About this topic
Summary The epistemology of religion covers the varied epistemological questions that may be posed concerning religious belief; it thus lies at the intersection of epistemology and philosophy of religion. Traditional issues include the rationality of religious belief/disbelief, the nature of evidence for and against theism, whether and under what circumstances knowledge of God (if there is one) is possible, the roles of religious experience or revelation or testimony in supporting religious belief, whether arguments or evidence are needed to support religious belief (see 'reformed epistemology' subcategory, as well as work on fideism), the nature of 'faith' (in both religious and non-religious contexts), and the epistemological consequences of disagreement on religious questions.
Key works A handful of philosophers have been most important in shaping the recent literature on the rationality of religious belief: see especially the collection edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983), and book-length treatments Plantinga 1967, Swinburne 1977, Swinburne 1996, Plantinga 2000, Alston 1991, plus the collections Wolterstorff 2010 and VanArragon & Clark 2011. For criticism see Mackie 1982Sobel 2003Schellenberg 2007. For recent work on faith, see  Buchak 2012Howard-Snyder 2013, and Buchak 2014; for epistemological issues in debates over arguments from evil and suffering, see Benton et al 2016; and for discussions of disagreement and religious belief, see Oppy 2010, Pittard 2015 and Pittard 2019, Dormandy 2018, and Benton & Kvanvig 2021. For important historical considerations, see Coakley 2009 and Coakley 2012. For newer work, see Benton et al 2018Dormandy 2020, and Benton 2024.
Introductions Clark 2004, Forrest 2008Dastmalchian 2013, Smith 2014, and Dunaway & Hawthorne 2017.
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  1. Racjonalne przekonania religijne bez naturalnego rozumu?Ewa Odoj - 2024 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 30 (2):159-180.
    Zgodnie z intuicją, która jest bardzo popularna na Zachodzie, przekonania, w tym przekonania religijne, muszą być poparte wystarczającymi dowodami, aby można je było uznać za racjonalne (lub uzasadnione) (ewidencjalizm). Plantinga formułuje własne poglądy na temat racjonalności przekonań religijnych, które uważa za przeciwstawne do tradycyjnego poglądu. Centralna teza jego stanowiska głosi, że przekonania religijne są całkowicie racjonalne, gdy są przyjmowane w sposób podstawowy, to znaczy bez dowodów czy argumentów, a nawet bez użycia naturalnego rozumu. Według Plantingi ludzie mogli nabyć swoje przekonania (...)
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  2. The Solstice (and its Mandatory Circular-Linear Relationship to The Equinox).Ilexa Yardley - 2024 - Https://Medium.Com.
    A short-course in comparative religion. Provides the basis (ontology) (epistemology) (logic) for both mathematics and technology.
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  3. Skeptical Theism, Fideism, and Pyrrhonian Skepticism.Diego E. Machuca - forthcoming - Bollettino Della Società Filosofica Italiana.
    Is skeptical theism tenable once one acknowledges, as the proponent of that view does, one's cognitive limitations vis-à-vis religious matters? In this article, I aim to answer that question both by examining the apparent radical skeptical implications of the skeptical component of skeptical theism and by comparing this view with both fideism and Pyrrhonism, which also lay emphasis on our cognitive limitations. My ultimate purpose is to determine which of the three stances it makes more sense to adopt once the (...)
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  4. A Dialogue on the Existence and Nature of God with ChatGPT.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    This work is the transcript of a theological dialogue I had with ChatGPT that spanned a couple of days. I began it merely out of curiosity over how ChatGPT might respond to questions and challenges I posed. As it progressed, I became increasingly impressed with the nuance, depth, and relevance of its responses. The dialogue became, for me, something of a contemplative exercise. I still don’t know quite how to understand the ability of generative A.I. to respond with such (apparent) (...)
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  5. Lessons from Commonsensism for Religious Epistemology.Michael Bergmann - 2023 - In Kevin McCain, Scott Stapleford & Matthias Steup (eds.), Seemings: New Arguments, New Angles. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 271-86.
    This paper argues that commonsense responses to radical skepticism can provide helpful lessons for religious epistemology—in particular, for thinking about how best to defend, and respond to, religious skepticism. Section 1 briefly summarizes of some of the main elements of the Reid-inspired epistemic-intuition-based commonsense response to radical skepticism developed in my 2021 book, "Radical Skepticism and Epistemic Intuition" and highlights the role (in our thinking about radical skepticism) of epistemic intuitions understood as seemings about epistemic value in much the same (...)
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  6. Foundationalism.Michael Bergmann - 2017 - In William James Abraham & Frederick D. Aquino (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Epistemology of Theology. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 253-73.
    Foundationalism, a theory about the structure of epistemic justification, is often criticized for excesses that are unnecessary additions to it. But when correctly understood, its main tenets (featuring most prominently the claim that there can be properly basic beliefs) are virtually undeniable. The best way to get at the heart of foundationalism is to focus not on Descartes but on Aristotle and his famous regress argument. Section I unpacks that foundationalist argument. Section II addresses some objections to foundationalism. Section III (...)
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  7. Disagreement.Diego E. Machuca - forthcoming - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This Element engages with the epistemic significance of disagreement, focusing on its skeptical implications. It examines various types of disagreement-motivated skepticism in ancient philosophy, ethics, philosophy of religion, and general epistemology. In each case, it favors suspension of judgment as the seemingly appropriate response to the realization of disagreement. One main line of argument pursued in the Element is that, since in real-life disputes we have limited or inaccurate information about both our own epistemic standing and the epistemic standing of (...)
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  8. Religion and moral knowledge.C. A. J. Coady - 2018 - In Aaron Zimmerman, Karen Jones & Mark Timmons (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Moral Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
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  9. Natural Theology and Religious Belief.Max Baker-Hytch - 2023 - In John Greco, Tyler Dalton McNabb & Jonathan Fuqua (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Religious Epistemology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13-28.
    It is no exaggeration to say that there has been an explosion of activity in the field of philosophical enquiry that is known as natural theology. Having been smothered in the early part of the twentieth century due to the dominance of the anti-metaphysical doctrine of logical positivism, natural theology began to make a comeback in the late 1950s as logical positivism collapsed and analytic philosophers took a newfound interest in metaphysical topics such as possibility and necessity, causation, time, the (...)
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  10. Non-belief as self-deception?Lari Launonen - 2024 - Religious Studies.
    The suppression thesis is the theological claim that theistic non-belief results from culpable mistreatment of one’s knowledge of God or one’s evidence for God. The thesis is a traditional one but unpopular today. This article examines whether it can gain new credibility from the philosophy of self-deception and from the cognitive science of religion. The thesis is analysed in terms of the intentionalist and the non-intentionalist model of self-deception. The first proposed model views non-belief as intentional suppression of one’s implicit (...)
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  11. The Cambridge Handbook of Religious Epistemology.John Greco, Tyler Dalton McNabb & Jonathan Fuqua (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    The first handbook on the topic of religious epistemology introduces and discusses topics fundamental to the epistemology of religious belief.
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  12. MERCY (RAHMAH) AS THE PRELUDE TO ISLAM.Mohammad Manzoor Malik - 2024 - Prajna Vihara 25 (1):44-60.
    Mercy is central to the very identity of Islam, yet this is not often recognized by theologians and scholars. This paper will demonstrate that the idea of mercy is important as a prelude to the understanding of Islam and an interpretation of its teachings. This important role of mercy is evident in Islam’s primary sources – the Quran and the Sunnah – and is not contingent on political, social, or historical contexts. It is well recognized that the proper comprehension of (...)
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  13. ظاهرة الغش في الامتحان: الأسباب والنتائج.نور الدين الطويلع - 2021 - In الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون & Seddik Sadiki Amari (eds.), واحات زيز وغريس: المجال والإنسان والمجتمع. pp. 167-181.
    انتشرت ظاهرة الغش في الامتحان إلى الحد الذي جعلها عادة مألوفة يمارسها السواد الأعظم من التلاميذ، ويصنف الراغب عنها في حكم الشاذ الذي لا يعتد به، وقد تطور الأمر إلى الإبداع والتفنن في ابتكار الوسائل والطرق "الحديثة" التي لم تخطر من ذي قبل على بال أحد من العالمين، ولأن ما يتكرر يتقرر فقد صارت هذه الآفة جزءا من "الممارسة البيداغوجية"، بل تحولت إلى صاحبة الشأن الأول التي يتبتل التلميذ في محرابها الساعات الطوال تفكيرا وتنظيرا وممارسة، حتى وصل إلى درجة الكمال (...)
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  14. Hinges, the Epistemology of Religion and the Problem of Religious Disagreement.Nicola Claudio Salvatore - 2023 - Síntese Revista de Filosofia 50 (158):537.
    In this paper, I propose and defend an account of the nature and the epistemology of religious beliefs loosely inspired by Wittgenstein´s remarks on the structure of reason and on the nature of religious beliefs. I argue that following and developing his account we can not only make a strong case for the prima facie rationality of religious beliefs but also, and more importantly, cast new light on the epistemology of religious disagreement. Keywords: Wittgenstein. Hinges. Epistemic warrant. Religious disagreement.
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  15. God and gratuitous evil: Between the rock and the hard place.Luis R. G. Oliveira - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 94 (3):317-345.
    To most of us – believers and non-believers alike – the possibility of a perfect God co-existing with the kinds of evil that we see calls out for explanation. It is unsurprising, therefore, that the belief that God must have justifying reasons for allowing all the evil that we see has been a perennial feature of theistic thought. Recently, however, a growing number of authors have argued that the existence of a perfect God is compatible with the existence of gratuitous (...)
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  16. Dionysius the Areopagite on Whether Philosophy Should be Used in Service of Religion.Michael Wiitala - 2021 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 95:53-65.
    Should one use philosophy in service of religion? I argue that Dionysius the Areopagite gives a negative answer to this question. The relevant text is Dionysius’ Letter 7, in which he explains why he does not use philosophy to attack Greco-Roman paganism. Philosophy, according to Dionysius, is something divine. In fact, in Letter 7 he goes so far as to identify philosophy with what St. Paul calls the “wisdom of God.” As a result, philosophy should not be treated as a (...)
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  17. Interfaith dialogue in limbo: How can tradition work against religious purposes?Tudor-Cosmin Ciocan - 2022 - Dialogo 8 (2):208-223.
    When we talk about dialogue, we always start looking for ways to best present the content of our speech. Approaching another through dialogue does not seem to care too much about the will or desire to accept the otherness for dialogue even if this is the basis of the binary formula of dialogue. Yet, in the case of religious dialogue, things are not at all so clear or proactive; instead, this (accepting otherness) is usually the central issue of interreligious dialogue. (...)
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  18. Oppy on arguments and worldviews: an internal critique.Bálint Békefi - 2024 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 95 (1):61-76.
    This paper develops an internal critique of Graham Oppy’s metaphilosophy of religion – his theories of argumentation, worldview comparison, and epistemic justification. First, it presents Oppy’s views and his main reasons in their favor. Second, it argues that Oppy is committed to two claims – that only truth-conducive reasons can justify philosophical belief and that such justification depends entirely on one’s judgments about the theoretical virtues of comprehensive worldviews – that jointly entail the unacceptable conclusion that philosophical beliefs cannot be (...)
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  19. Christian social ethics: contemporary issues facing African Christianity.GoodFriday N. Aghawenu - 2022 - [Nigeria]: Mongraphics Publishing.
  20. Can I Both Blame and Worship God?Robert H. Wallace - forthcoming - In Aaron Segal & Samuel Lebens (eds.), The Philosophy of Worship: Divine and Human Aspects. Cambridge University Press.
    In a well-known apocryphal story, Theresa of Avila falls off the donkey she was riding, straight into mud, and injures herself. In response, she seems to blame God for her fall. A playful if indignant back and forth ensues. But this is puzzling. Theresa should never think that God is blameworthy. Why? Apparently, one cannot blame what one worships. For to worship something is to show it a kind of reverence, respect, or adoration. To worship is, at least in part, (...)
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  21. Divine Epiphany and Political Authority in Plato's Republic.Avshalom M. Schwartz - 2023 - History of Political Thought 44 (2):213-233.
    This article offers a new interpretation of the second ‘theological’ pattern in Plato’s Republic. Situating Plato within his religious context, it argues that this pattern calls into question the traditional ancient model of divine epiphany. Divine epiphany was a central element in Greek religion. Yet, in the absence of a centralized religious organization, this model threatened the philosophers’ authoritative position. Plato’s second pattern seeks not only to undermine this potential threat but also to pave the way towards a new, philosophicalmodel (...)
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  22. Self-Favoring Theories and the Bias Argument.Bálint Békefi - 2023 - Logos and Episteme 14 (2):199-213.
    In a recent article, Bernáth and Tőzsér (2021) defend what they call the Bias Argument, a new skeptical argument from expert peer disagreement. They argue that the best contrastive causal explanation for disagreement among leading experts in philosophy is that they adopt their positions in a biased way. But if the leading experts are biased, non-experts either are also biased or only avoid bias through epistemic inferiority. Recognizing this is expected to prompt one to decrease one‘s confidence in one‘s philosophical (...)
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  23. Aportes de la filosofía analítica a la construcción de sentido sobre el lenguaje religioso.Estiven Valencia Marin - 2020 - Albertus Magnus 11 (1):93-112.
    El esfuerzo humano por la búsqueda del sentido de la existencia se inscribe en la práctica discursiva que las religiones exhiben no sólo de la situación existencial del hombre sino también de la experiencia de este con lo trascendente. De hecho, un lenguaje que expresa lo trascendente es básicamente intuitivo, sin embargo, la idea de carencia de significado para los contenidos de fe aconteció por boca de filósofos analíticos. De ahí que el presente artículo intente reproducir algunas consideraciones pro et (...)
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  24. La cuestión analítica por el valor cognoscitivo y práctico de lo religioso.Estiven Valencia Marin - 2021 - Analysis. Claves de Pensamiento Contemporáneo 28:11-18.
    Las críticas que brotan en un medio en que el debate epistemológico parece encabezar los problemas que competen al filosofar, tienen en el negar el sentido de verdad al discurso de índole religiosa la ratificación del estatus de cientificidad. Esta es la apuesta de teóricos inscritos a la tradición analítica surgida en el pasado siglo. No obstante, frente a los discursos neopositivistas y el radical evidencialismo vienen las posiciones de algunos filósofos y teólogos analíticos quienes paralelamente abogaron por la validez (...)
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  25. Is it a Requisite for a ‘Believer’ to be Part of a Formal/Institutional Church? (6th edition).Dillon Cook - 2023 - Say Something Theological 6 (1):1-28.
    For the purposes of this paper, I attempt to wrestle with the question of whether or not it is a requisite for a “believer” (which turns out to be a loaded and ambiguous term) to be a part of a formal/institutional Christian Church. This is a difficult task to accomplish, and this, I admit. There is no way to answer this, truly with certainty. But Metaphysics are rarely grounded in “certainty.” This is true for many Christian Theological tasks as well. (...)
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  26. Les concepts du Bouddhisme ancien (dans la langue d'aujourd'hui) (3rd edition).Roberto Arruda (ed.) - 2023 - Sao Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Bouddha n'a pas érigé de religion. Dans les dimensions culturelles lointaines de son époque, il a fait de la philosophie et de la science. Si nous observons les racines de sa pensée et l'histoire de la connaissance humaine, nous nous rendrons compte qu'il a été, à sa manière, le précurseur du réalisme scientifique, de la psychanalyse, de la philosophie analytique, de l'existentialisme, du féminisme, de l'épistémologie, de la théorie et de la critique de la connaissance, de la psychologie sociale, de (...)
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  27. Quasi-fideist Presuppositionalism: Cornelius Van Til, Wittgenstein, and Hinge Epistemology.Nicholas Smith - 2023 - Philosophia Reformata 88 (1):26-48.
    I argue that the epistemology underlying Cornelius Van Til’s presuppositional apologetic methodology is quasi-fideist. According to this view, the rationality of religious belief is dependent on absolutely certain ungrounded grounds, called hinges. I further argue that the quasi-fideist epistemology of presuppositional apologetics explains why Van Til’s method is neither fideist nor problematically circular: hinges are rational in the sense that they are partly constitutive of rationality, and all beliefs (not just religious ones) depend on hinges. In addition, it illuminates something (...)
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  28. Splitting the (In)Difference: Why Fine-Tuning Supports Design.Chris Dorst & Kevin Dorst - 2022 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):14-23.
    Given the laws of our universe, the initial conditions and cosmological constants had to be "fine-tuned" to result in life. Is this evidence for design? We argue that we should be uncertain whether an ideal agent would take it to be so—but that given such uncertainty, we should react to fine-tuning by boosting our confidence in design. The degree to which we should do so depends on our credences in controversial metaphysical issues.
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  29. Short Collection: On Major Works of Islamic Civilizations.Wesley De Sena - manuscript
    Short Papers on Al-bayunniyah's "Principles of Sufism," Hafiz's "Faces of Love," Ibn Tufayl's "Hayy Ibn Yaqzan," and Watt's "Islamic Creeds.".
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  30. Religious Belief and the Wisdom of Crowds.Jack Warman & Leandro De Brasi - 2023 - Sophia 62 (1):17-31.
    In their simplest form, consensus gentium arguments for theism argue that theism is true on the basis that everyone believes that theism is true. While such arguments may have been popular in history, they have all but fallen from grace in the philosophy of religion. In this short paper, we reconsider the neglected topic of consensus gentium arguments, paying particular attention to the value of such arguments when deployed in the defence of theistic belief. We argue that while consensus gentium (...)
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  31. Animisms: Practical Indigenous Philosophies.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2022 - In Tiddy Smith (ed.), Animism and Philosophy of Religion. Springer Verlag. pp. 95-122.
    In this chapter, we focus on animism and how it is studied in the cognitive science of religion and cultural anthropology. We argue that philosophers of religion still use (outdated) normative notions from early scientific studies of religion that go back at least a century and that have since been abandoned in other disciplines. Our argument is programmatic: we call for an expansion of philosophy of religion in order to include traditions that are currently underrepresented. The failure of philosophy of (...)
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  32. Spory epistemologiczne we współczesnej filozofii religii.Ewa Odoj - 2015 - In Stanisław Janeczek & Anna Starościc (eds.), Dydaktyka filozofii: Epistemologia. Wydawnictwo KUL JPII. pp. 415-440.
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  33. Rediscovering ‘Sacred Place’ through the Indigenous Religion Paradigm: A Case Study of Bugis-Makassar Indigenous People.Andi Alfian - 2022 - Al-Izzah: Jurnal Hasil-Hasil Penelitian 17 (2):96-110.
    The Bugis-Makassar indigenous people who live around Mount Bawakaraeng perform a ritual pilgrimage (hajj) to the top of Mount Bawakaraeng (as a sacred space). This ritual is often considered heretical and deviant. These negative assumptions are the result of the monopoly definition of “sacred place” by the world religion paradigm which is only limited to the doctrine of the holy book and is hierarchical-exclusive. Meanwhile, in the indigenous religion paradigm, “sacred place” is closely related tothe surrounding environment (nature) which also (...)
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  34. Evaluating World Religion Paradigm through the Idea of Ultimate Reality.Andi Alfian - 2022 - Islam Transformatif: Journal of Islamic Studies 6 (1):63-74.
    This study aims to evaluate whether the idea of ultimate reality in world religions contributes to the characteristics of the world religion paradigm, which is hierarchical cosmology or “subject-object cosmology.” Several research on this topic claims that one of the characteristics of the world religion paradigm is its hierarchical perspective. Discussing this issue is important to distinguish the world religions as the paradigm and the world religions as the most widely embraced religion. This study argues that the hierarchical perspective of (...)
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  35. Epistemology of religion of Alvin Plantinga - The problem of religious pluralism.Petar Nurkić - 2023 - Church Studies 20 (1):227-240.
    Alvin Plantinga is an American-born philosopher of religion and one of the leading advocates of contemporary Christian philosophy. Plantinga deals with numerous problems of the monotheistic Christian religion, including the problem of religious pluralism. One of the most common questions an atheist asks a believer is, "Why your God and not someone else's?" Therefore, this paper aims to present Plantinga's answer to the question of religious pluralism. We will achieve this goal by developing Plantinga's theory of "proper functioning", a thesis (...)
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  36. Ignatius of Loyola and the Ethics of Belief.Dalibor Renic - 2017 - Gregorianum 98 (4):829-844.
    This article discusses three epistemological themes emerging from the writings of Ignatius of Loyola. Firstly, it examines the model of the voluntariness of belief implied in his vision of religious obedience through the lenses of contemporary theories of doxastic voluntarism. Secondly, it reconstructs the relationship between faith and reason in the writings of Ignatius in the context of recent interpretations of the religious sacrificium intellectus. Thirdly, it searches for the foundation for the ethics of belief in general which would be (...)
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  37. Why metaphysics matters for the science-theology debate – an incarnational case study.Finley I. Lawson - 2020 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 56 (3):125-155.
    This article examines the relationship between science and theology within a critical realist framework. Focusing on the role of metaphysics as a unifying starting point, especially in consideration of theological issues that are concerned with corporeality and temporality (such as in the incarnation). Some metaphysical challenges that lead to the appearance of “paradox” in the incarnation are highlighted, and the implications of two forms of holistic scientific ontology on the appearance of a paradox in the incarnation are explored. It is (...)
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  38. Wittgenstein, Quasi-Fideism, and Scepticism.Robert Vinten - 2022 - Topoi 41 (5):1-12.
    In the discussion of certainties, or ‘hinges’, in Wittgenstein’s On Certainty some of the examples that Wittgenstein uses are religious ones. He remarks on how a child might be raised so that they ‘swallow down’ belief in God (§107) and in discussing the role of persuasion in disagreements he asks us to think of the case of missionaries converting natives (§612). In the past decade Duncan Pritchard has made a case for an account of the rationality of religious belief inspired (...)
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  39. Miracle as Natural: A Contemporary Chinese American Religious Healer.Kin Cheung - 2022 - In Karen R. Zwier, David L. Weddle & Timothy D. Knepper (eds.), Miracles: An Exercise in Comparative Philosophy of Religion. Springer. pp. 131-154.
    I apply the Buddhist and Chinese religious understandings of miracles as natural events to a contemporary Chinese American religious healer who employs Buddhist spells, qigong, and a range of Chinese medical arts to successfully treat conditions such as a golf-ball-sized cancerous tumor, a balance and memory disorder, and stroke-induced facial hemiparesis. In doing so, I build upon the work of anthropologists and historians to do comparative philosophy on the theoretical categories of and boundaries among miracles, the natural, the supernatural, healing, (...)
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  40. Biblical knowing: a scriptural epistemology of error.Dru Johnson - 2013 - Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. Edited by Craig G. Bartholomew.
    Description: With major themes like "the knowledge of good and evil," "knowing that YHWH is your God," knowing that Jesus is the Christ, and the goal of developing Israel into a "wise and discerning people," Scripture clearly stresses human knowledge and the consequences of error. We too long for confidence in our understanding, the assurance that our most basic knowledge is not ultimately incorrect. Biblical Knowing assesses what Israel knew, but more importantly, how she was meant to know--introducing a comprehensive (...)
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  41. Faith's knowledge: explorations into the theory and application of theological epistemology.Paul G. Tyson - 2013 - Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications.
    Can we know truth even though certain proof is unattainable? Can we be known by Truth? Is there a relationship between belief and truth, and if so, what is the nature of that relationship? Do we need to have faith in reason and in real meaning to be able to reason towards truth? These are the sorts of questions this book seeks to address. In Faith's Knowledge, Paul Tyson argues that all knowledge that aims at truth is always the knowledge (...)
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  42. From the divine to the human: survey of Metaphysics and Epistemology: a new translation with selected letters.Frithjof Schuon - 2013 - Bloomington, Indiana: World Wisdom. Edited by Patrick Laude, Mark Perry, Jean-Pierre Lafouge & Frithjof Schuon.
    In this book, which has been called a synthesis of his whole message, Frithjof Schuon invites us to explore aspects of humankind’s relationship with the Divine, including our sense of the sacred, the conditions of our existence, the symbolism of the human body, and the question of accepting or refusing God’s message. In doing so, Schuon paves the way for a true spiritual engagement. This revised edition has been fully retranslated and contains valuable editor’s notes and a glossary, plus a (...)
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  43. ¿Dios con o sin el ser?. Apuntes acerca de la onto-teo-logía.David Torrijos-Castrillejo - 2017 - Espíritu 66:71-86.
    Heidegger’s famous critique of the onto-theo-logy accuses the whole Western metaphysics of having led us to a “forgetfulness of being”. The following pages pay attention to two attempts to respond to this attack: Marion’s, who prefers, with Heidegger, to liberate God from the realms of being; Gilson’s, who attributed to Thomas Aquinas a natural theology in a certain discontinuity with classical metaphysics. Secondly, this article intends to propose a clearer continuity between the Christian concept of God and Aristotelian ontology in (...)
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  44. Default Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Religions 12 (1):1-13.
    Agnosticism has always had its fair amount of criticism. Religious believers often described the first agnostics as infidels and it is not uncommon to see them described as somewhat dull fence-sitters. Moreover, the undecided agnostic stance on belief in gods is often compared with being unsure about such obviously false statements as the existence of orbiting teapots, invisible dragons or even Santa Claus. In this paper, I maintain that agnosticism can properly be endorsed as a default stance. More precisely, I (...)
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  45. Hopeism.Francis Jonbäck - forthcoming - Studia Theologica.
    Philosophers of religion have traditionally focused their attention on belief in God and assessed such belief in terms of it having some epistemic status like“rationality” or “probability”, or indeed by determining whether or not it constitutes knowledge. In this paper, I focus my attention on the non-doxastic attitude of hope and formulate reasons for whether or not we should hope for God. In light of these reasons, I formulate hopeism as a research programme according to which we should develop concepts (...)
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  46. Sceptical Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2022 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism (1):1-13.
    Agnostics as well as theists should answer evidential arguments from evil, at least when confronted with them. In this paper, I answer such an argument by appealing to sceptical agnosticism. A sceptical agnostic is not only undecided about the existence of a perfectly good and omnipotent God, but also believes that we cannot make any judgement about whether or not seemingly gratuitous evil probably is gratuitous. I argue that such agnosticism has several advantages compared with sceptical theism.
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  47. The Sceptical Response to the Existential Problem of Systemic Suffering.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Open Theology 2 (1):102-10.
    Recently, Yujin Nagasawa has argued that “systemic suffering” – suffering inherent in the evolutionary process – poses a problem for existentially optimistic theists and atheists who think that the world is overall good and therefore are happy and thankful to be alive in it. In short, he shows that it is difficult to consistently believe that the world is overall good when also recognising the existence of systemic suffering. In this article, I evaluate a sceptical response to the problem. The (...)
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  48. Ācārya Kundakunda’s Samayasāra – with Hindi and English Translation (Thoroughly Revised Second Edition) आचार्य कुन्दकुन्द विरचित समयसार.Vijay K. Jain (ed.) - 2022 - Dehradun, India: Vijay Kumar Jain.
    Ācārya Kundakunda’s (circa 1st century BCE) ‘Samayasāra’ is among the most profound and sacred expositions in the Jaina religious tradition; it is perhaps the finest spiritual texts that we are able to lay our hands on in the present era. The original text is in Prakrit language and contains a total of 415 verses (gāthā). ‘Samayasāra’ is the exposition of the Pure (śuddha) ‘Self’ or ‘Soul’. It is the exposition, from the transcendental point-of-view (niścaya naya), of the ‘Real Self’ or (...)
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  49. The Religious‐Philosophical Heritage of Lev Shestov in the Context of Contemporary Russia and the Wider World.Olga Tabachnikova - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (4):845-857.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 4, Page 845-857, July 2022.
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  50. God? Very Probably: Five Rational Ways to Think about the Question of God. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2019 - Science Et Esprit 71 (1):129-132.
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