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Summary Ethical issues associated with AI are proliferating and rising to popular attention as intelligent machines become ubiquitous. For example, AIs can and do model aspects essential to moral agency and so offer tools for the investigation of consciousness and other aspects of cognition contributing to moral status (either ascribed or achieved). This has deep implications for our understanding of moral agency, and so of systems of ethics meant to account for and to provide for the development of such capacities. This raises the issue of responsible and/or blameworthy AIs operating openly in general society, with deep implications again for systems of ethics which must accommodate moral AIs. Consider also that human social infrastructure (e.g. energy grids, mass-transit systems) are increasingly moderated by increasingly intelligent machines. This alone raises many moral/ethical concerns. For example, who or what is responsible in the case of an accident due to system error, or due to design flaws, or due to proper operation outside of anticipated constraints? Finally, as AIs become increasingly intelligent, there seems some legitimate concern over the potential for AIs to manage human systems according to AI values, rather than as directly programmed by human designers. These issues often bare on the long-term safety of intelligent systems, and not only for individual human beings, but for the human race and life on Earth as a whole. These issues and many others are central to Ethics of AI. 
Key works Bostrom manuscriptMüller 2014
Introductions Müller 2011White 2015Gunkel 2012
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  1. Structure-Mapping: Directions From Simulation to Theory.Theodore Bach - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):23-51.
    The theory of mind debate has reached a “hybrid consensus” concerning the status of theory-theory and simulation-theory. Extant hybrid models either specify co-dependency and implementation relations, or distribute mentalizing tasks according to folk-psychological categories. By relying on a non-developmental framework these models fail to capture the central connection between simulation and theory. I propose a “dynamic” hybrid that is informed by recent work on the nature of similarity cognition. I claim that Gentner’s model of structure-mapping allows us to understand simulation (...)
  2. Simulation is Not Enough: A Hybrid Model of Disgust Attribution on the Basis of Visual Stimuli.Luca Barlassina - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):401-419.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the Theory-Theory (TT), mindreading is based on one's possession of a Theory of Mind. On the other hand, the Simulation Theory (ST) maintains that one arrives at the attribution of a mental state by simulating it in one's own mind. In this paper, I propose a ST-TT hybrid model of the ability to attribute disgust on the basis of visual stimuli such as facial expressions, body postures, etc. (...)
  3. Gendering the Digital Body: Women and Computers. [REVIEW]Archana Barua & Ananya Barua - 2012 - AI and Society 27 (4):465-477.
    As we live in a culture where “everything can be commodified, measured and calculated and can be put in the competitive market for sale, detached from its roots and purpose,” there is need to redefine our humanness in terms of the changing nature of science, technology, and their deeper impact on human life. More than anything else, it is Information Technology that now has tremendous influence on all spheres of our life, and in a sense, IT has become the destiny (...)
  4. Consensus and Authenticity in Representation: Simulation as Participative Theatre. [REVIEW]Michael T. Black - 1993 - AI and Society 7 (1):40-51.
    Representation was invented as an issue during the 17th century in response to specific developments in the technology of simulation. It remains an issue of central importance today in the design of information systems and approaches to artificial intelligence. Our cultural legacy of thought about representation is enormous but as inhibiting as it is productive. The challenge to designers of representative technology is to reshape this legacy by enlarging the politics rather than the technics of simulation.
  5. Transhumanist Values.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):3-14.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. [1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
  6. Computer Go: A Grand Challenge to AI.Xindi Cai & I. I. Wunsch - 2007 - In Wlodzislaw Duch & Jacek Mandziuk (eds.), Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Springer. pp. 443--465.
  7. Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate.Mar Cello Guarim - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  8. Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (Seee).Christopher A. Chung & Michael Alfred - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):189-199.
    Societal pressures, accreditation organizations, and licensing agencies are emphasizing the importance of ethics in the engineering curriculum. Traditionally, this subject has been taught using dogma, heuristics, and case study approaches. Most recently a number of organizations have sought to increase the utility of these approaches by utilizing the Internet. Resources from these organizations include on-line courses and tests, videos, and DVDs. While these individual approaches provide a foundation on which to base engineering ethics, they may be limited in developing a (...)
  9. The Energetic Dimension of Emotions: An Evolution-Based Computer Simulation with General Implications.Luc Ciompi & Martin Baatz - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (1):42-50.
    Viewed from an evolutionary standpoint, emotions can be understood as situation-specific patterns of energy consumption related to behaviors that have been selected by evolution for their survival value, such as environmental exploration, flight or fight, and socialization. In the present article, the energy linked with emotions is investigated by a strictly energy-based simulation of the evolution of simple autonomous agents provided with random cognitive and motor capacities and operating among food and predators. Emotions are translated into evolving patterns of energy (...)
  10. Linguistic Anchors in the Sea of Thought?Andy Clark - 1996 - Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (1):93-103.
    Andy Clark is currently Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology program at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He is the author of two books MICROCOGNITION (MIT Press/Bradford Books 1989) and ASSOCIATIVE ENGINES (MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1993) as well as numerous papers and four edited volumes. He is an ex- committee member of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science and of the Society for Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior. Awards include a visiting Fellowship at (...)
  11. Dialogues in Natural Language with Guru, a Psychologic Inference Engine.Kenneth M. Colby, Peter M. Colby & Robert J. Stoller - 1990 - Philosophical Psychology 3 (2 & 3):171 – 186.
    The aim of this project was to explore the possibility of constructing a psychologic inference engine that might enhance introspective self-awareness by delivering inferences about a user based on what he said in interactive dialogues about his closest opposite-sex relation. To implement this aim, we developed a computer program (guru) with the capacity to simulate human conversation in colloquial natural language. The psychologic inferences offered represent the authors' simulations of their commonsense psychology responses to expected user-input expressions. The heuristics of (...)
  12. Neurophysiological Evidence for Simulation and Action.J. Decety - 2002 - In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins.
  13. Group Agency and Epistemic Dependency.Aaron Dewitt - 2012 - Episteme 9 (3):235-244.
    Modern epistemic questions have largely been focused around the individual and her ability to acquire knowledge autonomously. More recently epistemologists have begun to look more broadly in providing accounts of knowledge by considering its social context, where the individual depends on others for true beliefs. Hardwig explains the effect of this shift starkly, arguing that to reject epistemic dependency is to deny certain true beliefs widely held throughout society and, more specifically, it is to deny that science and scholarship can (...)
  14. Reply to 'the Scope and Limit of Mental Simulation'.Jérôme Dokic - 2002 - In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins.
  15. Simulation and Knowledge of Action.Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.) - 2002 - John Benjamins.
    CHAPTER Simulation theory and mental concepts Alvin I. Goldman Rutgers University. Folk psychology and the TT-ST debate The study of folk psychology, ...
  16. Heidegger and Foucault on the Subject, Agencycourses.Hubert Dreyfus - unknown
    of autonomous agency. Yet neither denies the importance of human freedom. In Heidegger's early work the subject is reinterpreted as Dasein -- a non autonomous, culturally bound (or thrown) way of being, that can yet change the field of possibilities in which it acts. In middle Heidegger, thinkers alone have the power to disclose a new world, while in later Heidegger, anyone is free to step back from the current world, to enter one of a plurality of worlds, and, thereby, (...)
  17. DARES: Documents Annotation and Recombining System—Application to the European Law. [REVIEW]Fady Farah & François Rousselot - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):83-102.
    Accessing legislation via the Internet is more and more frequent. As a result, systems that allow consultation of law texts are becoming more and more powerful. This paper presents DARES, a generic system which can be adapted to any domain to handle documents production needs. It is based on an annotation engine which allows obtaining XML documents inputs as required by the system, and on an XML fragments recombining system. The latter operates using a fragment manipulation functions toolbox to generate (...)
  18. Assessment of Problem Solving Skills by Means of Multiple Complex Systems – Validity of Finite Automata and Linear Dynamic Systems.Andreas Fischer - unknown
    The assessment of highly domain-general problem solving skills is increasingly important as problem solving is increasingly demanded by modern workplaces and increasingly present in international large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. This thesis is about the computer-based assessment of problem solving skills based on Multiple Complex Systems : The main idea of the MCS approach is to present multiple computer-simulations of “minimally complex” problems in order to reliably assess certain problem solving skills. In each simulation, the (...)
  19. Does Simulation Theory Really Involve Simulation?Justin C. Fisher - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):417 – 432.
    This paper contributes to an ongoing debate regarding the cognitive processes involved when one person predicts a target person's behavior and/or attributes a mental state to that target person. According to simulation theory, a person typically performs these tasks by employing some part of her brain as a simulation of what is going on in a corresponding part of the brain of the target person. I propose a general intuitive analysis of what 'simulation' means. Simulation is a particular way of (...)
  20. Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2004 - Metaphilosophy 35 (4):554-582.
    The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research with its own field of investigation and methodology. This article, based on the Herbert A. Simon Lecture of Computing and Philosophy I gave at Carnegie Mellon University in 2001, analyses the eighteen principal open problems in PI. Section 1 introduces the analysis by outlining Herbert Simon's approach to PI. Section 2 discusses some methodological considerations about what counts as a good philosophical problem. The discussion centers on Hilbert's famous analysis (...)
  21. On the Role of AI in the Ongoing Paradigm Shift Within the Cognitive Sciences.Tom Froese - 2007 - In M. Lungarella (ed.), 50 Years of AI. Springer Verlag.
    This paper supports the view that the ongoing shift from orthodox to embodied-embedded cognitive science has been significantly influenced by the experimental results generated by AI research. Recently, there has also been a noticeable shift toward enactivism, a paradigm which radicalizes the embodied-embedded approach by placing autonomous agency and lived subjectivity at the heart of cognitive science. Some first steps toward a clarification of the relationship of AI to this further shift are outlined. It is concluded that the success of (...)
  22. Amplifying Phenomenal Information: Toward a Fundamental Theory of Consciousness.Liane Gabora - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):3-29.
    from non-conscious components by positing that consciousness is a universal primitive. For example, the double aspect theory of information holds that infor- mation has a phenomenal aspect. How then do you get from phenomenal infor- mation to human consciousness? This paper proposes that an entity is conscious to the extent it amplifies information, first by trapping and integrating it through closure, and second by maintaining dynamics at the edge of chaos through simul- taneous processes of divergence and convergence. The origin (...)
  23. On the Re-Materialization of the Virtual.Ismo Kantola - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (2):189-198.
    The so-called new economy based on the global network of digitalized communication was welcomed as a platform of innovations and as a vehicle of advancement of democracy. The concept of virtuality captures the essence of the new economy: efficiency and free access. In practice, the new economy has developed into an heterogenic entity dominated by practices such as propagation of trust and commitment to standards and standard-like technological solutions; entrenchment of locally strategic subsystems; surveillance of unwanted behavior. Five empirical cases (...)
  24. Special Issue on Social Impact of AI: Killer Robots or Friendly Fridges. [REVIEW]Greg Michaelson & Ruth Aylett - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):317-318.
  25. Robust Simulations.Ryan Muldoon - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):873-883.
    As scientists begin to study increasingly complex questions, many have turned to computer simulation to assist in their inquiry. This methodology has been challenged by both analytic modelers and experimentalists. A primary objection of analytic modelers is that simulations are simply too complicated to perform model verification. From the experimentalist perspective it is that there is no means to demonstrate the reality of simulation. The aim of this paper is to consider objections from both of these perspectives, and to argue (...)
  26. The Misguided Marriage of Responsibility and Autonomy.Marina A. L. Oshana - 2002 - Journal of Ethics 6 (3):261-280.
    Much of the literature devoted to the topics of agent autonomy and agent responsibility suggests strong conceptual overlaps between the two, although few explore these overlaps explicitly. Beliefs of this sort are commonplace, but they mistakenly conflate the global state of being autonomous with the local condition of acting autonomously or exhibiting autonomy in respect to some act or decision. Because the latter, local phenomenon of autonomy seems closely tied to the condition of being responsible for an act, we tend (...)
  27. An Intellectual Celebration: A Review of the Jurix Legal Knowledge Based Systems Scholarship. [REVIEW]Abdul Paliwala - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (4):317-335.
    The Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems (JURIX) has, sinceits foundation in 1988, become an internationally renowned forumfor Law and Artificial Intelligence in theNetherlands. This paper is based onan intellectual review of the work of JURIX requested by theorganisation as part of its 10th anniversary in December 1997 andpresented as a keynote address at the 10th anniversary conference.It has been updated to include the following two conferences. Itapplauds the overall effort but also suggests some directions forfuture development and suggests in particular:The (...)
  28. A Formal Model of Adjudication Dialogues.Henry Prakken - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (3):305-328.
    This article presents a formal dialogue game for adjudication dialogues. Existing AI & law models of legal dialogues and argumentation-theoretic models of persuasion are extended with a neutral third party, to give a more realistic account of the adjudicator’s role in legal procedures. The main feature of the model is a division into an argumentation phase, where the adversaries plea their case and the adjudicator has a largely mediating role, and a decision phase, where the adjudicator decides the dispute on (...)
  29. The Sudden Experience of the Computer.Robert Rosenberger - 2009 - AI and Society 24 (2):173-180.
    The experience of computer use can be productively articulated with concepts developed in the phenomenological tradition of philosophy. Building on the insights of classical phenomenologists, Ihde has advanced a sophisticated view of the ways humans relate to technology. I review and expand on his notions of “technological mediation,” “embodiment,” and “multistability,” and apply them to the experience of computer interface. In particular, I explore the experience of using a computer that fails to work properly. A revealing example is the experience (...)
  30. Ethics, Science, and the Mechanisation of the World Picture.Rosenbrock Howard - 2004 - AI and Society 18 (1):7-20.
    A nascent science in the sixteenth century rejected explanations in terms of purpose in favour of causality, and this bias has persisted and grown stronger. It has unfortunate consequences in areas where social and ethical considerations should prevail, and the paper describes a search extending over 20 years for a way in which these consequences could be avoided.
  31. Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional, Vol. I.Joel H. Rosenthal, J. E. Drexel Godfrey, R. V. Jones, Arthur S. Hulnick, David W. Mattausch, Kent Pekel, Tony Pfaff, John P. Langan, John B. Chomeau, Anne C. Rudolph, Fritz Allhoff, Michael Skerker, Robert M. Gates, Andrew Wilkie, James Ernest Roscoe, Lincoln P. Bloomfield Jr, Charles R. Beitz, David L. Perry, James A. Barry, Loch K. Johnson, Jean Maria Arrigo, Roger Homan, Martin Bulmer, David Price, Linda Trevino, Gary Weaver, Darren Charters & Jan Goldman (eds.) - 2006 - Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
    This is the first book to offer the best essays, articles, and speeches on ethics and intelligence that demonstrate the complex moral dilemmas in intelligence collection, analysis, and operations. Some are recently declassified and never before published, and all are written by authors whose backgrounds are as varied as their insights, including Robert M. Gates, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency; John P. Langan, the Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Professor of Catholic Social Thought at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown (...)
  32. Simulation Theory and Interpersonal Utility Comparisons Reconsidered.Mauro Rossi - 2014 - Synthese 191 (6):1185-1210.
    According to a popular strategy amongst economists and philosophers, in order to solve the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons, we have to look at how ordinary people make such comparisons in everyday life. The most recent attempt to develop this strategy has been put forward by Goldman in his “Simulation and Interpersonal Utility” (Ethics 4:709–726, 1995). Goldman claims, first, that ordinary people make interpersonal comparisons by simulation and, second, that simulation is reliable for making interpersonal comparisons. In this paper, I (...)
  33. Approximations, Idealizations and 'Experiments' at the Physics-Biology Interface.Darrell P. Rowbottom - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):145-154.
    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: (1) the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and (2) the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, (...)
  34. Learning From a Simulated Universe: The Limits of Realistic Modeling in Astrophysics and Cosmology.Stéphanie Ruphy - unknown
    As noticed recently by Winsberg (2003), how computer models and simulations get their epistemic credentials remains in need of epistemological scrutiny. My aim in this paper is to contribute to fill this gap by discussing underappreciated features of simulations (such as “path-dependency” and plasticity) which, I’ll argue, affect their validation. The focus will be on composite modeling of complex real-world systems in astrophysics and cosmology. The analysis leads to a reassessment of the epistemic goals actually achieved by this kind of (...)
  35. Social Logics and Expert Systems.Giorgio Sacchi - 1994 - AI and Society 8 (1):84-87.
    My goal is to emphasize the way we generally use the word ‘logic’ and the sort of problems related to the definition of logic and the sort of problems related to the definition of logic. I also wish to underline the differences between human intelligence and artificial intelligence.
  36. Moral Ecology Approaches to Machine Ethics.Christopher Santos-Lang (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    Wallach and Allen’s seminal book, Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong, categorized theories of machine ethics by the types of algorithms each employs (e.g., top-down vs. bottom-up), ultimately concluding that a hybrid approach would be necessary. Humans are hybrids individually: our brains are wired to adapt our evaluative approach to our circumstances. For example, stressors can inhibit the action of oxytocin in the brain, thus forcing a nurse who usually acts from subjective empathy to defer to objective rules instead. (...)
  37. Our Responsibility to Manage Evaluative Diversity.Christopher Santos-Lang - 2014 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 44 (2):16-19.
    The ecosystem approach to computer system development is similar to management of biodiversity. Instead of modeling machines after a successful individual, it models machines after successful teams. It includes measuring the evaluative diversity of human teams (i.e. the disparity in ways members conduct the evaluative aspect of decision-making), adding similarly diverse machines to those teams, and monitoring the impact on evaluative balance. This article reviews new research relevant to this approach, especially the validation of a survey instrument for measuring computational (...)
  38. The Neural Evidence for Simulation is Weaker Than I Think You Think It Is. [REVIEW]Rebecca Saxe - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (3):447 - 456.
    Simulation theory accounts of mind-reading propose that the observer generates a mental state that matches the state of the target and then uses this state as the basis for an attribution of a similar state to the target. The key proposal is thus that mechanisms that are primarily used online, when a person experiences a kind of mental state, are then co-opted to run Simulations of similar states in another person. Here I consider the neuroscientific evidence for this view. I (...)
  39. A Fourth Law of Robotics? Copyright and the Law and Ethics of Machine Co-Production.Burkhard Schafer, David Komuves, Jesus Manuel Niebla Zatarain & Laurence Diver - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (3):217-240.
  40. Moral Physiology, Its Limitations and Philosophical Implications.Stephan Schleim - 2008 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 13 (1):51-80.
  41. Children, Robots And... The Parental Role.Colin T. A. Schmidt - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (3):273-286.
    The raison d’être of this article is that many a spry-eyed analyst of the works in intelligent computing and robotics fail to see the essential concerning applications development, that of expressing their ultimate goal. Alternatively, they fail to state it suitably for the lesser-informed public eye. The author does not claim to be able to remedy this. Instead, the visionary investigation offered couples learning and computing with other related fields as part of a larger spectre to fully simulate people in (...)
  42. Meta-Induction and Social Epistemology: Computer Simulations of Prediction Games.Gerhard Schurz - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):200-220.
    The justification of induction is of central significance for cross-cultural social epistemology. Different ‘epistemological cultures’ do not only differ in their beliefs, but also in their belief-forming methods and evaluation standards. For an objective comparison of different methods and standards, one needs (meta-)induction over past successes. A notorious obstacle to the problem of justifying induction lies in the fact that the success of object-inductive prediction methods (i.e., methods applied at the level of events) can neither be shown to be universally (...)
  43. The Meta-Inductivist's Winning Strategy in the Prediction Game: A New Approach to Hume's Problem.Gerhard Schurz - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):278-305.
    This article suggests a ‘best alternative' justification of induction (in the sense of Reichenbach) which is based on meta-induction . The meta-inductivist applies the principle of induction to all competing prediction methods which are accessible to her. It is demonstrated, and illustrated by computer simulations, that there exist meta-inductivistic prediction strategies whose success is approximately optimal among all accessible prediction methods in arbitrary possible worlds, and which dominate the success of every noninductive prediction strategy. The proposed justification of meta-induction is (...)
  44. Responsible Ethics for Global Technology.Egbert Schuurman - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (1):107-127.
    Technical thinking predominates in industrial society. It also predominates ethics. Virtually everything is viewed in terms of the technical model or—more broadly—the reductionistic machine model. Neither of these models has any room for life as a fundamental and decisive factor. Huge problems have been the result. Our appreciation of technology will change completely if the will to power and mastery will be exchanged for respect for all that lives, in all its multi-coloured variety and multiplicity. The aim of technology should (...)
  45. Sociable Robots and the Future of Social Relations: Proceedings of Robo-Philosophy 2014.Johanna Seibt, Raul Hakli & Marco Nørskov (eds.) - 2014 - IOS Press.
    The robotics industry is growing rapidly, and to a large extent the development of this market sector is due to the area of social robotics – the production of robots that are designed to enter the space of human social interaction, both physically and semantically. Since social robots present a new type of social agent, they have been aptly classified as a disruptive technology, i.e. the sort of technology which affects the core of our current social practices and might lead (...)
  46. Unplanned Effects of Intelligent Agents on Internet Use: A Social Informatics Approach. [REVIEW]Alexander Serenko, Umar Ruhi & Mihail Cocosila - 2006 - AI and Society 21 (1-2):141-166.
    This paper instigates a discourse on the unplanned effects of intelligent agents in the context of their use on the Internet. By utilizing a social informatics framework as a lens of analysis, the study identifies several unanticipated consequences of using intelligent agents for information- and commerce-based tasks on the Internet. The effects include those that transpire over time at the organizational level, such as e-commerce transformation, operational encumbrance and security overload, as well as those that emerge on a cultural level, (...)
  47. A Cognitive Architecture That Combines Internal Simulation with a Global Workspace.Murray Shanahan - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):433-449.
    This paper proposes a brain-inspired cognitive architecture that incorporates approximations to the concepts of consciousness, imagination, and emotion. To emulate the empirically established cognitive efficacy of conscious as opposed to non-conscious information processing in the mammalian brain, the architecture adopts a model of information flow from global workspace theory. Cognitive functions such as anticipation and planning are realised through internal simulation of interaction with the environment. Action selection, in both actual and internally simulated interaction with the environment, is mediated by (...)
  48. PLASIU: A System That Facilitates Creative Decision-Making in Job-Hunting. [REVIEW]Hiroko Shoji, Kazunori Fujimoto & Koichi Hori - 2007 - AI and Society 23 (2):265-279.
    Through an analysis of university students’ job-hunting logs, we have found that their introspection via rereading their log sometimes helps them discover themselves. Then we have built a system called PLASIU designed to support job-hunter’s creative decision-making based on the observations from their actual job-hunting process. This paper provides an overview of PLASIU and describes the findings from a user study using PLASIU.
  49. The Future of Research in Artificial Intelligence.Laurent Siklóssy - 1991 - In P. A. Flach (ed.), Future Directions in Artificial Intelligence. New York: Elsevier Science.
  50. Institutional Robotics.Porfirio Silva & Pedro U. Lima - 2007 - In F. Almeida e Costa et al (ed.), Advances in Artificial Life. ECAL 2007. Springer Verlag.
    Pioneer approaches to Artificial Intelligence have traditionally neglected, in a chronological sequence, the agent body, the world where the agent is situated, and the other agents. With the advent of Collective Robotics approaches, important progresses were made toward embodying and situating the agents, together with the introduction of collective intelligence. However, the currently used models of social environments are still rather poor, jeopardizing the attempts of developing truly intelligent robot teams. In this paper, we propose a roadmap for a new (...)
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