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Summary There is broad philosophical interest in the implications and applications of brain imaging, with concerns that cross the disciplinary boundaries of ethics, metaphysics, and law. Clinical applications of brain imaging for diagnosis and detection of consciousness in brain injured patients have bioethical and neuroethical implications, but also give rise to issues in philosophy of mind, about the nature of consciousness, the problem of other minds, the existence of neural correlates of mental states, etc. The use of brain imaging in criminal law (e.g. as a "lie detector," or to predict criminal behavior or "read" the mind) raises questions about moral and legal responsibility, as well as concerns about neuroessentialist, reductive and/or eliminative materialistic explanations of human behavior, mental disorders, and the mind. 
Key works Owen's work on functional neuroimaging in disorders of consciousness (Owen et al 2007) opens up a can of philosophical worms with respect to questions about functionally defining consciousness, using brain imaging to detect brain "behaviors," and the neural correlates of consciousness (Block 2001Block 1998).  Several philosophers have considered the uses and limits of functional neuroimaging in the law, e.g.: Tovino 2007; Glannon 2005Vincent 2011.  Glannon argues against neuroessentialism and the view that we are no more than our brains in Glannon 2009.
Introductions Illes & Sahakian 2011
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  1. added 2020-01-19
    The Neurologist and the Concept of Brain Death.James F. Toole - 1971 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 14 (4):599-607.
  2. added 2019-05-10
    How Do We Conduct Fruitful Ethical Analysis of Speculative Neurotechnologies?Lucie White - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):1-4.
    Gerben Meynen (2019) invites us to consider the potential ethical implications of what he refers to as “thought apprehension” technology for psychiatric practice, that is, technologies that involve recording brain activity, and using this to infer what people are thinking (or intending, desiring, feeling, etc.). His article is wide-ranging, covering several different ethical principles, various situations psychiatrists might encounter in therapeutic, legal and correctional contexts, and a range of potential incarnations of this technology, some more speculative than others. Although Meynen’s (...)
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  3. added 2019-03-13
    The Risks of Reducing Consciousness to Neuroimaging.Rob Schwartz & Mirra Schwartz - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):25 – 26.
  4. added 2018-06-14
    Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti A. Brazil - 2019 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 18 (3):228-242.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  5. added 2017-02-28
    Discovering the Neural Nature of Moral Cognition? Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Challenges in Bioethical Research with Electroencephalography (EEG).Nils-Frederic Wagner, Pedro Chaves & Annemarie Wolff - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (2):1-15.
    In this article we critically review the neural mechanisms of moral cognition that have recently been studied via electroencephalography (EEG). Such studies promise to shed new light on traditional moral questions by helping us to understand how effective moral cognition is embodied in the brain. It has been argued that conflicting normative ethical theories require different cognitive features and can, accordingly, in a broadly conceived naturalistic attempt, be associated with different brain processes that are rooted in different brain networks and (...)
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  6. added 2017-02-28
    A Fallacious Jar? The Peculiar Relation Between Descriptive Premises and Normative Conclusions in Neuroethics.Nils-Frederic Wagner & Georg Northoff - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (3):215-235.
    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific (...)
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  7. added 2017-02-13
    Functional Neuroimaging:Technical, Logical, and Social Perspectives.Geoffrey K. Aguirre - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s2):S8-S18.
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  8. added 2016-10-10
    Neuroethics and the Scientific Revision of Common Sense.Nada Gligorov - 2016 - Springer, Studies in Brain and Mind, Vol. 11.
    Neuroethics is an emerging interdisciplinary field with unsettled boundaries. Many of the ethical issues within the purview of neuroethics could be described as resulting from the clash between the scientific perspective on concepts such as free will, personal identity, consciousness, etc., and the putatively commonsense conceptions of those terms. The assumption that undergirds the framing of the conflict between these two approaches is that advances in neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology can be used to explain phenomena covered by commonsense concepts and (...)
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  9. added 2016-07-11
    Neuromarketing: What is It, and is It a Threat to Privacy?Steve Matthews - 2014 - In Jens Clausen Neil Levy (ed.), Handbook on Neuroethics. Springer. pp. 1627-1645.
    This entry has two general aims. The first is to profile the practices of neuromarketing (both current and hypothetical), and the second is to identify what is ethically troubling about these practices. It will be claimed that neuromarketing does not really present novel ethical challenges, and that marketers are simply continuing to do what they have always done, only now they have at their disposal the tools of neuroscience which they have duly recruited. What will be presupposed is a principle (...)
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  10. added 2015-11-25
    When Genes and Brains Unite: Ethical Implications of Genomic Neuroimaging.Turhan Canli - 2005 - In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oxford University Press.
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  11. added 2015-11-24
    Managing Incidental Findings: Lessons From Neuroimaging.Emily Borgelt, James A. Anderson & Judy Illes - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (2):46 - 47.
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  12. added 2015-11-24
    Ethical Concepts and Future Challenges of Neuroimaging: An Islamic Perspective.Wael K. Al-Delaimy - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):509-518.
    Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately (...)
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  13. added 2015-09-21
    Ethical Considerations in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research in Acutely Comatose Patients.Charles Weijer, Tommaso Bruni, Teneille Gofton, G. Bryan Young, Loretta Norton, Andrew Peterson & Adrian M. Owen - 2015 - Brain:0-0.
    After severe brain injury, one of the key challenges for medical doctors is to determine the patient’s prognosis. Who will do well? Who will not do well? Physicians need to know this, and families need to do this too, to address choices regarding the continuation of life supporting therapies. However, current prognostication methods are insufficient to provide a reliable prognosis. -/- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) holds considerable promise for improving the accuracy of prognosis in acute brain injury patients. Nonetheless, (...)
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  14. added 2015-05-11
    Will There Be a Neurolaw Revolution?Adam Kolber - 2014 - Indiana Law Journal 89:807-845.
    The central debate in the field of neurolaw has focused on two claims. Joshua Greene and Jonathan Cohen argue that we do not have free will and that advances in neuroscience will eventually lead us to stop blaming people for their actions. Stephen Morse, by contrast, argues that we have free will and that the kind of advances Greene and Cohen envision will not and should not affect the law. I argue that neither side has persuasively made the case for (...)
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  15. added 2015-05-04
    Neuroethics: An Introduction with Readings.Martha J. Farah - 2010 - MIT Press.
    Neuroscience increasingly allows us to explain, predict, and even control aspects of human behavior. The ethical issues that arise from these developments extend beyond the boundaries of conventional bioethics into philosophy of mind, psychology, theology, public policy, and the law. This broader set of concerns is the subject matter of neuroethics. In this book, leading neuroscientist Martha Farah introduces the reader to the key issues of neuroethics, placing them in scientific and cultural context and presenting a carefully chosen set of (...)
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  16. added 2014-08-04
    Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue.Athina Demertzi, Eric Racine, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen & Steven Laureys - forthcoming - Neuroethics.
  17. added 2014-08-04
    Ethical Challenges Associated with the Development and Deployment of Brain Computer Interface Technology.Paul McCullagh, Gaye Lightbody, Jaroslaw Zygierewicz & W. George Kernohan - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):109-122.
    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology offers potential for human augmentation in areas ranging from communication to home automation, leisure and gaming. This paper addresses ethical challenges associated with the wider scale deployment of BCI as an assistive technology by documenting issues associated with the development of non-invasive BCI technology. Laboratory testing is normally carried out with volunteers but further testing with subjects, who may be in vulnerable groups is often needed to improve system operation. BCI development is technically complex, sometimes (...)
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  18. added 2014-08-04
    New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing.Robyn Bluhm - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  19. added 2014-08-04
    Neuroscience, Neuropolitics and Neuroethics: The Complex Case of Crime, Deception and fMRI.Stuart Henry & Dena Plemmons - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):573-591.
    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the (...)
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  20. added 2014-08-04
    The Sensitivity of Neuroimaging Data.Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (2):185-195.
    Abstract When new methods of generating information about individuals leave the confined space of research application the possibility of morally dubious application arises. The current propagation of neuroscientific diagnostics leads to new possibilities of misuse and accordingly new needs for the protection of individual privacy emerge. While most current privacy discussion focuses on sensationalist applications which aim/claim to gather information about psychological traits or even the content of thoughts, the more sober but much more realistic endeavour to gather health data (...)
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  21. added 2014-08-04
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging. [REVIEW]Vinay K. Shukla - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (3):271-271.
  22. added 2014-08-04
    Will Neuroscientific Discoveries About Free Will and Selfhood Change Our Ethical Practices?Chris Kaposy - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (1):51-59.
    Over the past few years, a number of authors in the new field of neuroethics have claimed that there is an ethical challenge presented by the likelihood that the findings of neuroscience will undermine many common assumptions about human agency and selfhood. These authors claim that neuroscience shows that human agents have no free will, and that our sense of being a “self” is an illusory construction of our brains. Furthermore, some commentators predict that our ethical practices of assigning moral (...)
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  23. added 2014-06-08
    Stable Value Sets, Psychological Well-Being, and the Disability Paradox: Ramifications for Assessing Decision Making Capacity.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):24-25.
    The phenomenon whereby severely disabled persons self-report a higher than expected level of subjective well-being is called the “disability paradox.” One explanation for the paradox among brain injury survivors is “response shift,” an adjustment of one’s values, expectations, and perspective in the aftermath of a life-altering, disabling injury. The high level of subjective well-being appears paradoxical when viewed from the perspective of the non-disabled, who presume that those with severe disabilities experience a quality of life so poor that it might (...)
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  24. added 2014-06-08
    Can They Suffer? The Ethical Priority of Quality of Life Research in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2013 - Bioethica Forum 6 (4):129-136.
    There is ongoing ethical and legal debate about withdrawing life sup- port for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Frequently fu- eling the debate are implicit assumptions about the value of life in a state of impaired consciousness, and persistent uncertainty about the quality of life (QoL) of these persons. Yet there are no validated methods for assessing QoL in this population, and a significant obstacle to doing so is their inability to communicate. Recent neuroscientific discoveries might circumvent that problem (...)
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  25. added 2014-04-02
    Perceived Access to Self-Relevant Information Mediates Judgments of Privacy Violations in Neuromonitoring and Other Monitoring Technologies.D. A. Baker, N. J. Schweitzer & Evan F. Risko - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (1):43-50.
    Advances in technology are bringing greater insight into the mind, raising a host of privacy concerns. However, the basic psychological mechanisms underlying the perception of privacy violations are poorly understood. Here, we explore the relation between the perception of privacy violations and access to information related to one’s “self.” In two studies using demographically diverse samples, we find that privacy violations resulting from various monitoring technologies are mediated by the extent to which the monitoring is thought to provide access to (...)
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  26. added 2014-03-20
    Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge Informed by Genetics.Judy Illes & Eric Racine - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):5 – 18.
    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of (...)
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  27. added 2014-03-13
    Schiavo on the Cutting Edge: Functional Brain Imaging and its Impact on Surrogate End-of-Life Decision-Making.Jon B. Eisenberg - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (2):75-83.
    The article addresses the potential impact of functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography) on surrogate end-of-life decision-making in light of varying state-law definitions of consciousness, some of which define awareness behaviorally and others functionally. The article concludes that, in light of admonitions by neuroscientists that functional brain imaging cannot yet replace behavioral evaluation to determine the existence of consciousness, state legislatures, courts and drafters of written advance healthcare directives should consider treating behavior, not function, as the (...)
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  28. added 2014-03-13
    Neuroimaging and Inferential Distance.Adina L. Roskies - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (1):19-30.
    Brain images are used both as scientific evidence and to illustrate the results of neuroimaging experiments. These images are apt to be viewed as photographs of brain activity, and in so viewing them people are prone to assume that they share the evidential characteristics of photographs. Photographs are epistemically compelling, and have a number of characteristics that underlie what I call their inferential proximity. Here I explore the aptness of the photography analogy, and argue that although neuroimaging does bear important (...)
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  29. added 2014-03-12
    Going Beyond the Evidence.Neil Levy - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):19 – 21.
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  30. added 2014-03-12
    Neuroethics and Neuroimaging: Moving Toward Transparency.Joseph J. Fins - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):46 – 52.
    Without exaggeration, it could be said that we are entering a golden age of neuroscience. Informed by recent developments in neuroimaging that allow us to peer into the working brain at both a structural and functional level, neuroscientists are beginning to untangle mechanisms of recovery after brain injury and grapple with age-old questions about brain and mind and their correlates neural mechanisms and consciousness. Neuroimaging, coupled with new diagnostic categories and assessment scales are helping us develop a new diagnostic nosology (...)
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  31. added 2014-03-12
    Neuroethicists Needed Now More Than Ever.Ruth L. Fischbach & Gerald D. Fischbach - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):47 – 48.
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  32. added 2014-03-12
    Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness: Envisioning an Ethical Research Agenda.Joseph J. Fins, Judy Illes, James L. Bernat, Joy Hirsch, Steven Laureys & Emily Murphy - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):3 – 12.
    The application of neuroimaging technology to the study of the injured brain has transformed how neuroscientists understand disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states, and deepened our understanding of mechanisms of recovery. This scientific progress, and its potential clinical translation, provides an opportunity for ethical reflection. It was against this scientific backdrop that we convened a conference of leading investigators in neuroimaging, disorders of consciousness and neuroethics. Our goal was to develop an ethical frame to move (...)
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  33. added 2014-03-10
    Brain Damage and the Moral Significance of Consciousness.Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (1):6-26.
    Neuroimaging studies of brain-damaged patients diagnosed as in the vegetative state suggest that the patients might be conscious. This might seem to raise no new ethical questions given that in related disputes both sides agree that evidence for consciousness gives strong reason to preserve life. We question this assumption. We clarify the widely held but obscure principle that consciousness is morally significant. It is hard to apply this principle to difficult cases given that philosophers of mind distinguish between a range (...)
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  34. added 2014-03-07
    Interactive Capacity, Decisional Capacity, and a Dilemma for Surrogates.Vanessa Carbonell - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):36-37.
    In “Conscientious of the Conscious: Interactive Capacity as a Threshold Marker for Consciousness” (2013), Fischer and Truog argue that recent studies showing that some patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state are in fact in a minimally conscious state raise various ethical questions for clinicians and family members. I argue that these findings raise a further ethical dilemma about how and whether to seek the involvement of the minimally conscious person herself in decisions about her care. There may be (...)
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  35. added 2014-03-07
    Does Neuroscience Undermine Deontological Theory?Richard Dean - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (1):43-60.
    Joshua Greene has argued that several lines of empirical research, including his own fMRI studies of brain activity during moral decision-making, comprise strong evidence against the legitimacy of deontology as a moral theory. This is because, Greene maintains, the empirical studies establish that “characteristically deontological” moral thinking is driven by prepotent emotional reactions which are not a sound basis for morality in the contemporary world, while “characteristically consequentialist” thinking is a more reliable moral guide because it is characterized by greater (...)
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  36. added 2014-03-07
    Implications of Recent Neuroscientific Findings in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (2):185-196.
    A pressing issue in neuroscience is the high rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness. As new research on patients with disorders of consciousness has revealed surprising and previously unknown cognitive capacities, the need to develop better and more reliable methods of diagnosing these disorders becomes more urgent. So too the need to expand our ethical and social frameworks for thinking about these patients, to accommodate new concerns that will accompany new revelations. A recent study on trace conditioning and learning (...)
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  37. added 2014-03-07
    Brain Imaging and Privacy.Juha Räikkä - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (1):5-12.
    I will argue that the fairly common assumption that brain imaging may compromise people’s privacy in an undesirable way only if moral crimes are committed is false. Sometimes persons’ privacy is compromised because of failures of privacy. A normal emotional reaction to failures of privacy is embarrassment and shame, not moral resentment like in the cases of violations of right to privacy. I will claim that if (1) neuroimaging will provide all kinds of information about persons’ inner life and not (...)
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  38. added 2014-03-04
    “The Neuroscience of Responsibility”—Workshop Report.Nicole A. Vincent, Pim Haselager & Gert-Jan Lokhorst - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (2):175-178.
    This is a report on the 3-day workshop “The Neuroscience of Responsibility” that was held in the Philosophy Department at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands during February 11th–13th, 2010. The workshop had 25 participants from The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, UK, USA, Canada and Australia, with expertise in philosophy, neuroscience, psychology, psychiatry and law. Its aim was to identify current trends in neurolaw research related specifically to the topic of responsibility, and to foster international collaborative research on this topic. (...)
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  39. added 2014-03-04
    A New Challenge for Research Ethics: Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging.Bert Heinrichs - 2011 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):59-65.
    It has become evident that neuroimaging raises new normative questions that cannot be addressed adequately within the (in this regard unspecific) frameworks of existing research ethics. Questions that are especially troubling are, among others, provoked by incidental findings. Two questions are particularly intricate in view of incidental findings: (1) How can the research subject’s right not to know be guaranteed? And (2) should a diagnostic check of scans by a neuroradiologist become an obligatory part of neuroscientific research protocols? The present (...)
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  40. added 2014-03-04
    Neural Lie Detection, Criterial Change, and OrdinaryLanguage.Thomas Nadelhoffer - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (3):205-213.
    Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson have recently put forward several provocative and stimulating criticisms that strike at the heart of much work that has been done at the crossroads of neuroscience and the law. My goal in this essay is to argue that their criticisms of the nascent but growing field of neurolaw are ultimately based on questionable assumptions concerning the nature of the ever evolving relationship between scientific discovery and ordinary language. For while the marriage between ordinary language and (...)
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  41. added 2014-03-01
    Is There Neurosexism in Functional Neuroimaging Investigations of Sex Differences?Cordelia Fine - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):369-409.
    The neuroscientific investigation of sex differences has an unsavoury past, in which scientific claims reinforced and legitimated gender roles in ways that were not scientifically justified. Feminist critics have recently argued that the current use of functional neuroimaging technology in sex differences research largely follows that tradition. These charges of ‘neurosexism’ have been countered with arguments that the research being done is informative and valuable and that an over-emphasis on the perils, rather than the promise, of such research threatens to (...)
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  42. added 2014-02-25
    Emerging From an Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: Brain Plasticity has to Cross a Threshold Level.Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Giuseppe Galardi - 2013 - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (10):2721-2736.
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state) occurs after patients survive a severe brain injury. Patients suffering from UWS have lost awareness of themselves and of the external environment and do not retain any trace of their subjective experience. Current data demonstrate that neuronal functions subtending consciousness are not completely reset in UWS; however, they are reduced below the threshold required to experience consciousness. The critical factor that determines whether patients will recover consciousness is the distance of their (...)
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  43. added 2014-02-25
    DMN Operational Synchrony Relates to Self-Consciousness: Evidence From Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States.Andrew And Alexander Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi - 2012 - Open Neuroimaging Journal 6:55-68.
    The default mode network (DMN) has been consistently activated across a wide variety of self-related tasks, leading to a proposal of the DMN’s role in self-related processing. Indeed, there is limited fMRI evidence that the functional connectivity within the DMN may underlie a phenomenon referred to as self-awareness. At the same time, none of the known studies have explicitly investigated neuronal functional interactions among brain areas that comprise the DMN as a function of self-consciousness loss. To fill this gap, EEG (...)
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  44. added 2012-10-10
    Involuntary & Voluntary Invasive Brain Surgery: Ethical Issues Related to Acquired Aggressiveness. [REVIEW]Frederic Gilbert, Andrej Vranic & Samia Hurst - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):115-128.
    Clinical cases of frontal lobe lesions have been significantly associated with acquired aggressive behaviour. Restoring neuronal and cognitive faculties of aggressive individuals through invasive brain intervention raises ethical questions in general. However, more questions have to be addressed in cases where individuals refuse surgical treatment. The ethical desirability and permissibility of using intrusive surgical brain interventions for involuntary or voluntary treatment of acquired aggressiveness is highly questionable. This article engages with the description of acquired aggressiveness in general, and presents a (...)
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  45. added 2012-10-10
    The Need to Tackle Concussion in Australian Football Codes.Frederic Gilbert & Bradley J. Partridge - 2012 - Medical Journal of Australia 196 (9):561-563.
    Postmortem evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brains of American National Football League players who suffered concussions while playing have intensified concerns about the risks of concussion in sport.1 Concussions are frequently sustained by amateur and professional players of Australia’s three most popular football codes (Australian football, rugby league, and rugby union) and, to a lesser extent, other contact sports such as soccer. This raises major concerns about possible long-term neurological damage, cognitive impairment and mental health problems in (...)
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  46. added 2012-09-12
    Neurolaw and Neuroprediction: Potential Promises and Perils.Thomas Nadelhoffer & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):631-642.
    Neuroscience has been proposed for use in the legal system for purposes of mind reading, assessment of responsibility, and prediction of misconduct. Each of these uses has both promises and perils, and each raises issues regarding the admissibility of neuroscientific evidence.
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  47. added 2012-02-28
    Sex Differences and Neuroethics.Peggy DesAutels - 2010 - Philosophical Psychology 23 (1):95-111.
    Discussions in neuroethics to date have ignored an ever-increasing neuroscientific lilterature on sex differences in brains. If, indeed, there are significant differences in the brains of men versus women and in the brains of boys versus girls, the ethical and social implications loom very large. I argue that recent neuroscientific findings on sex-based brain differences have significant implications for theories of morality and for our understandings of the neuroscience of moral cognition and behavior.
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  48. added 2012-01-23
    Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue. [REVIEW]A. Demertzi, E. Racine, M.-A. Bruno, D. Ledoux, O. Gosseries, A. Vanhaudenhuyse, M. Thonnard, A. Soddu, G. Moonen & S. Laureys - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):37-50.
    Pain, suffering and positive emotions in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) pose clinical and ethical challenges. Clinically, we evaluate behavioural responses after painful stimulation and also emotionally-contingent behaviours (e.g., smiling). Using stimuli with emotional valence, neuroimaging and electrophysiology technologies can detect subclinical remnants of preserved capacities for pain which might influence decisions about treatment limitation. To date, no data exist as to how healthcare providers think about end-of-life options (e.g., withdrawal of artificial nutrition (...)
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  49. added 2011-12-12
    Introduction: Reconsidering Disorders of Consciousness in Light of Neuroscientific Evidence.Ralf J. Jox & Katja Kuehlmeyer - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):1-3.
    Disorders of consciousness pose a substantial ethical challenge to clinical decision making, especially regarding the use of life-sustaining medical treatment. For these decisions it is paramount to know whether the patient is aware or not. Recent brain research has been striving to assess awareness by using mainly functional magnetic resonance imaging. We review the neuroscientific evidence and summarize the potential and problems of the different approaches to prove awareness. Finally, we formulate the crucial ethical questions and outline the different articles (...)
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  50. added 2011-12-12
    (A)E(s)Th(Et)Ics of Brain Imaging. Visibilities and Sayabilities in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.Hannah Fitsch - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (3):275-283.
    Producing and interpreting functional brain data is part of the negotiation we imagine our brain. To take a closer look at the idea of brain imaging as a form of visual knowledge, it is necessary to put the research of today into a historical context. In my article I will point to a specific approach of functional imaging which depends on historical shifts entangled with the visual aspect of producing pictures of the brain. I will bring out the interaction of (...)
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