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Summary The epistemology of religion covers the varied epistemological questions that may be posed concerning religious belief; it thus lies at the intersection of epistemology and philosophy of religion. Traditional issues include the rationality of religious belief/disbelief, the nature of evidence for and against theism, whether and under what circumstances knowledge of God (if there is one) is possible, the roles of religious experience or revelation or testimony in supporting religious belief, whether arguments or evidence are needed to ground religious belief (see 'reformed epistemology'), the nature of 'faith' (in both religious and non-religious contexts), and the epistemological consequences of disagreement on religious questions.
Key works A handful of philosophers have been most important in shaping the recent literature on the rationality of religious belief: see especially the collection edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff (Plantinga & Wolterstorff 1983), and book-length treatments Plantinga 1967, Swinburne 1993, Swinburne 1996, Plantinga 2000, Alston 1991, plus the collections Wolterstorff 2010 and VanArragon & Clark 2011. For criticism see Mackie 1982Sobel 2003Schellenberg 2007. For recent work on faith, see  Buchak 2012Howard-Snyder 2013, and Buchak 2014; and for discussions of disagreement and religious belief, see Oppy 2010Thurow 2012, and Frances 2015. For important historical considerations, see Coakley 2009 and Coakley 2013. For new work, see Benton et al forthcoming.
Introductions Clark 2004, Forrest 2008Dastmalchian 2013, Smith 2014, and Dunaway & Hawthorne forthcoming
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  1. Manuel A. Vasquez (2011). More Than Belief: A Materialist Theory of Religion. Oxford University Press USA.
    This book challenges the traditional idea that religions can be understood primarily as texts to be interpreted, decoded, or translated. In More Than Belief, Manuel A. Vásquez argues for a new way of studying religions, one that sees them as dynamic material and historical expressions of the practices of embodied individuals who are embedded in social fields and ecological networks. He sketches the outlines of this approach through a focus on body, practices, and space. In order to highlight the centrality (...)
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  2. Leonard Angel (2005). Compositional Science and Religious Philosophy. Religious Studies 41 (2):125-143.
    Religious thought often assumes that the principle of physical causal completeness (PCC) is false. But those who explicitly deny or doubt PCC, including William Alston, W. D. Hart, Tim Crane, Paul Moser and David Yandell, Charles Taliaferro, Keith Yandell, Dallas Willard, William Vallicella, Frank Dilley, and, recently, David Chalmers, have ignored not only the explicit but also the implicit grounds for acceptance of PCC. I review the explicit grounds, and extend the hitherto implicit grounds, which together constitute a greater challenge (...)
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  3. Luciano Baccari (2005). Miracolo E Legge Naturale. Urbaniana University Press.
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  4. Erik Baldwin (2016). Fully Informed Reasonable Disagreement and Tradition Based Perspectivalism. Peeters-Leuven.
    Apparently, people who are aware of the relevant facts and experiences in a belief forming situation, sometimes reasonably disagree about whether to believe and why. This study argues that such disagreements are possible, and that some purportedly fully informed reasonable disagreements are genuine, including cases involving disagreement about which beliefs about God are reasonably taken to be properly basic, given the facts of religious diversity and cases in which phenomenologically similar religious experiences properly ground a variety of religious beliefs. Drawing (...)
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  5. Arthur James Balfour Balfour (1879). A Defence of Philosophic Doubt Being an Essay on the Foundations of Belief. --. Macmillan.
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  6. Ramsden Balmforth (1939). " A Challenge to Novelists." A Reply to Dr Lyttelton. Hibbert Journal 38:115.
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  7. Garrett Barden (2012). A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion Edited by Charles Taliaferro and Elsa Marty Key Terms in Philosophy of Religion by Raymond J. VanArragon. New Blackfriars 93 (1043):116-117.
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  8. Kyle David Bennett (2015). Moral Emotions: Reclaiming the Evidence of the Heart, by Anthony J. Steinbock. Faith and Philosophy 32 (3):358-362.
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  9. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2016). Editorial: “Controversial but Never Ignored”—John Hick and Vito Mancuso. The Expository Times 128 (1):1–3.
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  10. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2016). Paul Tillich and Divine Ineffability. In Mireille Hébert & Anne Marie Reijnen (eds.), Paul Tillich et Karl Barth: Antagonismes et accords théologiques. LIT Verlag. pp. 79–92.
    “Guy Bennett-Hunter dans «Tillich and Divine lneffabililty» affirme l‘étroite correlation entre l’affirmation tillichienne de l’ineffabilité divine et le rejet de l’ontothéologie. L’affirmation de leur incompatibilité lui semble une contribution majeure de Tillich à la pensée religieuse. Guy Bennett-Hunter part des déclarations bien connues où Tillich affirme que l’on ne saurait, à proprement parler, attribuer l’existence a Dieu puisque Dieu est «être même au-delà de l’essence et de l’existence». En d’autres termes, Dieu «mystére de l’être», «fondement et abîme de la raison», (...)
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  11. John Boli & David V. Brewington (2007). Religious Organizations1. In Peter Beyer & Lori G. Beaman (eds.), Religion, Globalization and Culture. Brill. pp. 6--203.
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  12. Vargha Bolodo-Taefi, Religion in the Modern World: A Critique of Organised Religion.
    The problem with organised religion is not that it is organised; the problem is that it is not organised enough. The Baha’i Faith – a young, independent, global faith – has reconceptualised religion. It offers an alternative to organised religion: "organic faith.".
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  13. Martin Breul (2016). Religious Epistemology and the Problem of Public Justification. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 58 (2):176-189.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 58 Heft: 2 Seiten: 176-189.
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  14. T. Patrick Burke (1984). Must the Description of a Religion Be Acceptable to a Believer? Religious Studies 20 (4):631.
    It is a widely held view in the study of religion that the description of a religion must be acceptable to a believer. Belief in a thing, personal commitment to it, confers a kind of understanding of it which cannot be had by other means. Only the religious person knows truly what religion is. Similarly, only the Hindu knows what Hinduism is, only the Buddhist knows the true reality of Buddhism, only the Muslim has genuine insight into the nature of (...)
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  15. Dino Buzzetti (2010). Per una lettura laica della teologia medievale. Doctor Virtualis 9:199-231.
    Is some form of epoché possible on theological concepts? In which way? Is it possible consider their importance leaving their religious scope aside? Can the theological concepts tell us something unless we consider their essential reference to our relationship with a divine being? The answer to these questions let us to understand what means to be a secular scholar of medieval philosophy. It's impossible conversely to discuss this problem without dealing with medieval theology. And this concerns not only the nature (...)
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  16. Paul E. Capetz (1998). Christian Faith as Religion a Study in the Theologies of Calvin and Schleiermacher.
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  17. Peter A. Carmichael (1949). Limits of Religious Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10 (1):53-64.
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  18. C. Cesa (1986). The Historical Role of Schleiermacher. Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana 6 (3):462-464.
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  19. Jb Chethimattam (1984). Religious Monograms and Mantras. Journal of Dharma 9 (2):142-149.
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  20. Clark Kelly James & C. Rea Michael (eds.) (2012). Reason, Metaphysics, and Mind: New Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga. Oup Usa.
    In May 2010, philosophers, family and friends gathered at the University of Notre Dame to celebrate the career and retirement of Alvin Plantinga, widely recognized as one of the world's leading figures in metaphysics, epistemology, and the philosophy of religion. Plantinga has earned particular respect within the community of Christian philosophers for the pivotal role that he played in the recent renewal and development of philosophy of religion and philosophical theology. Each of the essays in this volume engages with some (...)
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  21. Joseph T. Clark (1952). Epilogue to the Evidence. Philosophical Studies of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 3:60-60.
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  22. Stephen R. L. Clark (2013). Dougherty Evidentialism and its Discontents_ . Pp. Xii + 335. £45.00 . ISBN 978 0 19 956350 0. Clark & VanArragon _Evidence and Religious Belief . Pp. X + 214. £35.00 , £24.94 . ISBN 9780 19 960371 8. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 49 (1):134-139.
    Book Reviews STEPHEN R. L. CLARK, Religious Studies, FirstView Article.
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  23. John B. Cobb Jr (2009). Truth, "Faith", and 9/11. In Matthew J. Morgan (ed.), The Impact of 9/11 on Religion and Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  24. Arthur B. Cody (1969). On the Difference It Makes. Inquiry 12 (1-4):394 – 405.
    Man's belief in God is often contrasted with man's disbelief, Atheism; but the nature of human belief is contrastable with the nature of the belief of demons. A point of contrast lies in the consequences of the different sort of reasons men and demons must be understood to have. One consequence has to do with the vision of the world, seeing the world as God's creation, which men are expected to achieve and demons are not. The logic of the ?seeing (...)
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  25. Quentin Colgan (1991). On Reasoning About That Than Which Only One Being Can Be Thought Greater. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 65:99-105.
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  26. James Collins (1973). God Knowable and Unknowable. International Philosophical Quarterly 13 (3):452-454.
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  27. Daniel Cory (1954). God or the External World. Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):57-61.
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  28. M. B. Crowe (1953). Religious Faith, Language and Knowledge. Philosophical Studies 3:164-165.
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  29. Charles T. Davis (2001). Hallett, Garth L. A Middle Way to God. Review of Metaphysics 55 (1):136-137.
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  30. Michael William Denty (1975). Reminders of God: On the Uses of Argument in Religious Discourse. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
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  31. E. S. Drown (1905). Does Christian Belief Require Metaphysics? Hibbert Journal 4:527.
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  32. Daniel Eaton & Timothy Pickavance (forthcoming). Wagering on Pragmatic Encroachment. In Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    Lately, there has been an explosion of literature exploring the the relationship between one’s practical situation and one’s knowledge. Some involved in this discussion have suggested that facts about a person’s practical situation might affect whether or not a person knows in that situation, holding fixed all the things standardly associated with knowledge (like evidence, the reliability of one’s cognitive faculties, and so on). According to these “pragmatic encroachment” views, then, one’s practical situation encroaches on one’s knowledge. Though we won’t (...)
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  33. Christopher J. Eberle (1998). The Autonomy and Explanation of Mystical Perception. Religious Studies 34 (3):299-316.
    William Alston has articulated a powerful defence of the claim that mystical perception generates prima facie justified beliefs about God. At the heart of his defence is the claim that mystical perception is 'innocent until proven guilty'; that is, Alston claims that the practice of forming beliefs on the basis of putative perceptions of God should be accorded the same presumptive innocence we accord to other standard ways of forming beliefs like sense perception, memory and introspection. But Alston employs a (...)
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  34. Rem B. Edwards (1983). Review of Matters of Faith and Matters of Principle. Review of Metaphysics 36 (4):956-958.
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  35. Stewart Elliott Guthrie (1995). Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion. Oxford University Press USA.
    Religion is universal human culture. No phenomenon is more widely shared or more intensely studied, yet there is no agreement on what religion is. Now, in Faces in the Clouds, anthropologist Stewart Guthrie provides a provocative definition of religion in a bold and persuasive new theory. Guthrie says religion can best be understood as systematic anthropomorphism--that is, the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things and events. Many writers see anthropomorphism as common or even universal in religion, but few think (...)
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  36. Leonard J. Eslick (1950). Nature, Knowledge, and God. New Scholasticism 24 (2):229-233.
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  37. N. Everitt (1998). Gellman, JI-Experience of God and the Rationality of Theistic Belief. Philosophical Books 39:215-216.
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  38. A. C. Ewing (1957). Religious Assertions In The Light Of Contemporary Philosophy. Philosophy 32 (122):206 - 218.
    The author discusses the claim that owing to the lack of reference to ordinary experience by which religious assertions could be tested, there is nothing in the mind of the person who makes such religious assertions which could conceivably be objectively true. the author maintains that such a view of religious assertions is groundless, and that, if true, it would leave little of value in religion. (staff).
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  39. M. Jamie Ferreira (1995). Religion and 'Really Believing'. In Timothy Tessin & Mario Von der Ruhr (eds.), Philosophy and the Grammar of Religious Belief. St. Martin's Press.
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  40. M. Jamie Ferreira (1985). Newman on Belief-Confidence, Proportionality, and Probability. Heythrop Journal 26 (2):164–176.
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  41. J. N. Findlay (1975). Religion and its Three Paradigmatic Instances. Religious Studies 11 (2):215.
    The aim of this paper is to give a characterisation of religion and the Religious Spirit, basing itself on the Platonic assumption that there are Forms, salient jewels of simplicity and affinity, to be dug out from the soil of vague experience and cut clear from the confusedly shifting patterns of usage, which will give us conceptual mastery over the changeable detail in a given sector. It will further be Platonic in that it will not seek to discount the deep (...)
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  42. I. R. Fraser (1905). Does Christian Belief Require Metaphysics? Hibbert Journal 4:903.
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  43. Peter Geach (1992). The Meaning of 'God'—II. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 31:85-90.
    Holding God to be transcendent does not mean having to regard the grammar of the word ‘God’ as isolated or unique or inscrutable: and in speaking of grammar I use this word in its familiar sense, not in some ill-explained neo-Wittgensteinian sense. I want to make a methodological suggestion. When a sentence containing the word ‘God’ is puzzling, it may help to look at a grammatically possible replacement for the word. For example, if we wish to understand the statement that (...)
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  44. Yehuda Gellman (2010). A Problem for the Christian Mystical Doxastic Practice. Philo 13 (1):23-28.
    William Alston has identified what he calls a “Christian Mystical Practice” as one of the many doxastic practices in which humans engage. He defends CMP as being as rational as other doxastic practices, including the sense perceptual practice, having its own input and output rules, and its own background overrider system. I argue that there seems to be a serious problem with Alston’s characterization of the overrider system for CMP. The presence of this problem threatens to damage Alston’s argument for (...)
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  45. Joshua L. Golding (1999). The Rational Defensibility of Being a Traditional Religious Jew. Religious Studies 35 (4):391-423.
    The paper has two major parts. The first part articulates a working definition of what is a traditional religious Jew. This includes a discussion of whether it is necessary to have certain beliefs in order to be a religious Jew. Given the definition in the first part, the second part argues that it is rationally defensible for some persons to be traditional religious Jews. Included is a discussion of the notion of rational defensibility. The paper closes by discussing whether different (...)
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  46. Philip E. Graves, A Scientific Rationale for Belief in God?
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  47. Walter B. Gulick (2013). Religious Naturalism: A Framework of Interpretation and a Christian Version. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 34 (2):155-174.
    Religious naturalism takes very seriously the meanings inherent in both a scientific understanding of the world and a religious orientation to life well lived. It rejects—as implausible and incompatible with science— the supernaturalism that has dominated Western religious traditions. But can one or more of the varieties of religious naturalism satisfy the fundamental religious needs or yearnings for meaning that have typically been responded to within supernaturalistic worldviews? A challenge facing all types of religious naturalism, if any are to take (...)
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  48. C. S. Gurrey (1991). Paradox, Will and Religious Belief. Philosophy 66 (258):503 - 511.
    In its central object of attachment—the figure of Christ Incarnate—the Christian religion could be said to embrace what would ordinarily be taken to be an impossible object of belief. That is, the logic of the Incarnation demands close scrutiny: and in response, the question may be begged, given such an analysis of that life, may not any belief which does take this figure to be a central object of faith, be then held to be sui generis , a logically extraordinary (...)
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  49. A. D. H. (1973). Religion and Rationality. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 26 (4):761-762.
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  50. Michael Hand (2001). Is Religious Education Possible? An Examination of the Logical Possibility of Teaching for Religious Understanding Without Religious Belief.
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