Epistemic Relativism, Misc

Edited by Markus Seidel (University of Münster)
Assistant editor: Charlott Becker (University of Münster)
About this topic
Summary Epistemic relativism is the position that knowledge is valid only relatively to a specific context, society, culture or individual. The discussion about epistemic relativism is one of the most fundamental discussions in epistemology concerning our understanding of notions such as 'justification' and 'good reason'.
Key works In Barnes & Bloor 1982, the sociologists of knowledge Barry Barnes and David Bloor explicitly endorse a relativist position,  In Paul Boghossian's Boghossian 2006 several forms of epistemic relativism are attacked,  Kuhn's classic Kuhn 1962 gave rise to epistemic relativist interpretations, Paul Feyerabend is a prominent proponent of epistemic relativism in the philosophy of science in his Feyerabend 1999, In Nagel 1997, Thomas Nagel defends his Last Word on relativism endorsing an absolutist position, Rorty 1991 defends a position taken by many to be relativistic
Introductions Laudan 1990 provides an introduction about the controversy in dialogue-form, For a general introduction to relativism including a chapter on the epistemic variant, see Swoyer 2008 in the Stanford encyclopedia. For an introduction to the epistemic variant see Carter 2016.
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435 found
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  1. added 2020-02-12
    Harvey Siegel Relativism Refuted: A Critique of Contemporary Epistemological Relativism. [REVIEW]Michael Krausz - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (4):841-845.
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  2. added 2019-12-13
    From Völkerpsychologie to the Sociology of Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):250-274.
    This article focuses on two developments in nineteenth-century (philosophy of) social science: Moritz Lazarus’s and Heymann Steinthal’s Völkerpsychologie and Georg Simmel’s early sociology of knowledge. The article defends the following theses. First, Lazarus and Steinthal wavered between a “strong” and a “weak” program for Völkerpsychologie. Ingredients for the strong program included methodological neutrality and symmetry; causal explanation of beliefs based on causal laws; a focus on groups, interests, tradition, culture, or materiality; determinism; and a self-referential model of social institutions. Second, (...)
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  3. added 2019-11-06
    La influencia epistemológica del modelo cartesiano de la mente en arqueología cognitiva.Alfredo Robles Zamora - 2019 - Límite: Revista de Filosofía y Psicología 14 (14).
    The aim of this work is to expose the Cartesian Model of the mind in Cognitive Archaeology and point out how it relates to the questions behind this branch of archaeology. Based on this, some of the premises assumed by the Cartesian Model and how they influence the formulation to the problem of epistemological relativism in the branch are explained. According to this problem, since there is no way to evaluate hypotheses in this research area, the investigations on cognition, based (...)
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  4. added 2019-07-09
    From Völkerpsychologie to Cultural Anthropology: Erich Rothacker’s Philosophy of Culture.Johannes Steizinger - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):308-328.
    Erich Rothacker (1888–1965) was a key figure in early-twentieth-century philosophy in Germany. In this paper, I examine the development of Rothacker’s philosophy of culture from 1907 to 1945. Rothacker began his philosophical career with a völkerpsychological dissertation on history, outlining his early biologistic conception of culture (1907–1913). In his mid-career work, he then turned to Wilhelm Dilthey’s (1833–1911) Lebensphilosophie (philosophy of life), advancing a hermeneutic approach to culture (1919–1928). In his later work (1929–1945), Rothacker developed a cultural anthropology. I shall (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-18
    Constructivism, Intersubjectivity, Provability, and Triviality.Andrea Guardo - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (4):515-527.
    Sharon Street defines her constructivism about practical reasons as the view that whether something is a reason to do a certain thing for a given agent depends on that agent’s normative point of view. However, Street has also maintained that there is a judgment about practical reasons which is true relative to every possible normative point of view, namely constructivism itself. I show that the latter thesis is inconsistent with Street’s own constructivism about epistemic reasons and discuss some consequences of (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-17
    Pragmatic Encroachment and Feminist Epistemology.Robin McKenna - forthcoming - In Natalie Alana Ashton, Martin Kusch, Robin McKenna & Katharina Sodoma (eds.), Social Epistemology and Epistemic Relativism. Routledge.
    Pragmatic encroachers argue that whether you know that p depends on a combination of pragmatic and epistemic factors. Most defenses of pragmatic encroachment focus on a particular pragmatic factor: how much is at stake for an individual. This raises a question: are there reasons for thinking that knowledge depends on other pragmatic factors that parallel the reasons for thinking that knowledge depends on the stakes? In this paper I argue that there are parallel reasons for thinking that knowledge depends on (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Scepticism, Relativism, and the Structure of Epistemic Frameworks.Steven Bland - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):539-544.
    This paper has four aims: first, to outline the role of the sceptical problem of the criterion in the principal argument for epistemic relativism; second, to establish that methodist and particularist responses to the problem of the criterion do not, by themselves, constitute successful strategies for resisting epistemic relativism; third, to argue that a more fruitful strategy is to attempt to evaluate epistemic frameworks on the basis of the epistemic resources that they have in common; and finally, to make the (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Practice Relativism.Stephen Turner - 2007 - Critica 39 (115):5-29.
    Practice relativism is the idea that practices are foundational for bodies of activity and thought, and differ from one another in ways that lead those who constitute the world in terms of them to incommensurable or conflicting conclusions. It is true that practices are not criticizable in any simple way because they are largely tacit and inaccessible. But to make them relativistic one needs an added claim: that practices are "normative", or conceptual in character. It is argued that this is (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Lee Epistemology After Protagoras: Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus. Pp. Xii + 291. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005. Cased, £45. ISBN: 0-19-926222-5. [REVIEW]James Warren - 2006 - The Classical Review 56 (1):59-61.
  10. added 2019-06-06
    Brains/Practices/Relativism: Social Theory After Cognitive Science. [REVIEW]Struan Jacobs - 2004 - Tradition and Discovery 31 (2):49-50.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    STEPHEN P. TURNER, Brains/Practices/Relativism: Social Theory After Cognitive Science. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pp. Ix+214. ISBN 0-226-81740-7. £12.00, $19.00. [REVIEW]Cornelius Borck - 2003 - British Journal for the History of Science 36 (3):383-384.
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Relativism and Reality: A Contemporary Introduction; Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth.Gerald Doppelt, Robert Kirk & Stathis Psillos - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):142.
    These books make significant contributions to contemporary realism. Psillos’s book presents an excellent overview of the central components of current scientific realism, the main challenges to it, and the most promising strategies for defending it. It is a work of remarkable clarity, synthesis, and argumentative rigor. Psillos’s realism is committed to three claims: Scientific theories make irreducible assertions about unobservable entities which are literally true or false ; In the case of mature, successful theories, their success provides good reason for (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Some Forms of Relativism: An Analogical Model.P. R. Brown - 2001 - International Studies in Philosophy 33 (4):1-27.
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Rationalism, Realism, and Relativism: Perspectives in Contemporary Moral Epistemology. [REVIEW]William J. Mohan - 1993 - International Studies in Philosophy 25 (3):100-101.
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Science and Relativism: Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]Robert Schwartz - 1992 - Teaching Philosophy 15 (3):272-274.
  16. added 2019-06-06
    Kuhn Reconstructed: Incommensurability Without Relativism.Michael E. Malone - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (1):69-93.
    The standard reading of Kuhn's philosophy attributes to him the view that the incommensurability of rival theories and theory-ladenness of observation make rational debate about competing paradigms nearly impossible. If this reflects his real view, then he has claimed something prima facie absurd, and easily refuted with historical counter-examples. It is not the incommensurability thesis per se that is easily refutable, but Kuhn's gestelt interpretation of it. The gestalt interpretation, moreover misrepresents his more fundamental ideas on paradigms, and is in (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    Against Epistemological Relativism.Frans Gregersen - 1988 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (4):447.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    Relativism and Foundationalism: Some Distinctions and Strategies.Michael Krausz - 1984 - The Monist 67 (3):395-404.
    Various issues are characteristically associated with discussions about relativism. The first concerns defining relativism—which is not an easy matter, since there seems to be no clear and well established usage to which one might appeal. Some stipulation is required, though this need not be arbitrary. One may proceed by distinguishing relativism from its putative contrast: absolutism, although defining this latter notion is as difficult as defining the former. Absolutism, however, at least, holds that the truth or the truth value of (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Is Relativism Self‐Refuting?John Weckert - 1984 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 16 (2):29-42.
  20. added 2019-06-06
    The Problem of the Criterion. [REVIEW]D. J. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (2):377-377.
    A major epistemological puzzle is that of the "diallelus," namely, how does one decide when one genuinely possesses knowledge of whatever. This problem vexed many Louvain philosophers at the turn of the century, and Chisholm attempts to effect a tentative solution to the problem by expanding upon some insights contained in Mercier’s Critériologie générale ou théorie générale de la certitude.
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  21. added 2019-06-05
    Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology.Michael Krausz (ed.) - 2010 - Columbia University Press.
    The thirty-three essays in <I>Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology</I> grapple with one of the most intriguing, enduring, and far-reaching philosophical problems of our age. Relativism comes in many varieties. It is often defined as the belief that truth, goodness, or beauty is relative to some context or reference frame, and that no absolute standards can adjudicate between competing reference frames. Michael Krausz's anthology captures the significance and range of relativistic doctrines, rehearsing their virtues and vices and reflecting on a spectrum of (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-05
    Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge: An Introduction to Steve Fuller's Social Epistemology.Francis Remedios - 2003 - Latham, MD: Lexington Books.
    The first book to provide an in-depth examination of Steve Fuller's politically oriented social epistemology, Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge compares Fuller's social epistemology with other interest-oriented and truth-oriented social epistemologies. The result is a carefully argued, in-depth analysis of the work of a groundbreaking philosopher of science.
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  23. added 2019-06-05
    What Relativism Isn’T.William Max Knorpp Jr - 1998 - Philosophy 73 (2):277-300.
    Introduction There is an enormous amount of confusion about what relativism is. In this paper I aim to take a step toward clarifying what it is by discussing some things that it is not — that is, by distinguishing it from some other views with which it is often confused or conflated, such as nihilism and scepticism. I do this primarily because I think that the question of the character of relativism is interesting in itself. A clearer characterization of relativism (...)
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  24. added 2019-05-26
    Absolutism, Relativism and Metaepistemology.J. Adam Carter & Robin McKenna - 2019 - Erkenntnis:1-21.
    This paper is about two topics: metaepistemological absolutism and the epistemic principles governing perceptual warrant. Our aim is to highlight – by taking the debate between dogmatists and conservativists about perceptual warrant as a case study – a surprising and hitherto unnoticed problem with metaepistemological absolutism, at least as it has been influentially defended by Paul Boghossian (2006a) as the principal metaepistemological contrast point to relativism. What we find is that the metaepistemological commitments at play on both sides of this (...)
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  25. added 2019-05-09
    Donald N. McCloskey, Knowledge and Persuasion in Economics. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1995 - Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (2):423-427.
    A discussion of one of the three books by which McCloskey launched his own economic rhetoric. The main criticism is that McCloskey enlarged view of rhetoric is still not encompassing enough, being limited to rhetoric in the writing of economic literature, while leaving the function of metaphor and other tropes in the more basic processes of conceptualization, theory change, and construction of 'observed' phenomena.
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  26. added 2019-04-12
    Against Relativism: A Philosophical Defense of Method by James Harris. [REVIEW]Leemon B. McHenry - 1994 - Review of Metaphysics 47 (3):619-621.
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  27. added 2019-02-01
    Kuhn’s Two Accounts of Rational Disagreement in Science: An Interpretation and Critique.Markus Seidel - forthcoming - Synthese:1-29.
    Whereas there is much discussion about Thomas Kuhn’s notion of methodological incommensurability and many have seen his ideas as an attempt to allow for rational disagreement in science, so far no serious analysis of how exactly Kuhn aims to account for rational disagreement has been proposed. This paper provides the first in-depth analysis of Kuhn’s account of rational disagreement in science—an account that can be seen as the most prominent attempt to allow for rational disagreement in science. Three things will (...)
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  28. added 2019-01-31
    Epistemic Relativism: A Constructive Critique, by Markus Seidel: Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, Pp. X + 284, £60. [REVIEW]Robert Nola - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):628-629.
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  29. added 2018-07-27
    Relativism, Commensurability and Translatability.Hans-Johann Glock - 2007 - Ratio 20 (4):377–402.
    This paper discusses conceptual relativism. The main focus is on the contrasting ideas of Wittgenstein and Davidson, with Quine, Kuhn, Feyerabend and Hacker in supporting roles. I distinguish conceptual from alethic and ontological relativism, defend a distinction between conceptual scheme and empirical content, and reject the Davidsonian argument against the possibility of alternative conceptual schemes: there can be conceptual diversity without failure of translation, and failure of translation is not necessarily incompatible with recognizing a practice as linguistic. Conceptual relativism may (...)
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  30. added 2018-06-26
    Més enllà i més ençà del relativisme: tres filòsofs postmoderns i les seues raòns.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2009 - Dilema: Revista de Filosofía 13 (1-2):73-94.
    Les diferents filosofies “postmodernes” que sorgiren dels anys 1970 als anys 1990 s'han considerat sovint com una classe d´“ideología” irracionalista-escèptica-relativista (o alguna altra sort d´amalgama semblant) que en el nostre temps prendrien perillosament el control sobre la filosofia acadèmica i la cultura occidental, amb greu risc per als universalistes o, simplement, per a qualsevol projecte racionalista.2 No obstant això, com el títol d'aquest article denota, un examen més detallat d'algunes tendències del pensament postmodern podria mostrar no solament que algunes d´aquestes (...)
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  31. added 2018-06-01
    Was Heidegger a Relativist?Sacha Golob - forthcoming - In Martin Kusch, Katherina Kinzel, Johannes Steizinger & Niels Wildschut (eds.), The Emergence of Relativism: German Thought from the Enlightenment to National Socialism. pp. 18.
    The structure of this article is very simple. In the first half, I will introduce a sophisticated way of reading Heidegger as a relativist; I draw here on the work of Kusch and Lafont. In the second half, I present the counter-argument. As I see it, Heidegger is not a relativist; but understanding the relations between his approach and a relativistic one is crucial for an evaluation of both his own work and the broader trajectory of post-Kantian thought.
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  32. added 2018-06-01
    Provocation on Reproducing Perspectives: Part 1.Stephen Turner - 1988 - Social Epistemology 2 (1):93-95.
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  33. added 2018-03-08
    How Not to Write an Introduction to Relativism: Bernd Irlenborn: Relativismus. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2016, 152pp, $35.00 PB. [REVIEW]Markus Seidel - 2018 - Metascience 27 (1):99-105.
  34. added 2018-03-08
    Scylla and Charybdis of the Epistemic Relativist: Why the Epistemic Relativist Still Cannot Use the Sceptic’s Strategy.Markus Seidel - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):145-149.
    In a reply to Howard Sankey I have maintained that the epistemic relativist cannot use the strategy of the sceptic since the relativist is at pains not to draw the sceptical solution. Sankey has objected to my argument by distinguishing between weak and strong justification: according to Sankey, the relativist using the sceptic’s strategy aims to provide an argument against the latter form of justification but still maintains that we can have the former.In this counter-response I argue that if this (...)
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  35. added 2018-03-08
    Why the Epistemic Relativist Cannot Use the Sceptic’s Strategy. A Comment on Sankey.Markus Seidel - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):134-139.
    In two recent papers in Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Howard Sankey has argued that there is an intimate relationship between Pyrrhonian skepticism and recent approaches to epistemic relativism.Though the general argument and idea of Sankey’s papers is very much appreciated, it is argued that the epistemic relativist’s recourse to the skeptical strategy outlined by the Pyrrhonian is not a good one. This diagnosis gives rise to an objection against the epistemic relativist who argues on the basis of (...)
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  36. added 2018-03-08
    Introduction.Markus Seidel & Richard Schantz - 2011 - In Markus Seidel & Richard Schantz (eds.), The Problem of Relativism in the Sociology of Knowledge. De Gruyter. pp. 11-22.
  37. added 2018-02-18
    Epistemology After Protagoras.Luca Castagnoli - 2007 - Ancient Philosophy 27 (2):405 - 418.
  38. added 2018-02-18
    Moderate Epistemic Relativism and Our Epistemic Goals.Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2007 - Episteme 4 (1):66-92.
    Although radical forms of relativism are perhaps beyond the epistemological pale, I argue here that a more moderate form may be plausible, and articulate the conditions under which moderate epistemic relativism could well serve our epistemic goals. In particular, as a result of our limitations as human cognizers, we find ourselves needing to investigate the dappled and difficult world by means of competing communities of highly specialized researchers. We would do well, I argue, to admit of the existence of unresolvable (...)
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  39. added 2018-02-17
    The Case for Rational Uniqueness.Jonathan Matheson - 2011 - Logic and Episteme 2 (3):359-373.
    The Uniqueness Thesis, or rational uniqueness, claims that a body of evidence severely constrains one’s doxastic options. In particular, it claims that for any body of evidence E and proposition P, E justifies at most one doxastic attitude toward P. In this paper I defend this formulation of the uniqueness thesis and examine the case for its truth. I begin by clarifying my formulation of the Uniqueness Thesis and examining its close relationship to evidentialism. I proceed to give some motivation (...)
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  40. added 2018-02-17
    Relativism.Maria Baghramian & J. Adam Carter - 2004 - Routledge.
    Beginning with a historical overview of relativism, from Pythagoras in ancient Greece to Derrida and postmodernism, Maria Baghramian explores the resurgence of relativism throughout the history of philosophy. She then turns to the arguments for and against the many subdivisions of relativism, including Kuhn and Feyerabend's ideas of relativism in science, Rorty's relativism about truth, and the conceptual relativism of Quine and Putnam. Baghramian questions whether moral relativism leads to moral indifference or even nihilism, and whether feminist epistemology's concerns about (...)
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  41. added 2018-02-17
    Critical Realism, Post-Positivism and the Possibility of Knowledge.Ruth Groff - 2004 - Routledge.
    Groff defends 'realism about causality' through close discussions of Kant, Hilary Putnam, Brian Ellis and Charles Taylor, among others. In so doing she affirms critical realism, but with several important qualifications. In particular, she rejects the theory of truth advanced by Roy Bhaskar. She also attempts to both clarify and correct earlier critical realist attempts to apply realism about causality to the social sciences. By connecting issues in metaphysics and philosophy of science to the problem of relativism, Groff bridges the (...)
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  42. added 2018-02-17
    Stance Relativism: Empiricism Versus Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Anjan Chakravartty - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (1):173-184.
    In The empirical stance, Bas van Fraassen argues for a reconceptualization of empiricism, and a rejection of its traditional rival, speculative metaphysics, as part of a larger and provocative study in epistemology. Central to his account is the notion of voluntarism in epistemology, and a concomitant understanding of the nature of rationality. In this paper I give a critical assessment of these ideas, with the ultimate goal of clarifying the nature of debate between metaphysicians and empiricists, and more specifically, between (...)
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  43. added 2018-02-17
    How Are Objective Epistemic Reasons Possible?Paul Boghossian - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 106 (1):1-40.
    Epistemic relativism has the contemporary academy in its grip. Not merely in the United States, but seemingly everywhere, most scholars working in the humanities and the social sciences seem to subscribe to some form of it. Even where the label is repudiated, the view is embraced. Sometimes the relativism in question concerns truth, sometimes justification. The core impulse appears to be a relativism about knowledge. The suspicion is widespread that what counts as knowledge in one cultural, or broadly ideological, setting (...)
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  44. added 2018-02-17
    On the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and its Philosophical Agenda.Michael Friedman - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):239-271.
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  45. added 2018-02-16
    La crítica posmoderna de la ciencia: una genealogía francesa.Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 1997 - Ciencia Ergo Sum 4 (2):223-229.
    Postmodern thought has focused itself on the critique of modern epistemology that was founded on a clear distinction between the knowing subject and the object of knowledge. For postmodern thought such a distinction is non-existent or dubious at best. Postmodernism has carried to its logical conclusion the postulates of structuralism; therefore, for postmodern thought there is no general intrinsic meaning in a fact of thing, but there are only particular ways for attributing meaning to such facts and things. Hereunder, we (...)
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  46. added 2018-02-13
    The Future of Epistemic Possibility.Meagan Lowell Phillips - 2017 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):45-62.
    I am concerned with epistemic possibility expressions (EPEs) such as “It might be raining.” Much of the discussion of EPEs has concerned the fact that a given EPE can seem true in one context and false in another. Motivated by this data, contextualists have argued that modal expressions are sensitive to information at a context of use. Contextualist analyses encounter problems when it comes to disagreements centered on EPEs. Relativists such as John MacFarlane argue that epistemic modals are sensitive to (...)
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  47. added 2018-01-14
    Towards a Unified Concept of Reality.Steven James Bartlett - 1975 - ETC: A Review of General Semantics 32 (1):43-49.
    This is a study of the relativity of facts in relation to the frameworks of reference in terms of which those facts are established. In this early paper from 1975, intended for a less technical audience, the author proposes an understanding of facts and their associated frameworks in terms of complementarity. This understanding of facts leads to an integrated yet pluralistic concept of reality. In the Addendum, readers will find a partial listing of related publications by the author that extend (...)
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  48. added 2017-12-10
    The Problem of Fake News.M. R. X. Dentith - 2016 - Public Reason 8 (1-2):65-79.
    Looking at the recent spate of claims about “fake news” which appear to be a new feature of political discourse, I argue that fake news presents an interesting problem in epistemology. Te phenomena of fake news trades upon tolerating a certain indiference towards truth, which is sometimes expressed insincerely by political actors. Tis indiference and insincerity, I argue, has been allowed to fourish due to the way in which we have set the terms of the “public” epistemology that maintains what (...)
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  49. added 2017-12-08
    Relativism Defended.Howard Darmstadter - 2016 - Cogent Arts and Humanities 3:1-11.
    I argue for a type of relativism that allows different people to have conflicting accurate representations of the world. This is contrary to the view of most Anglo-American philosophers, who would, with Paul Boghossian in Fear of Knowledge, deny that “there are many radically different, yet ‘equally valid’ ways of knowing the world.” My argument is not a metaphysical argument about the ultimate nature of the outside world, but a psychological argument about the mental processes of representation. The argument starts (...)
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  50. added 2017-11-25
    Postmodernism is Not a Relativism. Communication Practices and Ethical Attitudes in Some Postmodern Thinkers.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2007 - Concordia, Internationale Zeitschrift Für Philosophie 51:61-84.
    The different “postmodern” philosophies that arose from the 1970s to the 1990s have often been considered as a kind of irrationalist-skeptical-relativist “ideology” or assorted amalgam, which in our time would dangerously take over the philosophical academy and western cultures, with grave risk for universalist or simply rationalist projects. Nevertheless, as the title of this article shows, a closer examination of some trends of postmodern thought would be able to perceive that they not only are uncomfortable with the label “relativist,” “irrationalist” (...)
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