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  1. Imagine What It Feels Like.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - forthcoming - In Anja Berninger & Ingrid Vendrell Ferran (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Memory and Imagination.
    Often in our everyday lives, for instance, in decision-taking, empathizing with others, and engaging with fictions, we are able to imagine what a particular emotion feels like. This chapter analyzes the structure of these imaginings as a kind of experiential imagining. After introducing the topic (section 1), I argue that these imaginings cannot be explained exclusively by their content and that a focus on the mode of imagining is required. We not only imagine having emotions, but we also imagine them (...)
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  2. Scheler and Zambrano: On a Transformation of the Heart in Spanish Philosophy.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran & Karolina Enquist Källgren - 2022 - History of European Ideas 47.
    This paper compares the concept of the heart in the works of Max Scheler and María Zambrano. Both authors use the heart as a metaphor for distinct human affective phenomena that have a central anthropological, epistemological, and ontological significance. The comparison between authors’ use of the metaphor is organised around three main topics: the order of the heart; the idea of a primordial feeling and its place in the affective life; and the primacy of love in relation to negative affective (...)
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  3. Feeling as Consciousness of Value.Ingrid Vendrell Ferran - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 25 (1):71-88.
    A vast range of our everyday experiences seem to involve an immediate consciousness of value. We hear the rudeness of someone making offensive comments. In seeing someone risking her life to save another, we recognize her bravery. When we witness a person shouting at an innocent child, we feel the unfairness of this action. If, in learning of a close friend’s success, envy arises in us, we experience our own emotional response as wrong. How are these values apprehended? The three (...)
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  4. La valoración como eslabón de enlace entre el conocimiento y la práctica.José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 1987 - Problemas Actuales de la Filosofía Marxista-Leninista 1 (1):19-27.
    Los nexos de la valoración con la actividad práctica de los seres humanos son muchos y variados. La práctica constituye el fundamento de la actividad valorativa, provee a esta de sentido y dirección, actúa en calidad de objetivo último de todo proceso valorativo. Al mismo tiempo, la valoración constituye la expresión directa en la conciencia de la determinación práctica de la reproducción subjetiva de la realidad objetiva y del carácter activo de esta apropiación. De ella en gran medida depende la (...)
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  5. Alvin Plantinga’s Reidian Particularism: An Overview of an Epistemological Project.Mark J. Boone - 2021 - Criswell Theological Review 19 (1).
    Plantinga’s God and Other Minds, Reformed Epistemology articles, and Warrant Trilogy are all part of the same epistemological project. Although the project develops in phases focusing progressively on anti-theism, evidentialism, and internalism, the epistemology is consistently a Reidian particularism. It follows Roderick Chisholm’s famous particularist strategy for finding an epistemic criterion, uses principles of common sense from Thomas Reid as clear cases of beliefs satisfying that criterion, and applies that criterion to belief in God in order to show that this (...)
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  6. Engaging Putnam.Sanjit Chakraborty & James Ferguson Conant - forthcoming - Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    Hilary Whitehall Putnam was one of the leading philosophers of the second half of the 20th century. As student of Rudolph Carnap's and Hans Reichenbach's, he went on to become not only a major figure in North American analytic philosophy, who made significant contributions to the philosphy of mind, language, mathematics, and physics but also to the disciplines of logic, number theory, and computer science. He passed away on March 13, 2016. The present volume is a memorial to his extraordinary (...)
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  7. A New Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism.Quan-Hoang Vuong (ed.) - 2022 - Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    The book explores the nature, underlying causes, and the information processing mechanism of serendipity. It proposes that natural or social survival demands drive serendipity, and serendipity is conditional on the environment and the mindset, on both individual and collective levels. From Darwin’s evolution theory to Sun Tzu’s war tactics, major innovations throughout human history are unified by this key concept. In the rapidly changing world, information is abundant but rather chaotic. The adaptive power of serendipity allows people to notice treasures (...)
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  8. Awareness and the Substructure of Knowledge.Paul Silva Jr - forthcoming - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    The expression ‘aware of the fact that’ is a commonplace, not at all a philosopher’s term of art. We often criticize, excuse, admonish, and inform each other by relying on expressions of the form ‘S is (not) aware of the fact that p’ and such uses presuppose the existence of a state of awareness that one can be in or fail to be in with regard to some fact. Here lies the phenomenon of factual awareness. It is conventional in epistemology (...)
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  9. Spinoza on Activity in Sense Perception.Valtteri Viljanen - 2014 - In José Filipe Silva & Mikko Yrjönsuuri (eds.), Active Perception in the History of Philosophy: From Plato to Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 241-254.
    There can be little disagreement about whether ideas of sense perception are, for Spinoza, to be classed as passions or actions—the former is obviously the correct answer. All this, however, does not mean that sense perception would be, for Spinoza, completely passive. In this essay I argue argues that there is in the Ethics an elaborate—and to my knowledge previously unacknowledged—line of reasoning according to which sense perception of finite things never fails to contain a definite active component. This argument (...)
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  10. The Significance of Socially Distributed Cognition for Social Epistemology: Forcing Modesty Upon the Epistemology of Testimony.Joseph Shieber - manuscript
    This is an early, alternative version of the paper that became Shieber 2013, “Toward a truly social epistemology: Babbage, the division of mental labor, and the possibility of socially distributed warrant,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 86(2), pp. 266-294. This paper differs from the later paper in a few notable respects. In this earlier paper – written in 2008-9 – I use Hutchins to illustrate the phenomenon of socially distributed cognitive processes, rather than Babbage, and I discuss the attributes of such (...)
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  11. Experience is Knowledge.Matt Duncan - 2021 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 1. Oxford, UK: pp. 106-129.
    It seems like experience plays a positive—even essential—role in generating some knowledge. The problem is, it’s not clear what that role is. To see this, suppose that when your visual system takes in information about the world around you it skips the experience step and just automatically and immediately generates beliefs in you about your surroundings. A lot of philosophers think that, in such a case, you would (or at least could) still know, via perception, about the world around you. (...)
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  12. On the Epistemological Significance of Arguments From Non Transitive Similarity.Friedrich Wilhelm Grafe - 2021 - Archive.Org.
    This paper aims to argue for, else illustrate the epistemological significance of the use of non transitive similarity relations, mapping only to "types", as methodologically being on a par with the use of transitive similarity relations (equivalence relations), mapping as well to "predicates". -/- In this paper the sketch of an exact but simple geometrical model of the above construct is followed by mentioning respective use cases for non transitive similarity relations from science and humanities. A well known metaphysics example (...)
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  13. Epistemological Decolonization Through a Relational Knowledge- Making Model.Louis Botha, Dominic Griffiths & Maria Prozesky - 2021 - Africa Today 67 (4):50-72.
    This article argues for epistemic decolonization by developing a relational model of knowledge, which we locate within indigenous knowledges. We live in a time of ongoing global, epistemic coloniality, embedded in and shaped by colonial ideas and practices. Epistemological decolonization requires taking nondominant knowledges and their epistemes seriously to open up the possibility of interrogating and dismantling the hegemony of the Western knowledge tradition. We here ask two related questions: What are the decolonial affordances of indigenous knowledges? And how do (...)
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  14. Erkenntnistheorie.Martin Grajner - 2011 - In Johannes Rohbeck & Peggy Breitenstein (eds.), Einführung in die Philosophie: Epochen – Disziplinen – Kompetenzen. Stuttgart, Deutschland: pp. 147-163.
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  15. BACON E A INDUÇÃO POR SUBTRAÇÃO COMO NOVO MÉTODO INDUTIVO NA FUNDAÇÃO DO EMPIRISMO MODERNO.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2020 - Revista Filosofia Capital 15 (22):21-35.
    Defendendo a união entre a razão e a experiência como a possibilidade de instauração do desenvolvimento científico, Bacon se contrapõe à indução aristotélica enquanto procedimento que implica a enumeração de casos particulares tendo em vista o objetivo de encontrar o geral existente em todos e em cada um deles em um processo que se detém na soma de fatos, limitando-se à comunicação, na medida em que não tem capacidade de empreender a descoberta do conhecimento. Dessa forma, sobrepondo-se ao acúmulo de (...)
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  16. Da ciência das quatro causas à ciência conjectural: Demonstração, invenção e descoberta entre Aristóteles, Bacon, Kant e Popper.Luiz Carlos Mariano Da Rosa - 2021 - São Paulo, SP, Brasil: PZP - Politikón Zôon Publicações.
    O referido trabalho de pesquisa se detém no desenvolvimento do pensamento científico através de uma construção teórico-conceitual baseada em Aristóteles, Bacon, Kant e Popper, convergindo para uma investigação que assinala desde a fundação da ciência em um processo que traz como perspectiva a ciência da substância (ou ciência das quatro causas) de Aristóteles, mostrando a contribuição de Bacon para a instauração da ciência moderna por intermédio da concepção de um novo método indutivo e da união entre ciência e técnica com (...)
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  17. J. M. Bocheński's Understanding of the World and Logical Albebraic Structures.Wybraniec-Skardowska Urszula - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70 (5):81-92.
    This work will focus on Józef Maria Bocheński’s inclination towards seeing the world and its logical structure from the point of view of ontology. In section 2, we shall discuss the perception of the world deriving from Bocheński, while in the third section – issues of its logical structure will be dealt with. In section 4, we will present a formal framework of the structure of the world.
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  18. Disagreement and Easy Bootstrapping.Eyal Tal - 2021 - Episteme 18 (1):46-65.
    ABSTRACTShould conciliating with disagreeing peers be considered sufficient for reaching rational beliefs? Thomas Kelly argues that when taken this way, Conciliationism lets those who enter into a disagreement with an irrational belief reach a rational belief all too easily. Three kinds of responses defending Conciliationism are found in the literature. One response has it that conciliation is required only of agents who have a rational belief as they enter into a disagreement. This response yields a requirement that no one should (...)
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  19. Neues System der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundriss. Band I: Erkenntnistheorie.Dirk Hartmann - 2020 - Paderborn, Deutschland: Mentis.
    Im Band 1 wird in die erkenntnistheoretischen Grundlagen, die in den folgenden Bänden des Systems zur Anwendung gebracht werden sollen, eingeführt. Nach der Klärung des zugrundeliegenden Philosophie- und Wahrheitsverständnisses werden die Unterscheidungspaare analytisch/synthetisch und a priori/a posteriori gegen die gängigen Einwände verteidigt und der Status des synthetischen Apriori geklärt. Im Anschluss werden sprachphilosophische Fragen behandelt und eine (Relevanz-)Logik aufgebaut. Abschließend wird unter Bezug auf die Krisis-Schrift Edmund Husserls eine bestimmte Auffassung von Wissenschaftstheorie entwickelt, gemäß welcher die methodische Rekonstruktion wissenschaftlicher Wissensbestände (...)
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  20. No hope for the Irrelevance Claim.Miguel Egler - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (11):3351-3371.
    Empirical findings about intuitions putatively cast doubt on the traditional methodology of philosophy. Herman Cappelen and Max Deutsch have argued that these methodological concerns are unmotivated as experimental findings about intuitions are irrelevant for assessments of the methodology of philosophy—I dub this the ‘Irrelevance Claim’. In this paper, I first explain that for Cappelen and Deutsch to vindicate the Irrelevance Claim from a forceful objection, their arguments have to establish that intuitions play no epistemically significant role whatsoever in philosophy—call this (...)
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  21. Field Notes on the Naturalization and Denaturalization of Disability in (Feminist) Philosophy: What They Do and How They Do It.Shelley Lynn Tremain - 2020 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 6 (3).
    Abstract In this article, I offer an account of how the individualized and medicalized conception of disability that prevailsin philosophy is naturalized in bioethics, cognitive science, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, and other subfields of the discipline. By the end of the article, I will have both indicated how disabled people are constituted in philosophical discourse as a problem to be rectified or eliminated and explained how the prevalence in philosophy of this naturalized conceptionof disability contributes to and reinforces the exclusion (...)
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  22. Review of Laura Candiotto's The Value of Emotions for Knowledge. [REVIEW]Angela Mendelovici - 2020 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
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  23. Concepts of Truth in Literature: A Contemporary Reading of Hartmann's Aesthetics.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - forthcoming - In Thomas Kessel & Friedrich Hausen (eds.), Wert und Wahrheit in der Kunst. Die Ästhetik Nicolai Hartmanns.
    This paper offers a reading of Hartmann’s philosophy of literature from the perspective of contemporary aesthetics. In particular, I focus on his defense of the truth-value of literary works. After outlining the main concern of the paper (sect. 1), I place Hartmann’s view within the context of current aesthetic cognitivism (sect. 2). In the following three sections, I discuss Hartmann’s account, examining his critique of the thesis that literature is cognitively valuable because it transmits factual truths (sect. 3); his defense (...)
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  24. Feeling, Knowledge, Self-Preservation: Audre Lorde’s Oppositional Agency and Some Implications for Ethics.Caleb Ward - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (4):463-482.
    Throughout her work, Audre Lorde maintains that her self-preservation in the face of oppression depends on acting from the recognition and valorization of her feelings as a deep source of knowledge. This claim, taken as a portrayal of agency, poses challenges to standard positions in ethics, epistemology, and moral psychology. This article examines the oppositional agency articulated by Lorde’s thought, locating feeling, poetry, and the power she calls “the erotic” within her avowed project of self-preservation. It then explores the implications (...)
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  25. Mystical Interpretation of the Qurʿān.Amir Asghari - 2016 - Burhan Journal of Qur'anic Studies 1 (01):28-45.
    Interpretation of the verses of Qurʿān has a history back to the early revelation. Muslims believe that Qurʿān is the word of God, which is revealed to Muhammad, and therefore, understanding the real purpose of the Qurʿān, is vital. Reading the Qurʿān, for traditional Muslims was not like reading a scientific or historical text, it was rather encountering with a metaphysical reality that is formulated in the form of the letters, words, verses, and chapters with the goal of educating man (...)
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  26. Sobre a Crítica de Hans Jonas À Moral de Kant E a Fundamentação da Ética Jonasiana.Edgard José Jorge Filho - 2019 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 75 (1):513-536.
    In his proposal of an ethics for the technologic civilization, Hans Jonas criticizes Kant’s ethics whereas incorporates some of its fundamental concepts. This paper intends to scrutinize Jonas’ critique, arguing that the Kantian moral philosophy is justifiable in face of it and also able to overcome certain difficulties that may affect the pillars of Jonas’ ethics of future. Moreover, in a concise way, this work will discuss the matter of a possible conciliation between the material character of Jonas’ ethics and (...)
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  27. Bayesian Norms and Non-Ideal Agents.Julia Staffel - forthcoming - In Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton M. Littlejohn (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy Evidence. Routledge.
    Bayesian epistemology provides a popular and powerful framework for modeling rational norms on credences, including how rational agents should respond to evidence. The framework is built on the assumption that ideally rational agents have credences, or degrees of belief, that are representable by numbers that obey the axioms of probability. From there, further constraints are proposed regarding which credence assignments are rationally permissible, and how rational agents’ credences should change upon learning new evidence. While the details are hotly disputed, all (...)
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  28. A Different Kind of Dream-Based Skepticism.Michael Veber - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 7):1827-1839.
    Sextus Empiricus offers an underappreciated and under-discussed version of dream-based skepticism. Most philosophers interested in dreams and skepticism focus on the question of how you know you are not currently dreaming. Sextus points out that our waking experiences and dreams often conflict. And, the challenge goes, what reason do you have to trust the one over the other? This question presupposes that dreams and waking experiences are distinguishable. Thus the kinds of responses typically offered against dream-based skepticism do not apply. (...)
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  29. Do Projeto Crítico Kantiano: os Direitos da Razão entre a Lógica da Verdade e a Lógica da Aparência.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2014 - Revista Opinião Filosófica 5 (2):85-109.
    Sobrepondo uma concepção crítica envolvendo os fundamentos do saber às ontologias dogmáticas que se impõem ao trabalho que implica a apreensão das questões filosóficas, o projeto kantiano propõe o fim da filosofia como construção metafísica e a necessidade de se lhe atribuir uma tarefa teórica de caráter essencialmente genealógico e crítico, no sentido que encerra a legitimação do conhecimento racional através da análise das faculdades que se lhe estão atreladas, conforme assinala o artigo, que se detém nos direitos da razão (...)
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  30. Da Revolução Copernicana.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2011 - Revista Opinião Filosófica 2 (2):34-51.
    O artigo em questão se detém nas implicações epistemológicas da revolução copernicana de Immanuel Kant, cuja perspectiva, emergindo das fronteiras que inter-relacionam o racionalismo de Leibniz, o empirismo de Hume e a ciência positiva físico-matemática de Newton, instaura o horizonte do idealismo transcendental, estabelecendo a correlação fundamental envolvendo o sujeito e o objeto do conhecimento.
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  31. Forty-One Principles for Understanding Scripture.Daniel Keeran - 2019 - Academia.Edu.
    While the author cannot speak for churches of Christ, common among them are unique ways of understanding holy scripture, believed to have been written by the apostles and prophets of the Lord before the destruction of Jerusalem (70 A.D.) and circulated among the early Christian communities (E.g. A letter called First Clement in about 95 A.D., refers to at least ten New Testament books), then collected as a volume by the self-identified Christian community of the second century A.D. or earlier, (...)
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  32. Explanatory Virtues Are Indicative of Truth.Kevin McCain - 2018 - Logos and Episteme 9 (1):63-73.
    In a recent issue of this journal, Miloud Belkoniene challenges explanationist accounts of evidential support in two ways. First, he alleges that there are cases that show explanatory virtues are not linked to the truth of hypotheses. Second, he maintains that attempts to show that explanatoriness is relevant to evidential support because it adds to the resiliency of probability functions fail. I contest both of Belkoniene’s claims.
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  33. The Interplay Between Models and Observations.Claudio Masolo, Alessander Botti Benevides & Daniele Porello - 2018 - Applied ontology 13 (1):41-71.
    We propose a formal framework to examine the relationship between models and observations. To make our analysis precise,models are reduced to first-order theories that represent both terminological knowledge – e.g., the laws that are supposed to regulate the domain under analysis and that allow for explanations, predictions, and simulations – and assertional knowledge – e.g., information about specific entities in the domain of interest. Observations are introduced into the domain of quantification of a distinct first-order theory that describes their nature (...)
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  34. Tell Me Something I Don't Know: Dialogues in Epistemology.Michael Veber - 2018 - Broadview Press.
    _Tell Me Something I Don’t Know_ is a collection of original dialogues in epistemology, suitable for student readers but also of interest to experts. Familiar problems, theories, and arguments are explored: second-order knowledge, epistemic closure, the preface paradox, skepticism, pragmatic encroachment, the Gettier problem, and more. New ideas on each of these issues are also offered, defended, and critiqued, often in humorous and entertaining ways.
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  35. X—Epistemology Past and Present.John Carriero - 2013 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 113 (2pt2):175-200.
    ABSTRACTI draw attention to certain differences between how seventeenth‐century philosophers thought about knowledge and how contemporary philosophers think about it. These differences do not strike me as particularly subtle; they are gross enough that we might wonder about the extent to which seventeenthth‐century philosophers and modern philosophers are interested in the same thing. We might also wonder about the extent to which it is helpful to apply the same label—say, ‘epistemology’—to both sets of interests. I think, for example, one might (...)
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  36. I—Non‐Inferential Knowledge.Marie McGinn - 2012 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (1pt1):1-28.
    This paper looks at statements I am in a position to make ‘straight off’: observational judgements, perceptual and memory statements, statements about my posture, my intentions, and so on. These kinds of statement pose a problem: what is the nature of my entitlement to them? I focus on observational judgements and on two contrasting approaches to them. The first, which I reject, provides an account of my warrant for them; the second, which I defend, disconnects my entitlement from possession of (...)
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  37. In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of a Priori Justification.Erik J. Olsson - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (2):243-249.
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  38. I—Testimony, Illocution and the Second Person.Richard Moran - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):115-135.
    The notion of ‘bipolar’ or ‘second‐personal’ normativity is often illustrated by such situations as that of one person addressing a complaint to another, or asserting some right, or claiming some authority. This paper argues that the presence of speech acts of various kinds in the development of the idea of the ‘second‐personal’ is not accidental. Through development of a notion of ‘illocutionary authority’ I seek to show a role for the ‘second‐personal’ in ordinary testimony, despite Darwall's argument that the notion (...)
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  39. Facts, Words and Beliefs. [REVIEW]A. D. H. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (2):413-414.
    In this careful and fresh analysis of the relationships between facts, words and beliefs, the author attempts to clarify how images and words relate to the world so as to establish beliefs and support knowledge. The reader is first presented with the ontological background of the analysis, including the status of sense-data, the nature of universals and our experience of them, and the epistemological status of the world. Sprigge then turns to a discussion of semiotic background including pragmatic and semantic (...)
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  40. Lawrence Bonjour’s in Defense of Pure Reason. [REVIEW]Robert Levy - 1999 - Southwest Philosophy Review 15 (2):123-126.
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  41. The Given in Experience: Comment on Gupta.John Mcdowell - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (2):468-474.
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  42. The Study of Knowledge: Natural Philosophy or Metaphysics?Joseph Owens - 1968 - New Scholasticism 42 (1):103-106.
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  43. Two Fallacies.James Cargile - 2010 - Logos and Episteme 1 (2):257-268.
    In charging argumentum ad hominem, we accuse someone of attacking the source of a claim. In charging argumentum ad verecundiam, we attack the source of a claim. This is reason for attending to "attacking the source." It is important to distinguish probabilistic reasons for doubting a claim and evidentiary reasons. Evidence that the source of a claim is likely to be wrong is not evidence against the claim. The tendency to overlook this is the essential feature of the ad hominem (...)
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  44. 5. Inquiry and Belief on Authority.Blake D. Dutton - 2016 - In Augustine and Academic Skepticism: A Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press. pp. 95-119.
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  45. "In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of A Priori Justification" by Laurence BonJour. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2003 - Mind 112 (447):502-6.
    Laurence BonJour divides approaches to a priori justification into three kinds. Quine’s radical empiricism denies the existence of any special category of a priori justification; moderate empiricism attempts to explain a priori justification in terms of something like knowledge of meaning or grasp of concepts; and rationalism postulates an irreducible ‘rational insight’ into the nature of reality. The positions therefore form a familiar trio of eliminativism, reductionism and anti-reductionism concerning a priori justification. BonJour’s interesting and (in the present philosophical climate) (...)
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  46. Ways of Knowledge and Experience.Bernard Mayo & Louis Arnaud Reid - 1963 - Philosophical Review 72 (1):106.
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  47. Intuition and Introspection Problems in Henryk Elzenberg’s Philosophy.Anita Benisławska - 2009 - Dialogue and Universalism 19 (8-9):83-92.
    Intuition and introspection are very interesting terms in Elzenberg’s thought. The intuition is connected with the earlier phase of Elzenberg’s philosophy. Intuition is a form of world cognition. It is tool of selection of the contents. In Elzenberg’s philosophy introspection is a later term than intuition. It may lead intuition but is not a necessity. Process of cognition can finish with introspection which is a phase of information collection. In this meaning introspection creates circumstances for intuition. Introspection is a form (...)
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  48. A Justification of Reason.Frederic Schick - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (23):835.
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  49. Empiricism and Natural Knowledge. [REVIEW]J. G. & Sterling P. Lamprecht - 1942 - Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):109.
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  50. Statistical Theory of Distributional Phenomena in Learning.W. K. Estes - 1955 - Psychological Review 62 (5):369-377.
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