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  1. Causal Bias in Measures of Inequality of Opportunity.Lennart B. Ackermans - manuscript
    In recent decades, economists have developed methods for measuring the country-wide level of inequality of opportunity. The most popular method, called the ex-ante method, uses data on the distribution of outcomes stratified by groups of individuals with the same circumstances, in order to estimate the part of outcome inequality that is due to these circumstances. I argue that these methods are potentially biased, both upwards and downwards, and that the unknown size of this bias could be large. To argue that (...)
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  2. Why Bourdieu? Five Responses to Toril Moi’s Question.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper presents five responses to Toril Moi’s question of why study Pierre Bourdieu, dividing them into responses which suppose that Bourdieu’s originality is negligible and responses which do not.
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  3. Inequality and the Saying, “It’s Who You Know, Not What You Know,” by J*Seph R*Z.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper considers whether the saying, “It’s who you know, not what you know” can be used instead of jargon-laden studies of inequality. I argue that it is not a good replacement in some cases and present a challenge to standard Bourdieusian explanations of inequality in some fields. The paper is written as a pastiche of the distinguished political philosopher Joseph Raz.
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  4. Problems Start with the Preface! Are Fair Equality of Opportunity and Quine Consistent?Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    The preface to A Theory of Justice includes the interesting suggestion that John Rawls’s system is consistent with W.V. Quine’s system. I raise a problem for achieving fair equality of opportunity granting Quine’s system: that one does not have to respond to apparent evidence that two candidates are equally suitable for a job in the desired way. There does not appear to be a logical inconsistency between the systems at this point, but in practice regular positive discrimination schemes are probably (...)
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  5. R.K. Nar*y*N on Freedom of Speech and Fair Equality of Opportunity.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I present an obstacle to realizing John Rawls’s system of justice. The basic liberties have lexical priority, but they risk undermining fair equality of opportunity, because freedom of speech allows us to spread false prejudices. I present the obstacle through a pastiche of a notable fiction writer from the Indian sub-continent.
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  6. Opportunity Cost and its Application to Underemployment.Dr Khatkhate - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  7. The Right to Exist: The Position of Universal Basic Income in the Works of the Most Influential Contemporary Philosophers.Shamsaddin Amanov - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Szeged
    Universal Basic Income has become a popular idea in the last few decades even though one can find its roots in the earlier centuries. In this thesis, I have examined the position of UBI in the works of the most influential contemporary philosophers. By connecting the idea of UBI with some certain concepts from different philosophers, I aimed to improve the overall understanding of UBI. I have mentioned the concepts such as "labor", "leisure", "idleness", "boredom", "poverty", "inequality", "distribution", "happiness", "power", (...)
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  8. How to (Consistently) Reject the Options Argument.Stephen M. Campbell, Joseph A. Stramondo & David Wasserman - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (2):237-245.
    It is commonly thought that disability is a harm or “bad difference” because having a disability restricts valuable options in life. In his recent essay “Disability, Options and Well-Being,” Thomas Crawley offers a novel defense of this style of reasoning and argues that we and like-minded critics of this brand of argument are guilty of an inconsistency. Our aim in this article is to explain why our view avoids inconsistency, to challenge Crawley's positive defense of the Options Argument, and to (...)
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  9. Are There Moral Limits to Wage Inequality?Kory P. Schaff - 2021 - In Anders Örtenblad (ed.), Equal Pay for All. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 167-81.
    Income inequality in democratic societies with market economies is sizable and growing. One reason for this growth can be traced to unequal forms of compensation that employers pay workers. Democratic societies have tackled this problem by enforcing a wage standard that all workers are paid regardless of education, skills, or contribution. This raises a novel question: Should there be equal pay for all workers? To answer it, we need to investigate some factors that are relevant to the unequal conditions of (...)
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  10. Chancengleichheit.Ivo Wallimann-Helmer - 2021 - In Michael G. Festl (ed.), Handbuch Liberalismus. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler. pp. 225-231.
    Spätestens seit der Veröffentlichung von Eine Theorie der Gerechtigkeit ist Chancengleichheit ein prominentes Ideal der neueren liberalen Theoriebildung. War es im klassischen Liberalismus eher das Ideal der Freiheit, das im Vordergrund stand, kann man in der Auseinandersetzung mit der Theorie von John Rawls und der Entwicklung des Egalitarismus eine Verschiebung hin zum Ideal der Chancengleichheit beobachten, zumindest was die philosophische Theoriebildung zur Verteilungsgerechtigkeit betrifft. Ob Chancengleichheit damit allerdings eine angemessene Auslegung erfährt oder das liberale Ideal der Freiheit eher aufweicht, hängt (...)
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  11. Disability, Society, and Personal Transformation.Sean Aas - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18 (1):49-74.
    The social model of disability claims that disadvantage from disability is primarily a result of the social response to bodily difference. Social modellers typically draw two normative conclusions: first, that society has a responsibility to address disability disadvantage as a matter of justice, not charity; second, that the appropriate way of addressing this disadvantage is to change social institutions themselves, to better fit for bodily difference, rather than to normalize bodies to fit existing institutions. This paper offers a qualified defense (...)
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  12. Disability, Options and Well-Being.Thomas Crawley - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (3):316-334.
    Many endorse the Bad-Difference View of disability which says that disability makes one likely to be worse off even in the absence of discrimination against the disabled. Others defend the Mere-Difference View of disability which says that, discounting discrimination, disability does not make one likely to be worse off. A common motivation for the BDV is the Options Argument which identifies reduction in valuable options as a harm of disability. Some reject this argument, arguing that disabled people's prospects aren't hindered (...)
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  13. Discounting Women’s Applications When Hiring.Stephen Kershnar - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (1):227-260.
    In this paper, I argue that philosophy departments at state universities may discount women’s applications. My argument rests on two premises: if the balance of merit-based reasons supports discounting one group relative to a second, then a state institution may discount the first group’s application and the balance of merit-based reasons supports philosophy departments at state universities discounting women’s applications relative to men’s applications.The latter premise was supported by three assumptions. First, if discounting the applications of one group relative to (...)
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  14. What’s Wrong with Equality of Opportunity.Christine Sypnowich - 2020 - Philosophical Topics 48 (2):223-244.
    How do we know if people are equal? Contemporary philosophers consider a number of issues when determining if the goals of egalitarian distributive justice have been achieved: defining the metric of equality; determining whether the goal is equality, or simply priority or sufficiency; establishing whether there should be conditions, e.g. bad brute luck, for the amelioration of inequality. In all this, most egalitarians contend that what is to be equalized is not people’s actual shares of the good in question, but (...)
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  15. You Didn't Build That: Equality and Productivity in a Complex Society.Sean Aas - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (1):69-88.
    This paper argues for Serious Distributive Egalitarianism – the view that some material inequalities are seriously objectionable as such; not merely, say, because such inequalities tend to generate inequalities in status. Social justice requires equality, I argue, because basic social institutions produce important goods and are produced in turn by the relevantly equal contributions of all those that comply with them. E.g., basic social institutions make it much easier to produce cooperatively than it would be in their absence; therefore, these (...)
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  16. Chance, Merit, and Economic Inequality: Rethinking Distributive Justice and the Principle of Desert.Joseph de la Torre Dwyer - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This book develops a novel approach to distributive justice by building a theory based on a concept of desert. As a work of applied political theory, it presents a simple but powerful theoretical argument and a detailed proposal to eliminate unmerited inequality, poverty, and economic immobility, speaking to the underlying moral principles of both progressives who already support egalitarian measures and also conservatives who have previously rejected egalitarianism on the grounds of individual freedom, personal responsibility, hard work, or economic efficiency. (...)
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  17. Frantz Fanon, Psychiatry and Politics Nigel C. Gibson & Roberto Beneduce, 2017 London: Rowman & Littlefield International 322 Pp, £80 , £24.99. [REVIEW]Rafe Mcgregor - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 36 (2):348-349.
    Frantz Fanon, Psychiatry and Politics affords a much-needed and long-awaited addition to the literature on Frantz Fanon, an exhaustive study of the least-known aspect of his short but remarkable life, his psychiatric practice and publications. The monograph is co-authored by Nigel C. Gibson and Roberto Beneduce, with a foreword by Alice Cherki and translations by Lisa Damon. Gibson is a leading Fanon scholar, jointly responsible for the appropriation of Fanon’s oeuvre by postcolonial studies in the nineteen nineties, and Beneduce is (...)
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  18. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity.Carl Knight - 2018 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. London, UK: pp. 140-150.
    Discrimination, understood as differential treatment of individuals on the basis of their respective group memberships, is widely considered to be morally wrong. This moral judgment is backed in many jurisdictions with the passage of equality of opportunity legislation, which aims to ensure that racial, ethnic, religious, sexual, sexual-orientation, disability and other groups are not subjected to discrimination. This chapter explores the conceptual underpinnings of discrimination and equality of opportunity using the tools of analytical moral and political philosophy.
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  19. Egalitarianism.Carl Knight & Andreas Albertsen - 2018 - Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science.
    Equality as a bare concept refers to two or more distinct things or people being the same in some dimension. Different forms of equality are distinguished by the dimension that is held to be the same. Within political theory, three main forms of equality can be distinguished: moral equality, political equality, and substantive equality. “Moral equality” refers to each individual having the same inherent dignity as a human being, and therefore being worthy of respect. “Political equality,” by contrast, refers to (...)
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  20. Downward Mobility and Rawlsian Justice.Govind Persad - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):277-300.
    Technological and societal changes have made downward social and economic mobility a pressing issue in real-world politics. This article argues that a Rawlsian society would not provide any special protection against downward mobility, and would act rightly in declining to provide such protection. Special treatment for the downwardly mobile can be grounded neither in Rawls’s core principles—the basic liberties, fair equality of opportunity, and the difference principle—nor in other aspects of Rawls’s theory. Instead, a Rawlsian society is willing to sacrifice (...)
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  21. Exploitation: A Primer.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (2):1-14.
    This paper reviews the recent literature on exploitation. It distinguishes between three main species of exploitation theory: teleology-based accounts, respect-based accounts, and freedom-based accounts. It then addresses the implications of each.
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  22. Discrimination and Disability.Sean Aas & David Wasserman - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. New York: Routledge.
  23. Climate Change Mitigation, Sustainability and Non-Substitutability.Säde Hormio - 2017 - In Adrian Walsh, Säde Hormio & Duncan Purves (eds.), The Ethical Underpinnings of Climate Economics. London, UK: pp. 103-121.
    Climate change policy decisions are inescapably intertwined with future generations. Even if all carbon dioxide emissions were to be stopped today, most aspects of climate change would persist for hundreds of years, thus inevitably raising questions of intergenerational justice and sustainability. -/- The chapter begins with a short overview of discount rate debate in climate economics, followed by the observation that discounting implicitly makes the assumption that natural capital is always substitutable with man-made capital. The chapter explains why non-substitutability matters (...)
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  24. Shlomi Segall , Equality and Opportunity: Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780199661817. 240 Pages, £ 35.Andreas Albertsen - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1345-1347.
    Review: Shlomi Segall (2013) Equality and opportunity.
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  25. Equality of Opportunity, Disability, and Stigma.Jeffrey M. Brown - 2016 - Social Philosophy Today 32:175-181.
  26. Interactive Justice: A Proceduralist Approach to Value Conflict in Politics.Emanuela Ceva - 2016 - Routledge.
    Contemporary societies are riddled with moral disputes caused by conflicts between value claims competing for the regulation of matters of public concern. This familiar state of affairs is relevant for one of the most important debates within liberal political thought: should institutions seek to realize justice or peace? Justice-driven philosophers characterize the normative conditions for the resolution of value conflicts through the establishment of a moral consensus on an order of priority between competing value claims. Peace-driven philosophers have concentrated, perhaps (...)
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  27. Hypothetical Insurance and Higher Education.Ben Colburn & Hugh Lazenby - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (4):587-604.
    What level of government subsidy of higher education is justified, in what form, and for what reasons? We answer these questions by applying the hypothetical insurance approach, originally developed by Ronald Dworkin in his work on distributive justice. On this approach, when asking how to fund and deliver public services in a particular domain, we should seek to model what would be the outcome of a hypothetical insurance market: we stipulate that participants lack knowledge about their specific resources and risks, (...)
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  28. Equal Opportunity and Its Discontents.Jeffrey Gauthier - 2016 - Social Philosophy Today 32:169-174.
  29. Reiluhko mahdollisuus onneen.Antti Kauppinen - 2016 - In Tuomas Tahko (ed.), Mahdollisuus.
  30. Natural and Social Inequality.David Wasserman & Sean Aas - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):576-601.
    _ Source: _Page Count 26 This paper examines the moral import of a distinction between natural and social inequalities. Following Thomas Nagel, it argues for a “denatured” distinction that relies less on the biological vs. social causation of inequalities than on the idea that society is morally responsible for some inequalities but not others. It maintains that securing fair equality of opportunity by eliminating such social inequalities has particularly high priority in distributive justice. Departing from Nagel, it argues that society (...)
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  31. Joseph Fishkin: Bottlenecks—A New Theory of Equality of Opportunity: Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 2014, 288 Pp.Andreas Albertsen - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (3):331-336.
    Book review: Joseph Fishkin: Bottlenecks—A New Theory of Equality of Opportunity.
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  32. Joseph Fishkin, Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity.John Baker - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (1):170-178.
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  33. Equality Via Mobility: Why Socioeconomic Mobility Matters for Relational Equality, Distributive Equality, and Equality of Opportunity.Govind Persad - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (2):158-179.
  34. From Rawlsian Autonomy to Sufficient Opportunity in Education.Liam Shields - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):1470594-13505413.
    Equality of Opportunity is widely thought of as the normative ideal most relevant to the design of educational institutions. One widely discussed interpretation of this ideal is Rawls' principle of Fair Equality of Opportunity. In this paper I argue that theories, like Rawls, that give priority to the achievement of individual autonomy, are committed to giving that same priority to a principle of sufficient opportunity. Thus, the Rawlsian's primary focus when designing educational institutions should be on sufficiency and not equality. (...)
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  35. From Rawlsian Autonomy to Sufficient Opportunity in Education.Liam Shields - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):53-66.
    Equality of Opportunity is widely thought of as the normative ideal most relevant to the design of educational institutions. One widely discussed interpretation of this ideal is Rawls' principle of Fair Equality of Opportunity. In this paper I argue that theories, like Rawls, that give priority to the achievement of individual autonomy, are committed to giving that same priority to a principle of sufficient opportunity. Thus, the Rawlsian's primary focus when designing educational institutions should be on sufficiency and not equality. (...)
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  36. Educating for Autonomy: Liberalism and Autonomy in the Capabilities Approach.Luara Ferracioli & Rosa Terlazzo - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):443-455.
    Martha Nussbaum grounds her version of the capabilities approach in political liberalism. In this paper, we argue that the capabilities approach, insofar as it genuinely values the things that persons can actually do and be, must be grounded in a hybrid account of liberalism: in order to show respect for adults, its justification must be political; in order to show respect for children, however, its implementation must include a commitment to comprehensive autonomy, one that ensures that children develop the skills (...)
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  37. Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity.Joseph Fishkin - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    Bottlenecks introduces a powerful new way of understanding equal opportunity. Rather than literal equalization, Joseph Fishkin argues that Americans ought to aim to broaden the range of opportunities open to people, at every stage in life, to pursue different paths.
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  38. Theories of Distributive Justice and Post-Apartheid South Africa.Carl Knight - 2014 - Politikon 41 (1):23-38.
    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism recommends the maximization of overall societal well-being, a goal which South Africa (...)
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  39. Disadvantage and Equal Opportunity in Education: A Noncomparative Perspective.Thomas Schramme - 2014 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (1):135-149.
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  40. Equality, Opportunity, Ambiguity.Gopal Sreenivasan - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):82-92.
    I distinguish four different interpretations of ‘equality of opportunity.’ We get four interpretations because a neglected ambiguity in ‘opportunity’ intersects a well-known ambiguity in ‘equality.’ The neglected ambiguity holds between substantive and non-substantive conceptions of ‘opportunity’ and the well-known ambiguity holds between comparative and non-comparative conceptions of ‘equality.’ Among other things, distinguishing these four interpretations reveals how misleading ‘equal opportunity for advantage’ formulations of luck egalitarianism can be. These formulations are misleading in so far as they obscure the difference between (...)
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  41. Mediation-More Than an Opportunity to Settle: Don't Miss Out on The'hidden'benefits.John Campbell - 2013 - Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory 228:20.
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  42. Equality of Opportunity and Other-Affecting Choice: Why Luck Egalitarianism Does Not Require Brute Luck Equality.Gideon Elford - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):139-149.
    The luck egalitarian view famously maintains that inequalities in individuals’ circumstances are unfair or unjust, whereas inequalities traceable to individuals’ own responsible choices are fair or just. On this basis, the distinction between so-called brute luck and option luck has been seen as central to luck egalitarianism. Luck egalitarianism is interpreted, by advocates and opponents alike, as a view that condemns inequalities in brute luck but permits inequalities in option luck. It is also thought to be expressed in terms of (...)
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  43. Egalitarian Justice and Expected Value.Carl Knight - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):1061-1073.
    According to all-luck egalitarianism, the differential distributive effects of both brute luck, which defines the outcome of risks which are not deliberately taken, and option luck, which defines the outcome of deliberate gambles, are unjust. Exactly how to correct the effects of option luck is, however, a complex issue. This article argues that (a) option luck should be neutralized not just by correcting luck among gamblers, but among the community as a whole, because it would be unfair for gamblers as (...)
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  44. Luck Egalitarianism.Carl Knight - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (10):924-934.
    Luck egalitarianism is a family of egalitarian theories of distributive justice that aim to counteract the distributive effects of luck. This article explains luck egalitarianism's main ideas, and the debates that have accompanied its rise to prominence. There are two main parts to the discussion. The first part sets out three key moves in the influential early statements of Dworkin, Arneson, and Cohen: the brute luck/option luck distinction, the specification of brute luck in everyday or theoretical terms and the specification (...)
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  45. The Injustice of Discrimination.Carl Knight - 2013 - South African Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):47-59.
    Discrimination might be considered unjust on account of the comparative disadvantage it imposes, the absolute disadvantage it imposes, the disrespect it shows, or the prejudice it shows. This article argues that each of these accounts overlooks some cases of unjust discrimination. In response to this state of affairs we might combine two or more of these accounts. A promising approach combines the comparative disadvantage and absolute disadvantage accounts.
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  46. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. (...)
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  47. Effort Aversiveness May Be Functional, but Does It Reflect Opportunity Cost?David Navon - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (6):701-702.
  48. Global Equality of Opportunity as an Institutional Standard of Distributive Justice.Daniel Butt - 2012 - In Chi Carmody, Frank J. Garcia & John Linarelli (eds.), Global Justice and International Economic Law: Opportunities and Prospects. Cambridge University Press.
  49. Responsibility and School Choice in Education.Ben Colburn - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (2):207-222.
    Consider the following argument for school choice, based on an appeal to the virtues of the market: allowing parents some measure of choice over their particular children's education ultimately serves the interests of all children, because creating a market mechanism in state education will produce improvements through the same pressures that lead to greater efficiency and quality when markets are deployed in more familiar contexts. The argument fails, because it is committed to a principle of equal concern, which implies that (...)
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  50. Migration qualifiée, développement et égalité des chances. Une critique de la taxe Bhagwati.Speranta Dumitru - 2012 - Revue de Philosophie Économique 2 (2):63-91.
    Au regard du vieux débat sur la « fuite des cerveaux », le devoir de promouvoir le développement des pays pauvres semblait incompatible avec le droit humain à l’émigration. A l’encontre de cette idée, Jagdish Bhagwati a proposé dans les années 70 une mesure qui permettait au personnel qualifié de quitter les pays pauvres, tout en taxant leur revenu au bénéfice de leurs pays d’origine. Cet article discute (et rejette) trois justifications possibles de la taxe Bhagwati. Il conclut qu’une telle (...)
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