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  1. Tools or toys? On specific challenges for modeling and the epistemology of models and computer simulations in the social sciences.Eckhart Arnold - manuscript
    Mathematical models are a well established tool in most natural sciences. Although models have been neglected by the philosophy of science for a long time, their epistemological status as a link between theory and reality is now fairly well understood. However, regarding the epistemological status of mathematical models in the social sciences, there still exists a considerable unclarity. In my paper I argue that this results from specific challenges that mathematical models and especially computer simulations face in the social sciences. (...)
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  2. Quotidian Medical Epistemology.Robert Bass - manuscript
    My title may suggest that I will address the activities of medical professionals as they go about their daily business of diagnosis, prescription and treatment. Certainly, that deserves attention, but it is not my target here. My concern is, on the one hand, with typical consumers of health and medical information, and, on the other, with the problems such consumers face in understanding, interpreting and applying the information available to them.
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  3. A Plea for Cardiognosis.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper, a follow-up to my "Seeing Other Minds," I encourage philosophers to explore the notion of cardiognosis - "knowledge of hearts" - as a unique, irreducible form of knowledge, and suggest some applications for this notion.
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  4. Having Faith in Reason.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    An Address delivered to the Seattle G. K. Chesterton Society at the University of Washington Newman Center, May 2, 2013.
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  5. R.K. N*r*yan on fake Chernobyl poetry and two reasons for pastiche.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I predict a reaction within the English literary world if Ukrainian poets head to England owing to war. I also identify two reasons for pastiche. I attempt to do so by means of a pastiche of a notable writer from the Indian sub-continent, for a version of one of these reasons.
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  6. Die Physik und die Wissenschaftstheorie – Diagnose und Analyse eines Missverständnisses, sowie Konklusionen in Betreff Biologie und Epistemologie.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    Die Physik nimmt aus zwei Gründen eine herausragende Stellung unter den Wissenschaften ein. Zum einen aufgrund ihrer anerkannten Stellung als Grundlagenwissenschaft, und zum anderen auch durch das Merkmal ihrer offenkundigen Erkenntnissicherheit. Aus beiden Gründen gilt sie gewissermaßen als Paradigma von Wissenschaftlichkeit schlechthin. Mit ihrem Fokus auf das Thema der Erkenntnissicherheit tritt die Wissenschaftstheorie in die Fußstapfen der klassischen Erkenntnistheorie, und darauf gründet sich auch ihr 'richterlicher' Anspruch gegenüber der Physik. Wohingegen die Physik in puncto ihrer Stellung als Grundlagenwissenschaft – sogar (...)
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  7. Epistemology of Newtonian Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The first edition of Newton's Principia contains only two additional comments on the methodology: the notification that the purpose of the paper is to explain "how to determine the true motions from their causes, effects, and apparent differences, and, conversely, how to determine from motions, whether true or apparent, their causes and effects"; and, in the Scholium at the end of Book 1, Section 11, Newton asserts that his distinctive approach makes possible a safer argumentation in natural philosophy. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35946.88003 (...)
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  8. Epistemologia gravitației experimentale – Raționalitatea științifică.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Evoluția testelor gravitaționale dintr-o perspectivă epistemologică încadrată în conceputul de reconstrucție rațională al lui Imre Lakatos, pe baza metodologiei acestuia a programelor de cercetare. Perioada evaluată este foarte vastă, începând cu filosofia naturală a lui Newton și până la teoriile gravitației cuantice din zilele noastre. Pentru a explica mai rațional evoluția complexă a conceptului de gravitație din ultimul secol, propun o extindere naturală a metodologiei programelor de cercetare pe care o folosesc apoi pe parcursul lucrării. Consider că această abordare oferă (...)
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  9. Épistémologie de la relativité générale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les premières interprétations philosophiques de la théorie de la relativité générale sont très diverses, chacune essayant d'identifier Einstein comme un adepte de cette philosophie. Les partisans de Mach ont souligné la tentative d'Einstein de mettre en œuvre une « relativisation de l'inertie » dans la théorie générale, et son approche opérationnaliste de la simultanéité. Les kantiens et les néo-kantiens ont montré l'importance des « formes intellectuelles » synthétiques dans la théorie générale, en particulier le principe de covariance générale. Les empiristes (...)
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  10. Analiza informațiilor.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Analiștii se află în domeniul "cunoașterii". Activitatea de informații se referă la cunoaștere și tipurile de probleme abordate sunt probleme de cunoaștere. Așa că avem nevoie de un concept de lucru bazat pe cunoaștere. Avem nevoie de o înțelegere de bază a ceea ce știm și cum știm, ce nu știm, și chiar ce se poate cunoaște și ce nu se poate cunoaște. Analiza informațiilor implică "transformarea faptelor disparate în concluzii concentrate". Analiza ar trebui să ofere o bază utilă pentru (...)
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  11. Epistemology of Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Quantum gravity has required the consideration of fundamental epistemological questions, which can be identified in philosophy with the mind-body problem and the problem of free will. These questions influenced the epistemology of quantum mechanics in the form of von Neumann's "psycho-physical parallelism" and the subsequent analysis of the thesis by Wigner that "the collapse of the wave packet" occurs in the mind of the "observer". Quantum gravity in cosmology involves the problem of the experimenter's freedom to change local physical conditions, (...)
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  12. Epistemologia gravitației newtoniene.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Prima ediție a Principia lui Newton conține doar două comentarii suplimentare despre metodologie: notificarea că scopul lucrării este de a explica "cum să determinăm mișcările adevărate din cauzele lor, efectele și diferențele aparente și, dimpotrivă, cum să determinăm din ipoteze dacă sunt adevărate sau aparente, cauzele și efectele lor"; și, în Scholiul de la sfârșitul Cărții 1, Secțiunea 11, Newton afirmă că abordarea sa distinctivă face posibilă argumentarea mai sigură în filosofia naturală. În a doua ediție (1713) Newton introduce secțiuni (...)
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  13. Comunități epistemice în activitatea de informații - Contrainformații.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Comunitățile epistemice sunt rețele informale de experți bazate pe cunoaștere, care influențează factorii de decizie în definirea problemele cu care se confruntă, identificarea diferitelor soluții și evaluarea rezultatelor. Membrii unei comunități epistemice provin din medii academice sau profesionale, și sunt caracterizați de un set de caracteristici unificatoare. Contraspionajul (contrainformațiile) este o activitate destinată să protejeze activitatea de informații a unei organizații împotriva unor agenți statali sau non-statali. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35622.47683.
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  14. Epistemic Intelligence Communities. Counterintelligence.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Epistemic communities are informal networks of knowledge-based experts who influence decision-makers in defining issues they face, identifying different solutions, and evaluating results. Epistemic communities have the greatest influence in conditions of political uncertainty and visibility, usually following a crisis or triggering event. Counterintelligence is primarily considered an analytical discipline, focusing on the study of intelligence services. The basis of all counterintelligence activities is the study of individual intelligence services, an analytical process to understand the behavior of foreign entities (formal mission, (...)
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  15. Services de renseignement.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les services de renseignement sont des agences gouvernementales chargées de la collecte et de l'analyse du renseignement sensible afin de garantir la sécurité et la défense nationales. Les méthodes d'obtenir le renseignement peuvent inclure l'espionnage, l'interception de communications, l'analyse cryptographique, la coopération avec d'autres institutions et l'évaluation des sources publiques. Les services de renseignement se concentrent actuellement sur la lutte contre le terrorisme, ne laissant que relativement peu de ressources pour surveiller les autres menaces à la sécurité. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21302.45126.
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  16. Cunoașterea tacită în activitatea de informații.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Opinia lui Michael Polanyi despre știință poate contribui la înțelegerea procesului și a "produsului" analizei informațiilor. Argumentele lui Michael Polanyi privind activitățile oamenilor de știință sunt transferabile în domeniul analizei informațiilor, oferind o perspectivă nuanțată pentru perceperea provocărilor epistemologice și a problemelor cu care se confruntă analiștii. Conceptele lui Polanyi de "cunoaștere tacită" și "cunoaștere personală" contribuie la dezvoltarea unei înțelegeri mai eficiente din punct de vedere epistemologic a unor aspecte ale procesului și a produsului analizei informațiilor. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21514.21442.
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  17. Epistemology of String Theory in Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In quantum field theory, the main obstacle is the occurrence of the untreatable infinities in the interactions of the particles due to the possibility of arbitrary distances between the point particles. Strings, as extended objects, provide a better framework, which allows finite calculations. String theory is part of a research program in which point particles in particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with one another. The purpose of (...)
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  18. Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity - Loop Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. The scale at which quantum gravitational effects occur is determined by the different physical constants of fundamental physics: h, c and G, which characterize quantum, relativistic and gravitational phenomena. By combining these constants, we obtain the Planck constants at which the effects of quantum gravity must manifest. Loop quantum gravity attempts to unify gravity (...)
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  19. Epistemologia activității de informații.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În activitatea de informații, epistemologia este studiul cunoașterii amenințării și a modului în care se înțelege amenințarea în domeniul analizei informațiilor. Majoritatea definițiilor activității de informații nu iau în considerare faptul că statutul normativ epistemic al informațiilor analizate este cunoașterea și nu o alternativă inferioară. Contra-argumentele la statutul epistemologic al activității de informații sunt scopul acestora orientat spre acțiune, și conținutul lor orientat spre viitor. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23994.75205 .
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  20. Epistemologia relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Empirismul logic al filosofiei științei a apărut în cea mai mare parte ca urmare a celor două teorii ale relativității lui Einstein, favorizând convenționalismul à la Poincaré față de neo-kantianism și pozitivismul machian. Filosofia empirismului logic al științei în sine se consideră că a fost formată din învățăturile extrase din teoria relativității. Câteva dintre cele mai caracteristice doctrine ale acestei filosofii (interpretarea elementelor a priori în teoriile fizice ca niște convenții, tratarea rolului necesar al convențiilor în dezvoltarea conceptelor teoretice din (...)
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  21. Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology (...)
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  22. Epistemologia colectării informațiilor.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Un proces de colectare a informațiilor începe atunci când un utilizator introduce o interogare în sistem. Mai multe obiecte se pot potrivi rezultatului unei interogări, cu diferite grade de relevanță. Cele mai multe sisteme estimează o valoare numerică despre cât de bine se potrivește fiecare obiect cu interogarea, și clasifică obiectele în funcție de această valoare. Autorii au propus un model analitic al comportamentului profesioniștilor care caută informații, destinat să fie generalizabil în întreaga profesie, oferind astfel o platformă de cercetare (...)
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  23. Intelligence Methodologies.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Methodology, in intelligence, consists of the methods used to make decisions about threats, especially in the intelligence analysis discipline. The enormous amount of information collected by intelligence agencies often puts them in the inability to analyze them all. The US intelligence community collects over one billion daily information. The nature and characteristics of the information gathered as well as their credibility also have an impact on the intelligence analysis. Clark proposed a methodology for analyzing information by addressing the target-centric intelligence (...)
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  24. Epistemology of Intelligence Analysis.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In intelligence, epistemology is the study of the threat awareness and the way the threat is understood in the field of intelligence analysis. Most definitions of intelligence do not consider the fact that the epistemic normative status of the intelligence analysis is knowledge rather than a lower alternative. Counter-arguments to the epistemological status of intelligence are their purpose-oriented action, and their future-oriented content. Following the attacks of September 11, a terrorism commission was set up to identify the failures and weaknesses (...)
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  25. Épistémologie de la gravité newtonienne.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La première édition de Principia de Newton ne contient que deux remarques supplémentaires sur la méthodologie: la notification que le but de l'article est d'expliquer « comment déterminer les véritables mouvements de leurs causes, les effets et les différences apparents et, au contraire, comment déterminer à partir des hypothèses si elles sont vraies ou apparentes, leurs causes et leurs effets »; et, dans le Scholium à la fin du Livre 1, Section 11, Newton affirme que son approche distinctive permet une (...)
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  26. An Epistemic Evolution of Intelligence.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The perception of intelligence as power has intensified during the Second World War, when several intelligence agencies has been formalized and significantly increased. In all countries, new agencies and departments have been set up to deal with threats. Government publications in developed countries, following the September 11, 2001 attack, reflected a consensus that intelligence services are key to preventing mass attacks, spending huge amounts for the intelligence agencies that are considered a major component of national security systems. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16398.20809.
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  27. 50 words for snow.John Wilkins - manuscript
    Scientists and philosophers routinely talk about phenomena, and the ways in which they relate to explanation, theory and practice in science. However, there are very few definitions of the term, which is often used synonymously with "data'', "model'' and in older literature, "hypothesis''. In this paper I will attempt to clarify how phenomena are recognized, categorized and the role they play in scientific epistemology. I conclude that phenomena are not necessarily theory-based commitments, but that they are what explanations are called (...)
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  28. The Vulnerable World Hypothesis.Nick Bostrom - 2018
    Scientific and technological progress might change people’s capabilities or incentives in ways that would destabilize civilization. For example, advances in DIY biohacking tools might make it easy for anybody with basic training in biology to kill millions; novel military technologies could trigger arms races in which whoever strikes first has a decisive advantage; or some economically advantageous process may be invented that produces disastrous negative global externalities that are hard to regulate. This paper introduces the concept of a vulnerable world: (...)
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  29. The epistemology of evidence in cognitive neuroscience.William P. Bechtel - forthcoming - In Robert A. Skipper, Collin Allen, Rachel Ankeny, Carl F. Craver, Lindley Darden, Gregory Mikkelson & Robert C. Richardson (eds.), Philosophy and the Life Sciences: A Reader. MIT Press.
    It is no secret that scientists argue. They argue about theories. But even more, they argue about the evidence for theories. Is the evidence itself trustworthy? This is a bit surprising from the perspective of traditional empiricist accounts of scientific methodology according to which the evidence for scientific theories stems from observation, especially observation with the naked eye. These accounts portray the testing of scientific theories as a matter of comparing the predictions of the theory with the data generated by (...)
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  30. Epistemology of Education.J. Adam Carter & Ben Kotzee - forthcoming - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
  31. Philosophy and the Life Sciences: A Reader.Robert A. Skipper, Collin Allen, Rachel Ankeny, Carl F. Craver, Lindley Darden, Gregory Mikkelson & Robert C. Richardson (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
  32. Organizational Good Epistemic Practices.Lisa Warenski - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-16.
    Epistemic practices are an important but underappreciated component of business ethics; good conduct requires making epistemically sound as well as morally principled judgments. Well-founded judgments are promoted by epistemic virtues, and for organizations, epistemic virtues are arguably achieved through organizational good epistemic practices. But how are such practices to be developed? This paper addresses this normative and practical challenge. The first half of the paper explains what organizational good epistemic practices are and outlines a means for their construction. The second (...)
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  33. The Philosophy of Money and Finance.Joakim Sandberg & Lisa Warenski (eds.) - 2024 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Release dates: 30 January 2024 (UK and Europe), 18 March 2024 (North America). This collection of essays introduces scholars and students to the emerging field of the philosophy of money and finance. The field is a relatively new subdiscipline within the subject of philosophy. Although philosophical theorizing about money and finance dates back to Antiquity, the events of the 2008 financial crisis brought new urgency to a broad array of questions about finance, and the body of philosophical research on the (...)
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  34. JPMorgan's 'London Whale' Trading Losses: A Tale of Human Fallibility.Lisa Warenski - 2024 - In Joakim Sandberg & Lisa Warenski (eds.), The Philosophy of Money and Finance. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 129-47.
    Good epistemic practices are essential to the well-functioning of organizations. Epistemic practices are adopted norms, policies, procedures, and general methodologies that further our epistemic aims or realize our epistemic values. This chapter argues for the importance of organizational good epistemic practices through an analysis of the failures of risk management implicated in JPMorgan’s notorious ‘London Whale’ trading losses, which roiled the financial markets in 2012. A number of these failures of risk management exemplified ways in which we, as fallible reasoners, (...)
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  35. Introduction to The Philosophy of Money and Finance.Lisa Warenski & Joakim Sandberg - 2024 - In Joakim Sandberg & Lisa Warenski (eds.), The Philosophy of Money and Finance. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-12.
    This chapter provides an introduction to the emerging field of the philosophy of money and finance. The field addresses philosophical issues about the nature of money and the normative foundations of financial systems. Although philosophical theorizing about money and finance dates back to Antiquity, the topic has only recently emerged as a central research focus. The chapter also introduces the present anthology and locates its parts and chapters in the broader field. More specifically, the anthology is divided into four main (...)
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  36. .Katherine Brading & Marius Stan - 2023 - New York: Oxford University Press USA.
  37. Epistemic Dimensions of Risk Management.Lisa Warenski - 2023 - The Reasoner 17 (3):27-28.
    This very short paper highlights some of my recent and forthcoming work on “good epistemic practices” in the financial services industry. It identifies some epistemic dimensions of risk management in banking and illustrates how managing for good epistemic practices might be helpful.
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  38. Decentring the discoverer: how AI helps us rethink scientific discovery.Elinor Clark & Donal Khosrowi - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-26.
    This paper investigates how intuitions about scientific discovery using artificial intelligence can be used to improve our understanding of scientific discovery more generally. Traditional accounts of discovery have been agent-centred: they place emphasis on identifying a specific agent who is responsible for conducting all, or at least the important part, of a discovery process. We argue that these accounts experience difficulties capturing scientific discovery involving AI and that similar issues arise for human discovery. We propose an alternative, collective-centred view as (...)
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  39. Safety in numbers: how social choice theory can inform avalanche risk management.Philip A. Ebert & Michael Morreau - 2022 - Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning:1-17.
    Avalanche studies have undergone a transition in recent years. Early research focused mainly on environmental factors. More recently, attention has turned to human factors in decision making, such as behavioural and cognitive biases. This article adds a social component to this human turn in avalanche studies. It identifies lessons for decision making by groups of skiers from the perspective of social choice theory, a sub-field of economics, decision theory, philosophy and political science that investigates voting methods and other forms of (...)
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  40. Shared decision-making and maternity care in the deep learning age: Acknowledging and overcoming inherited defeaters.Keith Begley, Cecily Begley & Valerie Smith - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 27 (3):497–503.
    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) both in health care and academic philosophy. This has been due mainly to the rise of effective machine learning and deep learning algorithms, together with increases in data collection and processing power, which have made rapid progress in many areas. However, use of this technology has brought with it philosophical issues and practical problems, in particular, epistemic and ethical. In this paper the authors, with backgrounds in (...)
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  41. The Epistemic Responsibilities of Citizens in a Democracy.Cameron Boult - 2021 - In Michael Hannon & Jeroen de Ridder (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
    The chapter develops a taxonomy of views about the epistemic responsibilities of citizens in a democracy. Prominent approaches to epistemic democracy, epistocracy, epistemic libertarianism, and pure proceduralism are examined through the lens of this taxonomy. The primary aim is to explore options for developing an account of the epistemic responsibilities of citizens in a democracy. The chapter also argues that a number of recent attacks on democracy may not adequately register the availability of a minimal approach to the epistemic responsibilities (...)
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  42. The (virtue) epistemology of political ignorance.Cameron Boult - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (3):217-232.
    One typical aim of responsibilist virtue epistemology is to employ the notion of intellectual virtue in pursuit of an ameliorative epistemology. This paper focuses on “political inquiry” as a case study for examining the ameliorative value of intellectual virtue. The main claim is that the case of political inquiry threatens to expose responsibilist virtue epistemology in a general way as focusing too narrowly on the role of individual intellectual character traits in attempting to improve our epistemic practices.
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  43. De/gendering violence and racialising blame in Swedish child welfare: what has childhood got to do with it?Zlatana Knezevic, Maria Eriksson & Mia Heikkilä - 2021 - Journal of Gender-Based Violence 5 (2): 199-214(16).
    This article is a critical interrogation of how gender and power figure in Swedish child welfare policy and the discourses on violence in intimate relationships vis-à-vis children exposed to violence. Drawing on feminist violence research, critical childhood studies, and intersectional perspectives, we identify a differentiation with racialised undertones in the understanding of violence as a social problem when related to children’s exposure. While predominately gender-neutral discourses of social heredity and epidemiology run through the material for the seemingly ‘universal’ child, forms (...)
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  44. The Skeptic and the Climate Change Skeptic.Alex Worsnip - 2021 - In Michael Hannon & Jeroen de Ridder (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Political Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
    Outside the philosophy classroom, global skeptics – skeptics about all (purported) knowledge of the external world – are rare. But there are people who describe themselves as “skeptics” about various more specific domains, including self-professed “skeptics” about the reality of anthropogenic climate change. There is little to no philosophical literature that juxtaposes the climate change skeptic with the external world skeptic. While many “traditional” epistemologists assume that the external world skeptic poses a serious philosophical challenge in a way that the (...)
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  45. A short philosophical guide to the fallacies of love.José A. Díez & Andrea Iacona - 2020 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic. Edited by Andrea Iacona.
    In this book, two philosophers use their training in arguments and reasoning to uncover the role of ungrounded beliefs when we fall in love. They illustrate the fallacies of love by drawing on personal experiences, literary characters and two imaginary individuals, providing examples of ungrounded beliefs in Aesop's Fables, Cinderella and Don Giovanni amongst others to illustrate love as an inexhaustible source of misperceptions, misunderstandings and misconceptions.
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  46. Informative ecological models without ecological forces.Justin Donhauser - 2020 - Synthese 197 (6):2721-2743.
    Sagoff (2016) criticizes widely used “theoretical” methods in ecology; arguing that those methods employ models that rely on problematic metaphysical assumptions and are therefore uninformative and useless for practical decision-making. In this paper, I show that Sagoff misconstrues how such model-based methods work in practice, that the main threads of his argument are problematic, and that his substantive conclusions are consequently unfounded. Along the way, I illuminate several ways the model-based inferential methods he criticizes can be, and have been, usefully (...)
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  47. The Problem of the Criterion and the Disparities between the Epistemic and the Linguistic Norms of Knowledge.Anna Ivanova - 2020 - Annals of the University of Craiova, Series: Philosophy 46 (2):107-116.
    What we know is decided in the framework of the linguistic norms for knowledge ascriptions. Such include not just epistemic conditions but also communicative ones. Knowledge in communicative context is conditioned on public agreement upon the question and the nature of the presented evidence, sincerity of testimony and responsibility in claiming. This distinction is used here to explain the puzzles surrounding the problem of the criterion. The disparity between the epistemic principles and the communicative conditions of knowledge ascriptions is presented (...)
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  48. Reconsidering the Alleged Cases of Knowledge from Falsehood.Kok Yong Lee - 2020 - Philosophical Investigations 44 (2):151-162.
    A number of philosophers have recently proposed several alleged cases of “knowledge from falsehood,” i.e., cases of inferential knowledge epistemised by an inference with a false crucial premise. This paper examines such cases and argues against interpreting them as cases of knowledge from falsehood. Specifically, I argue that the inferences in play in such cases are in no position to epistemise their conclusions.
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  49. Rudolf Steiner’in Düşünce Dünyası ve Çalışmaları.Mücahit Özdoğan - 2020 - İnsan Ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 3 (2):665-683.
    Rudolf Steiner, who draws attention with his multi-faceted works, is known for his important works in the fields of medicine, education, art and agriculture, as well as esotericism and occultism in particular. In this article, it is explicated to the intellectual infrastructure, the effect of the anthroposophy founded by Steiner and deals with the Spiritual Science, which Steiner created in a unique way. Rudolf Steiner has established an eclectic system by dissolving different schools such as Goethe's doctrine of nature, Rosicrucianism, (...)
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  50. Épistémologie des services de renseignement.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2020 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Une analogie entre les aspects épistémologiques et méthodologiques de l'activité des services de renseignement et certaines disciplines scientifiques, en préconisant une approche plus scientifique du processus de collecte et d'analyse de l'information au sein du cycle du renseignement. J'affirme que les aspects théoriques, ontologiques et épistémologiques de l'activité de nombreux services de renseignement sont sous-estimés, ce qui conduit à une compréhension incomplète des phénomènes actuels et à une confusion dans la collaboration interinstitutionnelle. Après une brève Introduction, qui inclut un historique (...)
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