About this topic
Summary Erotetic logic is the study of questions in symbolic logic. Its main issues concern (i) the formalization of different kinds of questions (e.g. yes/no-questions, wh-questions, etc.), (ii) the characterization of their answers and presuppositions, (iii) the definition of relations holding between questions and other lingual entities, and (iv) the setting up of rules and calculi of asking and answering. Post-Fregean logicians have treated questions since the 1920s, but the first attempts at full systems of erotetic logic date appear in the 1960s. Today, there is no agreed-upon mainstream in the field, but rather a handful of different approaches of disparate or unclear relationship to one another.
Key works Each of the different traditions in erotetic logic have more or less their own reference texts. In chronological order: Harrah 1963 attempts a simple first-order representation of questions. Åqvist 1965 proposes an imperative-epistemic reduction, which gained much popularity beyond the borders of the field of erotetic logic. Kubiński who's largely Polish work on questions begins in the 1960s is most comprehensively represented in Kubiński 1980. The categorial approach by Belnap introduced some terminology which has been referred to ever since; Belnap & Steel 1976 is the relevant introduction. Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (IMI), developed since the 1970s, received textbook-style treatment in Hintikka & Bachman 1991. Wiśniewski's Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL) is currently one of the most active fields within erotetic logic; Wiśniewski 2013 is a recent overview. This property it shares with Inquisitive Semantics, which is described in Ciardelli et al 2018.
Introductions Harrah 2002 presents an overview over different approaches. The works named above, which each represent a different tradition, frequently include some description of some of the other approaches. In this regard, Wiśniewski 1995 is quite helpful.
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  1. Calculizing Classical Inferential Erotetic Logic.Moritz Cordes - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-22.
    This paper contributes to the calculization of evocation and erotetic implication as defined by Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL). There is a straightforward approach to calculizing (propositional) erotetic implication which cannot be applied to evocation. First-order evocation is proven to be uncalculizable, i.e. there is no proof system, say FOE, such that for all X, Q: X evokes Q iff there is an FOE-proof for the evocation of Q by X. These results suggest a critique of the represented approaches to calculizing (...)
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  2. A Defeasible Calculus for Zetetic Agents.Jared Millson - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    The study of defeasible reasoning unites epistemologists with those working in AI, in part, because both are interested in epistemic rationality. While it is traditionally thought to govern the formation and (with)holding of beliefs, epistemic rationality may also apply to the interrogative attitudes associated with our core epistemic practice of inquiry, such as wondering, investigating, and curiosity. Since generally intelligent systems should be capable of rational inquiry, AI researchers have a natural interest in the norms that govern interrogative attitudes. Following (...)
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  3. Questions and Dependency in Intuitionistic Logic.Ivano Ciardelli, Rosalie Iemhoff & Fan Yang - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (1):75-115.
    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and dependencies to this classical core. In this paper, we broaden the scope of these investigations by studying questions and dependency in the context of intuitionistic logic. We propose an intuitionistic team semantics, where teams are embedded within intuitionistic Kripke models. (...)
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  4. Arguing for Questions.David Hitchcock - 2020 - In Bart Garssen & Frans van Eemeren (eds.), From Argument Schemes to Argumentative Relations in the Wild: A Variety of Contributions to Argumentation Theory. Springer Verlag. pp. 167-184.
    People sometimes argue for questions, as can be verified by a Web search using as search terms phrases consisting of a conclusion indicator and an interrogative particle. These arguments provide a reason for asking the question and thus try to establish that it needs to be answered. Typically, they do so either in order to motivate interest in discovering the answer or in order to challenge addressees or a third party to explain their behaviour. The “inferential erotetic logic” of the (...)
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  5. Pytania I Odpowiedzi: Ujęcie Teoriomnogościowe.Adam Jonkisz - 2020 - Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Ignatianum W Krakowie.
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  6. A Relevant Logic of Questions.Vít Punčochář - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (5):905-939.
    This paper introduces the inquisitive extension of R, denoted as InqR, which is a relevant logic of questions based on the logic R as the background logic of declaratives. A semantics for InqR is developed, and it is shown that this semantics is, in a precisely defined sense, dual to Routley-Meyer semantics for R. Moreover, InqR is axiomatized and completeness of the axiomatic system is established. The philosophical interpretation of the duality between Routley-Meyer semantics and the semantics for InqR is (...)
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  7. Disjunction and Existence Properties in Inquisitive First-Order Logic.Gianluca Grilletti - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1199-1234.
    Classical first-order logic \ is commonly used to study logical connections between statements, that is sentences that in every context have an associated truth-value. Inquisitive first-order logic \ is a conservative extension of \ which captures not only connections between statements, but also between questions. In this paper we prove the disjunction and existence properties for \ relative to inquisitive disjunction Open image in new window and inquisitive existential quantifier \. Moreover we extend these results to several families of theories, (...)
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  8. A Cut-Free Sequent Calculus for Defeasible Erotetic Inferences.Jared Millson - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1279-1312.
    In recent years, the effort to formalize erotetic inferences—i.e., inferences to and from questions—has become a central concern for those working in erotetic logic. However, few have sought to formulate a proof theory for these inferences. To fill this lacuna, we construct a calculus for sequents that are sound and complete for two species of erotetic inferences studied by Inferential Erotetic Logic : erotetic evocation and erotetic implication. While an effort has been made to axiomatize the former in a sequent (...)
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  9. A Cut-Free Sequent Calculus for Defeasible Erotetic Inferences.Jared Millson - 2019 - Studia Logica (6):1-34.
    In recent years, the e ffort to formalize erotetic inferences (i.e., inferences to and from questions) has become a central concern for those working in erotetic logic. However, few have sought to formulate a proof theory for these inferences. To fill this lacuna, we construct a calculus for (classes of) sequents that are sound and complete for two species of erotetic inferences studied by Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL): erotetic evocation and regular erotetic implication. While an attempt has been made to (...)
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  10. Deduction and Reduction Theorems for Inferential Erotetic Logic.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (2):295-309.
    The concepts of question evocation and erotetic implication play central role in Inferential Erotetic Logic. In this paper, deduction theorems for question evocation and erotetic implication are proven. Moreover, it is shown how question evocation by a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to question evocation by the empty set, and how erotetic implication based on a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to a relation between questions only.
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  11. Question Meaning= Resolution Conditions.Ivano Ciardelli - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (3):383-416.
    Traditional approaches to the semantics of questions analyze questions indirectly, via the notion of an answer. In recent work on inquisitive semantics, a different perspective is taken: the meaning of a question is equated with its resolution conditions, just like the meaning of a statement is traditionally equated with its truth-conditions. In this paper I argue that this proposal improves on previous approaches, combining the formal elegance and explanatory power of Groenendijk and Stokhof’s partition theory with the greater generality afforded (...)
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  12. IEL-Based Formal Dialogue System for Tutorials.Paweł Łupkowskim - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (3):287-320.
    FFormal dialogue system for tutorials DLT is introduced. The system allows for modelling certain behaviours related to questioning agendas observed in tutorial dialogues. Inferential Erotetic Logic is the underlying logic of questions used here. Tutorial dialogues retrieved from the Basic Electricity and Electronics Corpus are presented and analysed with the use of DLT.
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  13. Scheinprobleme - Ein explikativer Versuch.Moritz Cordes - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Greifswald
    The traditional use of the expression 'pseudoproblem' is analysed in order to clarify the talk of pseudoproblems and related phenomena. The goal is to produce a philosophically serviceable terminology that stays true to its historical roots. This explicative study is inspired by and makes use of the method of logical reconstruction. Since pseudoproblems are usually expressed by pseudoquestions a formal language of questions is presented as a possible reconstruction language for alleged pseudoproblems. The study yields an informal theory of pseudoproblems (...)
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  14. Erotetic Search Scenarios and Three-Valued Logic.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion & Paweł Łupkowski - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (1):51-76.
    Our aim is to model the behaviour of a cognitive agent trying to solve a complex problem by dividing it into sub-problems, but failing to solve some of these sub-problems. We use the powerful framework of erotetic search scenarios combined with Kleene’s strong three-valued logic. ESS, defined on the grounds of Inferential Erotetic Logic, has appeared to be a useful logical tool for modelling cognitive goal-directed processes. Using the logical tools of ESS and the three-valued logic, we will show how (...)
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  15. Dual Erotetic Calculi and the Minimal {Mathsf{LFI}}.Szymon Chlebowski & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (6):1245-1278.
    An erotetic calculus for a given logic constitutes a sequent-style proof-theoretical formalization of the logic grounded in Inferential Erotetic Logic ). In this paper, a new erotetic calculus for Classical Propositional Logic ), dual with respect to the existing ones, is given. We modify the calculus to obtain complete proof systems for the propositional part of paraconsistent logic \ and its extensions \ and \. The method is based on dual resolution. Moreover, the resolution rule is non-clausal. According to the (...)
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  16. Dual Erotetic Calculi and the Minimal $${\Mathsf{LFI}}$$ LFI.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion & Szymon Chlebowski - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (6):1245-1278.
    An erotetic calculus for a given logic constitutes a sequent-style proof-theoretical formalization of the logic grounded in Inferential Erotetic Logic. In this paper, a new erotetic calculus for Classical Propositional Logic, dual with respect to the existing ones, is given. We modify the calculus to obtain complete proof systems for the propositional part of paraconsistent logic $${\mathsf{CLuN}}$$ CLuN and its extensions $${\mathsf{CLuNs}}$$ CLuNs and $${\mathsf{mbC}}$$ mbC. The method is based on dual resolution. Moreover, the resolution rule is non-clausal. According to (...)
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  17. Inferential Erotetic Logic Meets Inquisitive Semantics.Andrzej Wiśniewski & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2015 - Synthese 192 (6):1585-1608.
    Inferential erotetic logic and inquisitive semantics give accounts of questions and model various aspects of questioning. In this paper we concentrate upon connections between inquisitiveness, being the core concept of INQ, and question raising, characterized in IEL by means of the concepts of question evocation and erotetic implication. We consider the basic system InqB of INQ, remain at the propositional level and show, inter alia, that: a disjunction of all the direct answers to an evoked question is always inquisitive; a (...)
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  18. Generating Cooperative Question-Responses by Means of Erotetic Search Senarios.Paweł Łupkowskim & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2014 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (1):61-78.
    The concept of cooperative question-responses as an extension of cooperative behaviours used by interfaces for databases and information systems is proposed. A procedure to generate question-responses based on question dependency and erotetic search scenarios is presented. The procedure is implemented in Prolog.
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  19. Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2013 - College Publications.
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  20. Theory of Questions: Erotetics Through the Prism of its Philosophical Background and Practical Applications.Anna Brożek - 2011 - Warszawa: Rodopi.
    It is hard to imagine our life without questions. They facilitate orientation in our environment, enable interpersonal communication and make the acquisition of knowledge possible. Questions direct scientific research, are used as research tools and are an important medium of transferring knowledge in teaching. The book is intended as a par excellence philosophical monograph of the theory of questions, presenting the most important erotetic problems, their general background and selected practical applications. It is prepared in all fairness to results acquired (...)
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  21. A Formal Approach to Exploring the Interrogator's Perspective in the Turing Test.Paweł Łupkowski - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):139-158.
    My aim in this paper is to use a formal approach to the Turing test. This approach is based on a tool developed within Inferential Erotetic Logic, so called erotetic search scenarios. First, I reconstruct the setting of the Turing test proposed by A.M. Turing. On this basis, I build a model of the test using erotetic search scenarios framework. I use the model to investigate one of the most interesting issues of the TT setting – the interrogator’s perspective and (...)
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  22. The Logic of “Asked and Answered!”: The Case of the Traffic Light.Joseph S. Fulda - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (2):282-287.
    Uses erotetic logic to model the courtroom objection "Asked and Answered!".
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  23. Socratic Proofs and Paraconsistency: A Case Study.Andrzej Wiśniewski, Guido Vanackere & Dorota Leszczyńska - 2005 - Studia Logica 80 (2-3):431-466.
    This paper develops a new proof method for two propositional paraconsistent logics: the propositional part of Batens' weak paraconsistent logic CLuN and Schütte's maximally paraconsistent logic Φv. Proofs are de.ned as certain sequences of questions. The method is grounded in Inferential Erotetic Logic.
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  24. Socratic Proofs.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (3):299-326.
    Our aim is to express in exact terms the old idea of solving problems by pure questioning. We consider the problem of derivability: "Is A derivable from Δ by classical propositional logic?". We develop a calculus of questions E*; a proof (called a Socratic proof) is a sequence of questions ending with a question whose affirmative answer is, in a sense, evident. The calculus is sound and complete with respect to classical propositional logic. A Socratic proof in E* can be (...)
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  25. The Logic of Questions.David Harrah - 2002 - In Dov M. Gabbay & Franz Guenthner (eds.), Handbook of Philosophical Logic. Springer. pp. 1--60.
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  26. Erotetic Arguments From Inconsistent Premises.Joke Meheus - 1999 - Logique Et Analyse 165 (166):49-80.
  27. Scientific Discovery, Induction, and the Multi-Level Character of Scientific Inquiry.George Gebhard - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:261-286.
  28. Replies.Jaakko Hintikka - 1997 - In Matti Sintonen (ed.), Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on Jaakko Hintikka’s Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Rodopi. pp. 309--338.
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  29. On the Logical Structure of Learning Models.Mika Kiikeri - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:287-307.
  30. Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on Jaakko Hintikka’s Epistemology and Philosophy of Science.Matti Sintonen (ed.) - 1997 - Brill | Rodopi.
    Contents: Matti SINTONEN: From the Science of Logic to the Logic of Science. I: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES. Zev BECHLER: Hintikka on Plenitude in Aristotle. Marja-Liisa KAKKURI-KNUUTTILA: What Can the Sciences of Man Learn from Aristotle? Martin KUSCH: Theories of Questions in German-Speaking Philosophy Around the Turn of the Century. Nils-Eric SAHLIN: 'HE IS NO GOOD FOR MY WORK': On the Philosophical Relations between Ramsey and Wittgenstein. II: FORMAL TOOLS: INDUCTION, OBSERVATION AND IDENTIFIABILITY. Theo A.F. KUIPERS: The Carnap-Hintikka Programme in Inductive Logic. (...)
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  31. Scientific Explanation and the Interrogative Model of Inquiry.Erik Weber - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:239-260.
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  32. Some Foundational Concepts of Erotetic Semantics.Andrzej Wisniewski - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:181-212.
  33. Interrogatives: Questions, Facts and Dialogue.Jonathan Ginzburg - 1996 - In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell Reference.
  34. The Semantics of Questions.James Higginbotham - 1996 - In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  35. Structuralism and the Interrogative Model of Inquiry.Matti Sintonen - 1996 - In Wolfgang Balzer & C. Ulises Moulines (eds.), Structuralist Theory of Science: Focal Issues, New Results. De Gruyter. pp. 45--47.
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  36. The Logic of Questions as a Theory of Erotetic Arguments.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1996 - Synthese 109 (1):1 - 25.
    This paper argues for the idea that the logic of questions should focus its attention on the analysis of arguments in which questions play the role of conclusions. The relevant concepts of validity are discussed and the concept of the logic of questions of a semantically interpreted formalized language is introduced.
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  37. Semantics and Pragmatics For Why-Questions.Jaakko Hintikka & Ilpo Halonen - 1995 - Journal of Philosophy 92 (12):636-657.
  38. The Posing of Questions. Logical Foundations of Erotetic Inferences.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1995 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  39. An Erotetic Approach to Explanation by Specification.Theo A. F. Kuipers & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (3):377 - 402.
    In earlier publications of the first author it was shown that intentional explanation of actions, functional explanation of biological traits and causal explanation of abnormal events share a common structure. They are called explanation by specification (of a goal, a biological function, an abnormal causal factor, respectively) as opposed to explanation by subsumption under a law. Explanation by specification is guided by a schematic train of thought, of which the argumentative steps not concerning questions were already shown to be logically (...)
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  40. On the Reducibility of Questions.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (2):265-284.
    The concepta question is reducible to a non-empty set of questions is defined and examined. The basic results are: (1) each question which is sound relative to some of its presuppositions is reducible to some set of binary (i.e. having exactly two direct answers) questions; (b) each question which has a finite number of direct answers is reducible to some finite set of binary questions; (c) if entailment is compact, then each normal question (i.e. sound relative to its presuppositions) is (...)
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  41. Erotetic Implications.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (2):173 - 195.
    Three semantic relations are analyzed: the relation of implication of a question by a question and a set of declarative sentences, the relation of implication of a question by a question, and the relation of strong implication of a question by a question and a set of declarative sentences. The connections between these concepts and the concepts of relative soundness, partial answerhood and presupposition are examined. The principal results are theorems about, to speak generally, epistemic reducibility of well-posed questions to (...)
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  42. The Logic of Discovery a Theory of the Rationality of Scientific Research.Scott A. Kleiner - 1993
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  43. What If...? Towards Excellence in Reasoning by Jaakko Hintikka and James Bachman.Gerald Nosich - 1993 - Informal Logic 15 (2):149-156.
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  44. In Search of Explanations: From Why-Questions to Shakespearean Questions.Matti Sintonen - 1993 - Philosophica 51 (1):55-81.
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  45. The Interrogative Model of Inquiry as a General Theory of Argumentation.Jaakko Hintikka - 1992 - Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 25 (2-3):221-242.
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  46. The Concept of Induction in the Light of the Interrogative Approach to Inquiry.Jaakko Hintikka - 1992 - In Jim J. Earman (ed.), Inference, Explanation and Other Frustrations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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  47. What If? Toward Excellence in Reasoning.Jaakko Hintikka & James Bachman - 1991 - Mayfield.
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  48. Erotetic Arguments: A Preliminary Analysis.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1991 - Studia Logica 50 (2):261 - 274.
    The concept of erotetic argument is introduced. Two relations between sets of declarative sentences and questions are analysed; and two classes of erotetic arguments are characterized.
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  49. Questions and Quantifiers.Mark A. Brown - 1990 - Theoria 56 (1-2):62-84.
  50. Konstruktive Fragelogik. Vom Elementarsatz Zur Logik von Frage Und Antwort.Dirk Hartmann - 1990 - B.I. Wissenschaftsverlag.
    Ausgehend von der Einführung elementarer Aufforderungen über die pragmatische Begründung von Logikkalkülen bis hin zu einer vollständig durchgeführten Logik von Frage und Antwort stellt dieses Buch einen umfassenden Entwurf einer möglichen Grammatik wissenschaftlicher Orthosprachen vor. Besonderes Gewicht erhält in diesem Zusammenhang die Logik von Frage und Antwort. Dem für alle Wissenschaften existentiell relevanten Bereich der exakten Formulierung und Lösung von Problemstellungen wird durch die Bereitstellung von fragelogischen Kalkülen sowie einer logischen Problemlösungsheuristik Rechnung getragen.
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