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  1. added 2020-06-18
    Disability, Options, and Well-Being.Thomas Crawley - forthcoming - Utilitas.
    Many endorse the Bad-Difference View (BDV) of disability which says that disability makes one likely to be worse off even in the absence of discrimination against the disabled. Others defend the Mere-Difference View (MDV) of disability which says that, discounting discrimination, disability does not make one likely to be worse (or better) off. A common motivation for the BDV is the Options Argument which identifies reduction in valuable options as a harm of disability. Some reject this argument, arguing that disabled (...)
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  2. added 2020-03-25
    The Case Against Reparations.Stephen Kershnar - 2001 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 8 (1):41-46.
    George Schedler raises interesting issues with regard to the amount of reparations owed for slavery, the parties who are owed reparations, and the standard for these reparations. His arguments, however, do not hold up upon analysis. His analysis of the case for the descendants of slaves being owed compensation seriously overestimates the case for such reparations. He does not identify the grounds for such compensation, i.e., either stolen inheritance or the descendants’ trustee-like control over the slave’s estate, and this results (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-24
    Discounting Women’s Applications When Hiring.Stephen Kershnar - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (1):227-260.
    In this paper, I argue that philosophy departments at state universities may discount women’s applications. My argument rests on two premises: if the balance of merit-based reasons supports discounting one group relative to a second, then a state institution may discount the first group’s application and the balance of merit-based reasons supports philosophy departments at state universities discounting women’s applications relative to men’s applications.The latter premise was supported by three assumptions. First, if discounting the applications of one group relative to (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-24
    Sex, Discrimination, and Violence: Surprising and Unpopular Results in Applied Ethics.Stephen Kershnar - 2009 - Upa.
    This book is about how the systematic application of some basic principles of applied ethics yields some surprising and very unpopular results. In particular, Kershnar investigate three areas: sex, discrimination, and violence. The book argues that the following are some permissible in theory and practice. (1) Adult-child sex (2) Watching rape-pornography (3) State universities discriminating against women (4) The U.S. denying welfare to immigrants (5) Interrogational torture (6) Assassination In addition, the book argues that different races likely have different per (...)
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  5. added 2020-01-08
    From Rawlsian Autonomy to Sufficient Opportunity in Education.Liam Shields - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):53-66.
    Equality of Opportunity is widely thought of as the normative ideal most relevant to the design of educational institutions. One widely discussed interpretation of this ideal is Rawls' principle of Fair Equality of Opportunity. In this paper I argue that theories, like Rawls, that give priority to the achievement of individual autonomy, are committed to giving that same priority to a principle of sufficient opportunity. Thus, the Rawlsian's primary focus when designing educational institutions should be on sufficiency and not equality. (...)
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  6. added 2019-12-27
    Eguaglianza.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1987 - In Giuseppe Zaccaria (ed.), Lessico della politica. Rome, Italy: Edizioni Lavoro. pp. 211-219.
    A short historical overview of the idea of equality from early modernity to the twentieth century.
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Justice and the Fetus: Rawls, Children, and Abortion.David M. Shaw - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):93-101.
    In a footnote to the first edition of Political Liberalism, John Rawls introduced an example of how public reason could deal with controversial issues. He intended this example to show that his system of political liberalism could deal with such problems by considering only political values, without the introduction of comprehensive moral doctrines. Unfortunately, Rawls chose “the troubled question of abortion” as the issue that would illustrate this. In the case of abortion, Rawls argued, “the equality of women as equal (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Providing Equal Educational Opportunity: Public Vs. Voucher Schools*: JOHN E. ROEMER.John E. Roemer - 1992 - Social Philosophy and Policy 9 (1):291-309.
    All advanced societies maintain a commitment to equal educational opportunity, which they claim to implement through a public school system that is charged toprovide all children with an education up to a state-enforced standard. Indeed, what public schools do, even in the best of circumstances, is to provide all children with a more or less equal exposure to educational inputs, rather than to guarantee them equal educational attainment. Children, as the schools receive them, differ markedly in their docility — due (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Liberty Versus Equal Opportunity*: James S. Fishkin.James S. Fishkin - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):32-48.
    Liberalism has often been viewed as a continuing dialogue about the relative priorities between liberty and equality. When the version of equality under discussion requires equalization of outcomes, it is easy to see how the two ideals might conflict. But when the version of equality requires only equalization of opportunities, the conflict has been treated as greatly muted since the principle of equality seems so meager in its implications. However, when one looks carefully at various versions of equal opportunity and (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Real Equality of Opportunity: BARRY R. GROSS.Barry R. Gross - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):120-142.
    We are often told that we are morally obligated to produce equal opportunity for all. Therefore, it seems we should examine what power we have to produce that desirable state. For it would be nonsense to say we are required to provide what is beyond our power to provide. When we examine this question, we find our power limited by two sets of constraints. One set comprises formal constraints upon the idea itself of equal opportunity. We cannot do the logically (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Global Equality of Opportunity and National Integrity*: BERNARD R. BOXILL.Bernard R. Boxil - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):143-168.
    Philosophers have long distinguished various interpretations of the principle of equal opportunity and argued over their implications and justifications. But they have almost always tacitly assumed that the context was a national one. They have not, in particular, considered whether some interpretation of the principle could apply and be justified globally, that is, to all people without regard to their nationality or citizenship. Yet, such an investigation is clearly demanded. The leading moral theories seem to support a case for at (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Equal Opportunity in a Pluralistic Society: JAMES W. NICKEL.James W. Nickel - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):104-119.
    The United States has never been culturally or religiously homogeneous, but its diversity has greatly increased over the last century. Although the U.S. was first a multicultural nation through conquest and enslavement, its present diversity is due equally to immigration. In this paper I try to explain the difference it makes for one area of thought and policy – equal opportunity – if we incorporate cultural and religious pluralism into our national self-image. Formulating and implementing a policy of equal opportunity (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    The Justification of Equal Opportunity: ALAN H. GOLDMAN.Alan H. Goldman - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):88-103.
    As a preliminary to the justification of equal opportunity, we require a few words on the concept. An opportunity is a chance to attain some goal or obtain some benefit. More precisely, it is the lack of some obstacle or obstacles to the attainment of some goal or benefit. Opportunities are equal in some specified or understood sense when persons face roughly the same obstacles or obstacles of roughly the same difficulty of some specified or understood sort. In different contexts (...)
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    IV—Equality of Opportunity.T. D. Campbell - 1975 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 75 (1):51-68.
  16. added 2019-06-05
    Book Reviews Gomberg, Paul . How to Make Opportunity Equal . Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. Pp. Vii+184.David Schmidtz - 2009 - Ethics 120 (1):184-188.
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  17. added 2019-06-05
    The Vocation of Political Theory.Marc Stears - 2005 - European Journal of Political Theory 4 (4):325-350.
    What is the purpose of political theoretical endeavour and what methods should the early 21st-century political theorist employ? These questions – which touch on issues which go to the very heart of the vocation of political theory – have become increasingly contentious in recent years. The period since the late 1980s has been one in which theorists have increasingly disagreed not only about conventional matters of normative contention but also about the means by which to seek to resolve them. This (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewsCavanagh, Matt. Against Equality of Opportunity.Oxford: Clarendon, 2002. Pp. 223. $35.00.Robert K. Fullinwider - 2003 - Ethics 113 (4):869-871.
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  19. added 2019-06-05
    Book ReviewsJohn E. Roemer, Equality of Opportunity.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. Pp. 120. $18.95.Tyler Cowen - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):637-639.
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  20. added 2019-02-12
    You Didn't Build That: Equality and Productivity in a Complex Society.Sean Aas - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (1):69-88.
    This paper argues for Serious Distributive Egalitarianism – the view that some material inequalities are seriously objectionable as such; not merely, say, because such inequalities tend to generate inequalities in status. Social justice requires equality, I argue, because basic social institutions produce important goods and are produced in turn by the relevantly equal contributions of all those that comply with them. E.g., basic social institutions make it much easier to produce cooperatively than it would be in their absence; therefore, these (...)
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  21. added 2018-10-11
    Downward Mobility and Rawlsian Justice.Govind Persad - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):277-300.
    Technological and societal changes have made downward social and economic mobility a pressing issue in real-world politics. This article argues that a Rawlsian society would not provide any special protection against downward mobility, and would act rightly in declining to provide such protection. Special treatment for the downwardly mobile can be grounded neither in Rawls’s core principles—the basic liberties, fair equality of opportunity, and the difference principle—nor in other aspects of Rawls’s theory. Instead, a Rawlsian society is willing to sacrifice (...)
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  22. added 2018-09-06
    The Metric of Opportunity.Robert Sudgen - 1998 - Economics and Philosophy 14 (2):307.
    There is a long tradition in economics of evaluating social arrangements by the extent to which individuals' preferences are satisfied. This is the tradition of welfarism, which has developed from nineteenth-century utilitarianism. Increasingly, however, the presumption that preference-satisfaction is the appropriate standard for evaluating social arrangements is being challenged by an alternative view: that we should focus on the set of opportunities open to each individual.
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  23. added 2018-06-20
    Discrimination and Disability.Sean Aas & David Wasserman - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. New York: Routledge.
  24. added 2018-02-17
    Natural and Social Inequality.David Wasserman & Sean Aas - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):576-601.
    _ Source: _Page Count 26 This paper examines the moral import of a distinction between natural and social inequalities. Following Thomas Nagel, it argues for a “denatured” distinction that relies less on the biological vs. social causation of inequalities than on the idea that society is morally responsible for some inequalities but not others. It maintains that securing fair equality of opportunity by eliminating such social inequalities has particularly high priority in distributive justice. Departing from Nagel, it argues that society (...)
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  25. added 2017-10-18
    Hypothetical Insurance and Higher Education.Ben Colburn & Hugh Lazenby - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (4):587-604.
    What level of government subsidy of higher education is justified, in what form, and for what reasons? We answer these questions by applying the hypothetical insurance approach, originally developed by Ronald Dworkin in his work on distributive justice. On this approach, when asking how to fund and deliver public services in a particular domain, we should seek to model what would be the outcome of a hypothetical insurance market: we stipulate that participants lack knowledge about their specific resources and risks, (...)
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  26. added 2017-10-18
    Responsibility and School Choice in Education.Ben Colburn - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (2):207-222.
    Consider the following argument for school choice, based on an appeal to the virtues of the market: allowing parents some measure of choice over their particular children's education ultimately serves the interests of all children, because creating a market mechanism in state education will produce improvements through the same pressures that lead to greater efficiency and quality when markets are deployed in more familiar contexts. The argument fails, because it is committed to a principle of equal concern, which implies that (...)
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  27. added 2017-09-05
    Fair Equality of Opportunity in Global Justice.Mark Navin - 2008 - Social Philosophy Today 24:39-52.
    Many political philosophers argue that a principle of ‘fair equality of opportunity’ ought to extend beyond national borders. I agree that there is a place for FEO in a theory of global justice. However, I think that the idea of cross-border FEO is indeterminate between three different principles. Part of my work in this paper is methodological: I identify three different principles of cross-border fair equality of opportunity and I distinguish them from each other. The other part of my work (...)
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  28. added 2017-03-05
    Can Luck Egalitarianism Be Really Saved By Value Pluralism?Eugen Huzum - 2011 - Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai Philosophia 2.
    In this paper I discuss a frequent reply to what is usually called ‘the harshness objection,’ or “the abandonment objection” to luck egalitarianism. This objection has been used by Elizabeth Anderson to argue that luck egalitarianism is not, in any of its versions, an adequate interpretation of the ideal of social justice. According to the luck egalitarian reply discussed in this paper, luck egalitarianism can be saved from the harshness objection by value pluralism. After a few short considerations on luck (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-15
    Effort Aversiveness May Be Functional, but Does It Reflect Opportunity Cost?David Navon - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (6):701-702.
  30. added 2017-02-14
    Disabilities and Educational Opportunity: A Deweyan Approach.Todd Lekan - 2009 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 45 (2):214-230.
  31. added 2017-02-14
    Need, Aspiration, and Opportunity in the Making of American Exceptionalism.Janet Irons - 2003 - Historical Materialism 11 (4):405-412.
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  32. added 2017-02-14
    Social Class and Educational Opportunity.Kenneth Hutton - 1957 - The Eugenics Review 49 (1):37.
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  33. added 2017-02-13
    Darwinism and Victorian Values: Threat or Opportunity?Peter J. Bowler - 1992 - In Victorian Values. pp. 129-147.
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  34. added 2017-02-13
    Damages for Lost Opportunity to Bargain.Robert J. Sharpe & S. M. Waddams - 1982 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 2 (2):290-297.
  35. added 2017-02-12
    Mediation-More Than an Opportunity to Settle: Don't Miss Out on The'hidden'benefits.John Campbell - 2013 - Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory 228:20.
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  36. added 2017-02-09
    Review: Educational Equality in the U. S.: The Emperor's Clothes. [REVIEW]Annie Stein - 1972 - Science and Society 36 (4):469 - 476.
  37. added 2017-02-08
    The 'Second Chance' Myth: Equality of Opportunity in Irish Adult Education Policies.Bernie Grummell - 2007 - British Journal of Educational Studies 55 (2):182 - 201.
    This article explores the 'second chance' myth that surrounds the role of adult education in society. This myth apparently offers all citizens an equal chance to access educational opportunities to improve their life chances. I argue that recent developments in educational policy-making are increasingly shaped by neoliberal discourses that adapt adult education principles, such as lifelong learning and emancipation, for its own economic and political logic. This has important implications for adult education, especially equality of opportunity and social inclusion.
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  38. added 2017-02-08
    Aptitude Testing Is Not an Engine for Equalising Educational Opportunity.Robert Wood - 1986 - British Journal of Educational Studies 34 (1):26 - 37.
    A recent article on education in China succeeded in giving a fresh tweak to the arguments concerning whether aptitude or achievement testing is more likely to promote equality of educational opportunity. In 'The Diploma Disease' Ronald Dore expounded the view that aptitude testing is to be preferred for selection purposes on the grounds that it gives more weight to 'innate potential' (his term) than does achievement testing which produces results more affected by quality of schooling, an influence which is all (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-29
    On Equality of Educational Opportunity.Frederick Mosteller & Daniel P. Moynihan - 1972 - Science and Society 36 (4):469-476.
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  40. added 2017-01-29
    The Historical Opportunity of Orthodoxy.William J. Grace - 1952 - The Thomist 15:289.
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  41. added 2017-01-29
    Greece: American Dilemma and Opportunity.L. S. Stavrianos - 1952 - Science and Society 16 (4):372-374.
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  42. added 2017-01-27
    Disadvantage and Equal Opportunity in Education: A Noncomparative Perspective.Thomas Schramme - 2014 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (1):135-149.
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  43. added 2017-01-27
    Equal Opportunity, Natural Inequalities, and Racial Disadvantage: The Bell Curve and its Critics.Bell Curve Myth - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (1):121-145.
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  44. added 2017-01-27
    A Liberal Defense of Equal Opportunity.William Galston - 1997 - In Louis P. Pojman & Robert Westmoreland (eds.), Equality: Selected Readings. Oup Usa.
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  45. added 2017-01-26
    Teacher Tests, Equal Opportunity, and the Foundations of Education.Joseph Watras - 2006 - Educational Studies 39 (2):124-134.
  46. added 2017-01-26
    The Community College Opportunity To Assist Those 55+.George Lennox - 2000 - Inquiry (ERIC) 5 (2):52-54.
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  47. added 2017-01-26
    Emerging Pathogens: Threat and Opportunity.D. M. Forrest & B. Gushulak - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (1):118.
  48. added 2017-01-26
    The Hooper Equal Opportunity Measure: An Operational Definition of Ecological Dissonance Theory.Duane I. Miller, Mike Majors, Marty Giesen & Jeff S. Topping - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (2):164-166.
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  49. added 2017-01-26
    Equal Opportunity and the Family.Peter Vallentyne & Morry Lipson - 1989 - Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (4):27-45.
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  50. added 2017-01-26
    Opportunity and Equality of Opportunity.Lawrence A. Blum - 1988 - Public Affairs Quarterly 2 (4):1-18.
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1 — 50 / 183