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1208-1213.
    Clinical research must be understood to be the foundation of scientific medicine of the clinical type. But the essence of scientific clinical medicine remains a matter of profound confusion, even in clinical academia, and so does the essence of clinical research. The confusion now revolves, principally, around ‘clinical epidemiology’. We address clinical research in the meaning of quintessentially ‘applied’ clinical research, which we take to be the foundation of the scientific knowledge base of clinical medicine, of gnosis (dia‐, etio‐, pro‐) (...)
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  49. Epidemiology and Social Justice in Light of Social Determinants of Health Research.Sridhar Venkatapuram & Michael Marmot - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (2):79-89.
    The present article identifies how social determinants of health raise two categories of philosophical problems that also fall within the smaller domain of ethics; one set pertains to the philosophy of epidemiology, and the second set pertains to the philosophy of health and social justice. After reviewing these two categories of ethical concerns, the limited conclusion made is that identifying and responding to social determinants of health requires inter-disciplinary reasoning across epidemiology and philosophy. For the reasoning used in epidemiology to (...)
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  50. Mining Data, Gathering Variables and Recombining Information: The Flexible Architecture of Epidemiological Studies.Susanne Bauer - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (4):415-428.
    Since the second half of the twentieth century, biomedical research has made increasing use of epidemiological methods to establish empirical evidence on a population level. This paper is about practices with data in epidemiological research, based on a case study in Denmark. I propose an epistemology of record linkage that invites exploration of epidemiological studies as heterogeneous assemblages. Focusing on data collecting, sampling and linkage, I examine how data organisation and processing become productive beyond the context of their collection. The (...)
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