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Summary Ethical issues associated with AI are proliferating and rising to popular attention as intelligent machines become ubiquitous. For example, AIs can and do model aspects essential to moral agency and so offer tools for the investigation of consciousness and other aspects of cognition contributing to moral status (either ascribed or achieved). This has deep implications for our understanding of moral agency, and so of systems of ethics meant to account for and to provide for the development of such capacities. This raises the issue of responsible and/or blameworthy AIs operating openly in general society, with deep implications again for systems of ethics which must accommodate moral AIs. Consider also that human social infrastructure (e.g. energy grids, mass-transit systems) are increasingly moderated by increasingly intelligent machines. This alone raises many moral/ethical concerns. For example, who or what is responsible in the case of an accident due to system error, or due to design flaws, or due to proper operation outside of anticipated constraints? Finally, as AIs become increasingly intelligent, there seems some legitimate concern over the potential for AIs to manage human systems according to AI values, rather than as directly programmed by human designers. These issues often bare on the long-term safety of intelligent systems, and not only for individual human beings, but for the human race and life on Earth as a whole. These issues and many others are central to Ethics of AI. 
Key works Bostrom manuscriptMüller 2014
Introductions Müller 2011White 2015Gunkel 2012
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  1. Do Expert Systems Have a Moral Cost?Mark Alfino - manuscript
    When professionals are asked about the value of information technology to their work, they typically give two kinds of answers. Some see the advent or arrival of sophisticated information technology as a great boon to their professional lives. For them, the only question is how soon can the technology be deployed to open up new horizons for professional activity and end dull and tedious work. Others sense more acutely the serious..
  2. Machines in Cotton.James S. Allen - 1948 - Science and Society 12 (2):240 - 253.
  3. Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics.Francesco Amigoni & Viola Schiaffonati - 2010 - In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. pp. 315--332.
  4. Machine Ethics.M. Anderson & S. Anderson (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Univ. Press.
  5. Artificial Intelligence: A Contribution to Systems Theories of Sociology. [REVIEW]Achille Ardigo - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (2):113-120.
    The aim of my contribution is to try to analyse some points of similarity and difference between post-Parsonian social systems theory models for sociology — with special reference to those of W. Buckley, F.E. Emery and N. Luhmann — and expert systems models1 from Artificial Intelligence. I keep specifically to post-Parsonian systems theories within sociology because they assume some postulates and criteria derived from cybernetics and which are at the roots of AI. I refer in particular to the fundamental relevance (...)
  6. Structure-Mapping: Directions From Simulation to Theory.Theodore Bach - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):23-51.
    The theory of mind debate has reached a “hybrid consensus” concerning the status of theory-theory and simulation-theory. Extant hybrid models either specify co-dependency and implementation relations, or distribute mentalizing tasks according to folk-psychological categories. By relying on a non-developmental framework these models fail to capture the central connection between simulation and theory. I propose a “dynamic” hybrid that is informed by recent work on the nature of similarity cognition. I claim that Gentner’s model of structure-mapping allows us to understand simulation (...)
  7. The Age of Automation.Leon Bagrit - 1966 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17 (1):80-83.
  8. Simulation is Not Enough: A Hybrid Model of Disgust Attribution on the Basis of Visual Stimuli.Luca Barlassina - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):401-419.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the Theory-Theory (TT), mindreading is based on one's possession of a Theory of Mind. On the other hand, the Simulation Theory (ST) maintains that one arrives at the attribution of a mental state by simulating it in one's own mind. In this paper, I propose a ST-TT hybrid model of the ability to attribute disgust on the basis of visual stimuli such as facial expressions, body postures, etc. (...)
  9. The Risk of Total Divergence: Politicized Intelligence and Defactualization in the Age of Imminent War.J. Barry - 2010 - Télos 2010 (150):27-43.
  10. Gendering the Digital Body: Women and Computers. [REVIEW]Archana Barua & Ananya Barua - 2012 - AI and Society 27 (4):465-477.
    As we live in a culture where “everything can be commodified, measured and calculated and can be put in the competitive market for sale, detached from its roots and purpose,” there is need to redefine our humanness in terms of the changing nature of science, technology, and their deeper impact on human life. More than anything else, it is Information Technology that now has tremendous influence on all spheres of our life, and in a sense, IT has become the destiny (...)
  11. Evaluating Search Engine Models for Scholarly Purposes.Anthony F. Beavers - unknown
    The Internet allows for the efficient dissemination of texts, thereby creating a rich hypertextual environment that is potentially conducive to stimulating the free exchange of ideas in a manner worthy of the modern scholar. However, the fact that any user whatsoever may disseminate texts in this manner presents two distinct problems. First, finding relevant resources on the Internet may take a fair amount of time and, second, once resources are found, determining their reliability is often difficult if the user is (...)
  12. Robots, Ethics and Language.Ingrid Björk & Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):270-273.
  13. Consensus and Authenticity in Representation: Simulation as Participative Theatre. [REVIEW]Michael T. Black - 1993 - AI and Society 7 (1):40-51.
    Representation was invented as an issue during the 17th century in response to specific developments in the technology of simulation. It remains an issue of central importance today in the design of information systems and approaches to artificial intelligence. Our cultural legacy of thought about representation is enormous but as inhibiting as it is productive. The challenge to designers of representative technology is to reshape this legacy by enlarging the politics rather than the technics of simulation.
  14. Two Examples of Decision Support in the Law.István Borgulya - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):303-321.
    There are several systems which provide computer support to legal decisions. Perhaps the most significant ones, besides various computerised systems for administration, are information retrieval systems that locate statutes and documents. Other research projects, however, deal with legislation and adjudication, making it possible to use information techniques in making legal decisions. I wish to describe two decision-support programs and to link them to some theoretical findings of my former researches. What connects those programs is that they give some new information (...)
  15. Transhumanist Values.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):3-14.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. [1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
  16. Fast, Cheap & Out of Control.Rodney A. Brooks - 1999 - Sony Pictures Classics Weta-Tv.
    Complex systems and complex missions take years of planning and force launches to become incredibly expensive. The longer the planning and the more expensive the mission, the more catastrophic if it fails. The solution has always been to plan better, add redundancy, test thoroughly and use high quality components. Based on our experience in building ground based mobile robots (legged and wheeled) we argue here for cheap, fast missions using large numbers of mass produced simple autonomous robots that are small (...)
  17. Computer Go: A Grand Challenge to AI.Xindi Cai & I. I. Wunsch - 2007 - In Wlodzislaw Duch & Jacek Mandziuk (eds.), Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Springer. pp. 443--465.
  18. Intelligence and Ethics: The Cia's Covert Operations.David Canon - 1980 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 4 (2):197-214.
  19. Implications of an Ethic of Privacy for Human-Centred Systems Engineering.Peter J. Carew, Larry Stapleton & Gabriel J. Byrne - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (3):385-403.
    Privacy remains an intractable ethical issue for the information society, and one that is exacerbated by modern applications of artificial intelligence. Given its complicity, there is a moral obligation to redress privacy issues in systems engineering practice itself. This paper investigates the role the concept of privacy plays in contemporary systems engineering practice. Ontologically a nominalist human concept, privacy is considered from an appropriate engineering perspective: human-centred design. Two human-centred design standards are selected as exemplars of best practice, and are (...)
  20. Alan Turing's “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”.Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):293-299.
  21. Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate.Mar Cello Guarim - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  22. Design, Development, and Evaluation of an Interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (Seee).Christopher A. Chung & Michael Alfred - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (2):189-199.
    Societal pressures, accreditation organizations, and licensing agencies are emphasizing the importance of ethics in the engineering curriculum. Traditionally, this subject has been taught using dogma, heuristics, and case study approaches. Most recently a number of organizations have sought to increase the utility of these approaches by utilizing the Internet. Resources from these organizations include on-line courses and tests, videos, and DVDs. While these individual approaches provide a foundation on which to base engineering ethics, they may be limited in developing a (...)
  23. The Energetic Dimension of Emotions: An Evolution-Based Computer Simulation with General Implications.Luc Ciompi & Martin Baatz - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (1):42-50.
    Viewed from an evolutionary standpoint, emotions can be understood as situation-specific patterns of energy consumption related to behaviors that have been selected by evolution for their survival value, such as environmental exploration, flight or fight, and socialization. In the present article, the energy linked with emotions is investigated by a strictly energy-based simulation of the evolution of simple autonomous agents provided with random cognitive and motor capacities and operating among food and predators. Emotions are translated into evolving patterns of energy (...)
  24. Linguistic Anchors in the Sea of Thought?Andy Clark - 1996 - Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (1):93-103.
    Andy Clark is currently Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology program at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He is the author of two books MICROCOGNITION (MIT Press/Bradford Books 1989) and ASSOCIATIVE ENGINES (MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1993) as well as numerous papers and four edited volumes. He is an ex- committee member of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science and of the Society for Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior. Awards include a visiting Fellowship at (...)
  25. Dialogues in Natural Language with Guru, a Psychologic Inference Engine.Kenneth M. Colby, Peter M. Colby & Robert J. Stoller - 1990 - Philosophical Psychology 3 (2 & 3):171 – 186.
    The aim of this project was to explore the possibility of constructing a psychologic inference engine that might enhance introspective self-awareness by delivering inferences about a user based on what he said in interactive dialogues about his closest opposite-sex relation. To implement this aim, we developed a computer program (guru) with the capacity to simulate human conversation in colloquial natural language. The psychologic inferences offered represent the authors' simulations of their commonsense psychology responses to expected user-input expressions. The heuristics of (...)
  26. From Judgment to Calculation.Mike Cooley - 2007 - AI and Society 21 (4):395-409.
    We only regard a system or a process as being “scientific” if it displays the three predominant characteristics of the natural sciences: predictability, repeatability and quantifiability. This by definition precludes intuition, subjective judgement, tacit knowledge, heuristics, dreams, etc. in other words, those attributes which are peculiarly human. Furthermore, this is resulting in a shift from judgment to calculation giving rise, in some cases, to an abject dependency on the machine and an inability to disagree with the outcome or even question (...)
  27. Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems.Emilio Corchado, Vaclav Snasel, Ajith Abraham, Michał Woźniak, Manuel Grana & Sung-Bae Cho (eds.) - 2012 - Springer.
  28. Intelligent Agents and Liability: Is It a Doctrinal Problem or Merely a Problem of Explanation? [REVIEW]Emad Abdel Rahim Dahiyat - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (1):103-121.
    The question of liability in the case of using intelligent agents is far from simple, and cannot sufficiently be answered by deeming the human user as being automatically responsible for all actions and mistakes of his agent. Therefore, this paper is specifically concerned with the significant difficulties which might arise in this regard especially if the technology behind software agents evolves, or is commonly used on a larger scale. Furthermore, this paper contemplates whether or not it is possible to share (...)
  29. Neurophysiological Evidence for Simulation and Action.J. Decety - 2002 - In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins.
  30. Group Agency and Epistemic Dependency.Aaron Dewitt - 2012 - Episteme 9 (3):235-244.
    Modern epistemic questions have largely been focused around the individual and her ability to acquire knowledge autonomously. More recently epistemologists have begun to look more broadly in providing accounts of knowledge by considering its social context, where the individual depends on others for true beliefs. Hardwig explains the effect of this shift starkly, arguing that to reject epistemic dependency is to deny certain true beliefs widely held throughout society and, more specifically, it is to deny that science and scholarship can (...)
  31. Reply to 'the Scope and Limit of Mental Simulation'.Jérôme Dokic - 2002 - In Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.), Simulation and Knowledge of Action. John Benjamins.
  32. Simulation and Knowledge of Action.Jérôme Dokic & Joëlle Proust (eds.) - 2002 - John Benjamins.
    CHAPTER Simulation theory and mental concepts Alvin I. Goldman Rutgers University. Folk psychology and the TT-ST debate The study of folk psychology, ...
  33. Heidegger and Foucault on the Subject, Agencycourses.Hubert Dreyfus - unknown
    of autonomous agency. Yet neither denies the importance of human freedom. In Heidegger's early work the subject is reinterpreted as Dasein -- a non autonomous, culturally bound (or thrown) way of being, that can yet change the field of possibilities in which it acts. In middle Heidegger, thinkers alone have the power to disclose a new world, while in later Heidegger, anyone is free to step back from the current world, to enter one of a plurality of worlds, and, thereby, (...)
  34. Designing New Intelligent Machines (COMETT European Symposium, Liège April 1992).D. M. Dubois - forthcoming - Communication and Cognition-Artificial Intelligence.
  35. The Closed World: Systems Discourse, Military Strategy and Post WWII American Historical Consciousness. [REVIEW]Paul N. Edwards - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (3):245-255.
    This essay proposes a cultural and historical explanation for the American Military's fascination with computing. Three key elements of post-WWII US political culture — apocalyptic struggle with the USSR, subsuming all other conflicts: a long history of antimilitarist sentiment in American politics; and the rise of science-based military power — contributed to a sense of the world as a closed system accessible to American technological control. A developing scientific systems discourse, centrally including computer science and AI, was adopted for strategic (...)
  36. Samuel O. Idowu and Walter Leal Filho (Eds): Professionals' Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW]Richard Ennals - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (3):369-370.
  37. Ethics and the Play of Intelligence.Cornelius Ernst - 1958 - New Blackfriars 39 (460-461):324-326.
  38. A Different Way of Seeing: Albert Borgmann's Philosophy of Technology and Human–Computer Interaction. [REVIEW]Daniel Fallman - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (1):53-60.
    Traditional human–computer interaction (HCI) allowed researchers and practitioners to share and rely on the ‘five E’s’ of usability, the principle that interactive systems should be designed to be effective, efficient, engaging, error tolerant, and easy to learn. A recent trend in HCI, however, is that academic researchers as well as practitioners are becoming increasingly interested in user experiences, i.e., understanding and designing for relationships between users and artifacts that are for instance affective, engaging, fun, playable, sociable, creative, involving, meaningful, exciting, (...)
  39. DARES: Documents Annotation and Recombining System—Application to the European Law. [REVIEW]Fady Farah & François Rousselot - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):83-102.
    Accessing legislation via the Internet is more and more frequent. As a result, systems that allow consultation of law texts are becoming more and more powerful. This paper presents DARES, a generic system which can be adapted to any domain to handle documents production needs. It is based on an annotation engine which allows obtaining XML documents inputs as required by the system, and on an XML fragments recombining system. The latter operates using a fragment manipulation functions toolbox to generate (...)
  40. Benchmarks for Evaluating Socially Assistive Robotics.David Feil-Seifer, Kristine Skinner & Maja J. Mataric - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (3):423-439.
  41. Benchmarks for Evaluating Socially Assistive Robotics.David Feil-Seifer, Kristine Skinner & Maja J. Matarić - 2007 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (3):423-439.
  42. Knowledge-Intensive Systems in the Social Service Agency: Anticipated Impacts on the Organisation. [REVIEW]William J. Ferns & Abbe Mowshowitz - 1995 - AI and Society 9 (2-3):161-183.
    Shrinking resources and the increasing complexity of clinical decisions are stimulating research in knowledge-intensive computer applications for the delivery of social services. The expected benefits of knowledge-intensive applications such as expert systems include improvement in both the quality and the consistency of service delivery, augmentation of institutional memory, and reduced labour costs through greater reliance on paraprofessionals. This paper analyses the likely impacts of knowledge-intensive systems on social service organisations, drawing on trends in related service-delivery fields, and on known impacts (...)
  43. Assessment of Problem Solving Skills by Means of Multiple Complex Systems – Validity of Finite Automata and Linear Dynamic Systems.Andreas Fischer - unknown
    The assessment of highly domain-general problem solving skills is increasingly important as problem solving is increasingly demanded by modern workplaces and increasingly present in international large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. This thesis is about the computer-based assessment of problem solving skills based on Multiple Complex Systems : The main idea of the MCS approach is to present multiple computer-simulations of “minimally complex” problems in order to reliably assess certain problem solving skills. In each simulation, the (...)
  44. Does Simulation Theory Really Involve Simulation?Justin C. Fisher - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (4):417 – 432.
    This paper contributes to an ongoing debate regarding the cognitive processes involved when one person predicts a target person's behavior and/or attributes a mental state to that target person. According to simulation theory, a person typically performs these tasks by employing some part of her brain as a simulation of what is going on in a corresponding part of the brain of the target person. I propose a general intuitive analysis of what 'simulation' means. Simulation is a particular way of (...)
  45. The Machine in the Pacific: The Diverse Legacy of Technology.Dt Fitzgerald - 2000 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 207:71-82.
  46. "Every Man in His Notions" or Alchemists' Discussion on Artificial Intelligence.Mariusz Flasiński - 1997 - Foundations of Science 2 (1):107-121.
    A survey of the main approaches in a mind study -oriented part of Artificial Intelligence is made focusing on controversial issues and extreme hypotheses. Various meanings of terms: "intelligence" and "artificial intelligence" are discussed. Limitations for constructing intelligent systems resulting from the lack of formalized models of cognitive activity are shown. The approaches surveyed are then recapitulated in the light of these limitations.
  47. Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2004 - Metaphilosophy 35 (4):554-582.
    The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research with its own field of investigation and methodology. This article, based on the Herbert A. Simon Lecture of Computing and Philosophy I gave at Carnegie Mellon University in 2001, analyses the eighteen principal open problems in PI. Section 1 introduces the analysis by outlining Herbert Simon's approach to PI. Section 2 discusses some methodological considerations about what counts as a good philosophical problem. The discussion centers on Hilbert's famous analysis (...)
  48. On the Role of AI in the Ongoing Paradigm Shift Within the Cognitive Sciences.Tom Froese - 2007 - In M. Lungarella (ed.), 50 Years of AI. Springer Verlag.
    This paper supports the view that the ongoing shift from orthodox to embodied-embedded cognitive science has been significantly influenced by the experimental results generated by AI research. Recently, there has also been a noticeable shift toward enactivism, a paradigm which radicalizes the embodied-embedded approach by placing autonomous agency and lived subjectivity at the heart of cognitive science. Some first steps toward a clarification of the relationship of AI to this further shift are outlined. It is concluded that the success of (...)
  49. A Critical Interpretation of Bottom-Up Management and Leadership Styles Within Japanese Companies: A Focus on Empowerment and Trust.Yasushi Fukuhara - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (1):85-93.
  50. AI in Medicine: A Japanese Perspective. [REVIEW]Dr Toshiyuki Furukawa - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (3):196-213.
    This article is concerned with the history and current state of research activities into medical expert systems (MES) in Japan. A brief review of expert systems' work over the last ten years is provided and here is a discussion on future directions of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medicine, which we expect the Japanese AI community in medicine (AIM) to undertake.
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