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  1. Are Knowledge Ascriptions Sensitive to Social Context?Alexander Jackson - manuscript
    Plausibly, the stakes in a practical task at hand can affect how generously or stringently people ascribe knowledge. I propose a new psychological account of the effect. My hypothesis is motivated by empirical research on how people’s judgements are sensitive to their social context. Specifically, people’s evaluations are sensitive to their ‘psychological distance’ from the scenarios they are considering. When using ‘fixed-evidence probes’, experimental philosophy has found that what’s at stake for a fictional character in a fictional scenario has little (...)
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  2. Postprawda jako skutek kryzysu oświeceniowego Rozumu.Michał Wieczorkowski - 2018 - Kraków, Polska: Ignatianum.
    Post-truth is described as a phenomenon existing at the public sphere, which consists in special emphasis on the ideologic aspect of expression, while at the same time marginalizing aspect of facts. it seems that in looking for the reasons for this behavior, statement that this practice is simply more effective is insufficient. It's not possible to describe well the phenomenon of post-truth without analyzing transformations of the epistemological plane from which the phenomenon of post-judgment emerged. One of the most important (...)
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  3. Contextual Injustice.Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (1):1–30.
    Contextualist treatments of clashes of intuitions can allow that two claims, apparently in conflict, can both be true. But making true utterances is far from the only thing that matters — there are often substantive normative questions about what contextual parameters are appropriate to a given conversational situation. This paper foregrounds the importance of the social power to set contextual standards, and how it relates to injustice and oppression, introducing a phenomenon I call "contextual injustice," which has to do with (...)
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  4. Two Purposes of Knowledge Attribution and the Contextualism Debate.Matthew McGrath - 2015 - In John Greco & David Henderson (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, we follow Edward Craig?s advice: ask what the concept of knowledge does for us and use our findings as clues about its application conditions. What a concept does for us is a matter of what we can do with it, and what we do with concepts is deploy them in thought and language. So, we will examine the purposes we have in attributing knowledge. This chapter examines two such purposes, agent evaluation and informant-suggestion, and brings the results (...)
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  5. On the Standards-Variantist Solution to Skepticism.Kok Yong Lee - 2017 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 7 (3):173-198.
    The skeptical puzzle consists of three independently plausible yet jointly inconsistent claims: (A) S knows a certain ordinary proposition op; (B) S does not know the denial of a certain skeptical hypothesis sh; and (C) S knows that op only if S knows that not- sh. The variantist solution (to the skeptical puzzle) claims that (A) and not-(B) are true in the ordinary context, but false in the skeptical one. Epistemic contextualism has offered a standards-variantist solution, which is the most (...)
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  6. Contextualism and Disagreement.Wang Qin - 2011 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7 (2):309-322.
    Contextualism and Disagreement This paper argues that attributor contextualism is in conflict with ordinary language methodology. Attributor contextualism has at its center the thesis that, the truth-values of knowledge attributions vary with the conversational contexts. This thesis entails that if two speakers in similar contexts make conflicting knowledge attributions, at least one of these attributions is false. One important argument for attributor contextualism depends on ordinary language methodology, a methodology that places great trust in ordinary speakers and prevents judging a (...)
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  7. Implied Consent and Sexual Assault: Intimate Relationships, Autonomy, and Voice by Michael Plaxton. [REVIEW]Lucinda Vandervort - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 28:697-702.
    This is a review and critical commentary on Michael Plaxton's 2015 book, Implied Consent and Sexual Assault, in which he proposes that the legal definition of sexual consent be amended to permit sexual partners to define the terms and conditions of sexual consent in accordance with private "normative commitments" between themselves. The proposed "reform" is intended to permit an individual to agree to be a party to sexual activity that would otherwise constitute sexual assault under Canadian law. For reasons explained (...)
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  8. Comments on Michael William's Contextualism, Externalism and Epistemic Standards.Timothy Williamson - unknown
    The full-text of this article is not currently available in ORA, but the original publication is available at springerlink.com.
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  9. Denying Knowledge.Esben Nedenskov Petersen - 2014 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (1):36-55.
    Intuitions about contextualist cases such as Cohen’s airport case pose a problem for classical anti-skeptical versions of invariantism. Recently, Tim Black, Jessica Brown, and Patrick Rysiew have argued that the classical invariantist can respond by arguing that pragmatic aspects of epistemic discourse are responsible for the relevant problematic intuitions. This paper identifies the mechanisms of conversational implicature and impliciture as the basic sources of hope for this explanatory strategy. It then argues that neither of these sources provides the classical invariantist (...)
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  10. Introduction: The Point and Purpose of Epistemic Evaluation.David Henderson & John Greco - 2015 - In David K. Henderson & John Greco (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation: Purposeful Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-28.
    This introductory chapter proceeds in three parts. The first section characterizes the general approach to epistemology around which the volume revolves—purposeful epistemology—and examines the general motivation for that approach. The guiding idea is that considerations about the point and purpose of epistemic evaluation might fruitfully constrain epistemological theory and yield insights for epistemological reflection. The second section explores the approach by characterizing some important versions of it. Several themes and issues that we see running through the volume are here articulated (...)
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  11. Comments on Neta's Contextualism and a Puzzle About Seeing.Richard Gallimore - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 134 (1):65-69.
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  12. Free Will and Contextualism.Steven Rieber - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 129 (2):223-252.
    This paper proposes a contextualist solution to the puzzle about free will. It argues that the context-sensitivity of statements about freedom of the will follows from the correct analysis of these statements. Because the analysis is independently plausible, the contextualism is warranted not merely in virtue of its capacity to solve the puzzle.
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  13. Scepticism, Contextualism and Closure.Josep L. Prades - 2000 - Philosophical Issues 10 (1):121-131.
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  14. Consuming Knowledge Claims Across Contexts.Emil Frederik Lundbjerg Moeller - 2015 - Synthese 192 (12):4057-4070.
    Williamson and others have argued that contextualist theories of the semantics of ‘know’ have a special problem of accounting for our practices of ‘consuming’ knowledge attributions and denials made in other contexts. In what follows, I shall understand the objection as the idea that contextualism has a special problem of accounting for how we are able to acquire epistemically useful information from knowledge claims made in other contexts. I respond to the objection by arguing that the defeasibility of knowledge makes (...)
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  15. On the Prospects for Virtue Contextualism: Comments on Greco.Dirk Koppelberg - 2004 - Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):401-413.
    John Greco has proposed a new sort of contextualism which exhibits a principled grounding in an agent reliabilist virtue epistemology. In this paper I will discuss Greco's two main reasons in favor of virtue contextualism. The first reason is that his account of knowledge can be derived from a more general theory of virtue and credit. The second reason consists in the thesis that a virtue contextualist solution to the lottery problem is superior to standards contextualism. With regard to the (...)
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  16. Why Epistemic Contextualism Does Not Provide an Adequate Account of Knowledge: Comments on Barke.Frank Hofmann - 2004 - Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):375-382.
    According to Antonia Barkes version of contextualism, epistemic contextualism, a context is defined by a method and its associated assumptions. The subject has to make the assumption that the method is adequate or reliable and that good working conditions hold in order to arrive at knowledge by employing the method. I will criticize Barkes claim that epistemic contextualism can provide a more satisfactory explanation or motivation for context shifts than conversational contextualism (in particular, David Lewiss contextualism). Two more points of (...)
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  17. Moral Particularism and Epistemic Contextualism: Comments on Lance and Little.Nikola Kompa - 2004 - Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):457-467.
    Do we need defeasible generalizations in epistemology, generalizations that are genuinely explanatory yet ineliminably exception-laden? Do we need them to endow our epistemology with a substantial explanatory structure? Mark Lance and Margaret Little argue for the claim that we do. I will argue that we can just as well do without them – at least in epistemology. So in the paper, I am trying to very briefly sketch an alternative contextualist picture. More specifically, the claim will be that although an (...)
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  18. Possibilities Regained: Neo-Lewisian Contextualism and Ordinary Life.Mario Piazza & Nevia Dolcini - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    According to David Lewis, the predicate ‘knows’ is context-sensitive in the sense that its truth conditions vary across conversational contexts, which stretch or compress the domain of error possibilities to be eliminated by the subject’s evidence. Our concern in this paper is to thematize, assess, and overcome within a neo-Lewisian contextualist project two important mismatches between our use of ‘know’ in ordinary life and the use of ‘know’ by ‘Lewisian’ ordinary speakers. The first mismatch is that Lewisian contextualism still overgenerates (...)
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  19. Together We Are Two::The Contexts of Knowledge.Lisette Josephides - unknown
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  20. Contextualism in Epistemology.Robin McKenna - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):489-503.
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  21. Knowledge Ascriptions. [REVIEW]R. Mckenna - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (259):292-295.
  22. Chapter Five. Contextualism.Ernest Sosa - 2010 - In Knowing Full Well. Princeton University Press. pp. 96-107.
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  23. Imagination and Epistemology.Jonathan Ichikawa - 2008 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    Among the tools the epistemologist brings to the table ought to be, I suggest, a firm understanding of the imagination--one that is informed by philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience. In my dissertation, I highlight several ways in which such an understanding of the imagination can yield insight into traditional questions in epistemology. My dissertation falls into three parts. In Part I, I argue that dreaming should be understood in imaginative terms, and that this has important implications for questions (...)
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  24. Michael Williams. "Groundless Belief: An Essay on the Possibility of Epistemology". [REVIEW]O. A. Johnson - 1978 - Metaphilosophy 9:69.
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  25. Sanjaya Bellatthiputta's Technique of "Denials and Deny Denials": An Original Critique of Knowledge and Judgment.Mathew Varghese - 2007 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (Philippine e-journal) 36 (1).
    The question of knowledge and judgment is a problem in the history philosophy. We can even predict that the conflicts in philosophical understanding are due to finding appropriate knowledge for suitable judgments. Discussion on this aspect was a part of the Indian philosophical tradition during the time of the Buddha. We here try to understand the concept of "denials and deny denials" introduced by Sanjaya Bellatthiputta whose philosophical school is known as Amaravikkhepa. Here we examine this concept in relation to (...)
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  26. Martijn Blaauw, Ed., Epistemological Contextualism. [REVIEW]Matthew Weiner - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26:389-390.
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  27. Justification.Wayne Angus Backman - 1982 - Dissertation, University of Cincinnati
    This dissertation is an investigation into the nature of justification and rational belief. In Chapter I, four theories of the justification of belief are presented and criticized. These theories--classical foundationalism, modest foundationalism, coherentism, and the causal theory--are found to be similar in a certain respect. They each embody or are consistent with a certain conception of rationality, one in which beliefs are rational just in case they are backed by adequate justifications, and in which adequate justifications are thought to be (...)
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  28. Moser, P., "Empirical Justification". [REVIEW]Laurence BonJour - 1987 - Mind 96:110.
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  29. Contextualism in Epistemology and Beyond.Jonathan Schaffer - 2004 - Kluwer Academic.
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  30. Groundless Belief: An Essay on the Possibility of Knowledge.Paul Horwich - 1982 - Noûs 16 (2):312-316.
  31. Contextualism And Virtue Perspectivism: How To Preserve Our Intuitions About Knowledge And 'Knows'.Blake Roeber - 2009 - Florida Philosophical Review 9 (1):56-66.
    Contextualism is a linguistic thesis; it is a theory not about knowledge but about the word "knows." Almost invariably, contextualists defend their position as necessary for preserving our intuitions in the face of the so-called "skeptical paradox." In this paper, I undermine the case for contextualism by showing how a properly Chisholmed theory of knowledge might preserve our intuitions more successfully than the linguistic thesis forwarded by contextualism. My aim is not to demonstrate that contextualism is false. Rather, I aim (...)
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  32. Unnatural Doubts: Epistemological Realism and the Basis of Skepticism by Michael Williams. [REVIEW]Marie McGinn - 1993 - Journal of Philosophy 90 (4):211-215.
  33. On the Semantics and Pragmatics of Epistemic Vocabulary.Sarah Moss - 2015 - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    This paper motivates and develops a novel semantics for several epistemic expressions, including possibility modals and indicative conditionals. The semantics I defend constitutes an alternative to standard truth conditional theories, as it assigns sets of probability spaces as sentential semantic values. I argue that what my theory lacks in conservatism is made up for by its strength. In particular, my semantics accounts for the distinctive behavior of nested epistemic modals, indicative conditionals embedded under probability operators, and instances of constructive dilemma (...)
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  34. Contextualismo integrativo (Integrative Contextualism).Ricardo Vázquez Gutiérrez & Jonatan García Campos - 2013 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (1):27-44.
    Argumentamos que el tipo de contextualismo que defendemos, el contextualismo integrativo, ofrece una manera de ordenar e integrar algunos de los distintos conceptos de justificación en pugna. Mostraremos de qué modo, puesto que cada uno de estos conceptos implica distintas intuiciones y estándares de justificación de una creencia, es posible distinguir diferentes contextos de atribución de justificación igualmente válidos entre sí. En particular, sostendremos que el contextualismo integrativo muestra que las disputas entre dos teorías de la justificación, a saber, el (...)
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  35. Why Contextualism and Relative Rationality Doesn't Need Feminist Epistemology.Merel Lefevere - unknown
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  36. Knowledge, Chance, and Contrast.Paul Dimmock - 2012 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the rise of contextualist theories of knowledge ascriptions. Contextualists about ‘knows’ maintain that utterances of the form ‘S knows p’ and ‘S doesn’t know p’ resemble utterances such as ‘Peter is here’ and ‘Peter is not here’, in the sense that their truth-conditions vary depending upon features of the context in which they are uttered. In recent years, contextualism about ‘knows’ has come under heavy attack. This has been associated with a proliferation of (...)
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  37. The Limits of Contextualism.Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter - 2005 - In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth. Clarendon Press.
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  38. Contextualism in Psychological Research? A Critical Review.Edwin E. Gantt - 2000 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):242.
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  39. Jason Stanley, Knowledge and Practical Interests.Iris Vidmar - 2008 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 22:167-173.
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  40. Three Interactions Between Context and Epistemic Locutions.Richmond H. Thomason - 2007 - In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 467--481.
  41. 12 Freedom and Contextualism.Richard Feldman - 2004 - In M. O.’Rourke J. K. Campbell (ed.), Freedom and Determinism. MIT Press. pp. 255.
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  42. Contextualism, Philosophy of Objective Reality.Jb Kozak - 1995 - Filosoficky Casopis 43 (2):287-296.
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  43. Contextualismo y escepticismo.Stewart Cohen - 2000 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):113-126.
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  44. Epistemological Contextualism.N. Vassallo - 2001 - Filosofia 52 (1):61-88.
    Contextualist theories of knowledge have received a lot of attention in the contemporary epistemological literature. The central idea of such theories is that contextual factors play an important role in determining whether a particular knowledge sentence is true or false. Thus, on contextualist theories of knowledge it might be the case that a particular subject knows a proposition in one context but fails to know that same proposition in another context—while the only thing that has changed is the context. Of (...)
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  45. Brains and Barns: The Role of *Context in Epistemic Attribution.Julie M. Petty - unknown
    The topic of the dissertation is this: How well does contextualism, in general, fare as an epistemic theory? And the answer comes in three parts. The root of the skeptical problem. I argue that the source of the skeptical problem is neither the underdetermination principle nor the closure principle. Instead, I claim that it is a change in context that generates the problem in the first place. Though I make no explicit argument in favor of contextualism as a solution to (...)
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  46. Wittgensteinian Contextualism.Keiichi Yamada - 2009 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 42 (1):51-63.
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  47. Epistemic Contextualism and Its Motivation.Marian Zouhar - 2013 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 20:171-186.
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  48. Recension-Ch. Landesman, Skepticism. The Central Issues; ML Chiesara, Storia Dello Scetticismo Greco.N. Vassallo - 2006 - Epistemologia 29 (1):174-175.
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  49. Contextualism Without Incompleteness.Marina Sbisa - 2009 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 5 (1):55-72.
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  50. Teaching Subtlety of Thought: The Lessons of `Contextualism'. [REVIEW]Stephen Turner - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (1):77-95.
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