About this topic
Summary According to the third edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1965) the adjective "eugenic" means "pertaining or adopted to the production of fine offspring". This is the "thin", abstract meaning of "eugenic", which carries no moral or historical connotation. In this sense, the ante-natal selection of the genetic characteristics of living beings (genetic selection) and its improvement (gene-therapy or genetic enhancement) all qualify as forms of eugenics. The word is used in this morally neutral way by contemporary proponents of "liberal eugenics". However, the word "Eugenics" may also refer to the core ideas of Francis Galton (who invented the word) and his immediate followers; or to the specific policies adopted mainly in Europe and in the United States, roughly from the beginning of the twentieth century to the end of WW2. Because such policies, including forced sterilization in US and Nazi Germany, are nowadays widely regarded as immoral, the term "eugenics" is often intended as having an intrinsic negative connotation. For that reason, some authors reject "eugenic talk" and the identification of human genetic enhancement and eugenics. This category includes works on both early eugenics and comparisons between early eugenics, traditional eugenic themes, and liberal eugenics.     
Key works

Harris 1993 argues that even if gene-therapy for removing disability or for enhancing normal human traits is a form of eugenics,  it is morally sound. He identifies the morally unsound aspect of eugenics with the idea that "those who are genetically weak should be discouraged from reproducing". He objects that eugenics properly understood maintains that "everyone should be discouraged from reproducing children who will be significantly harmed by their genetic constitution". Thus, eugenics through gene-therapy is morally sound because, unlike past eugenics, it might "enable individuals with genetic defects to be sure of having healthy rather than harmed children".  Wikler 1999 provides a short history of eugenic movements and argues that we must learn from it, for instance by avoiding genetic determinism, class and race biases and the conviction that genetic improvement overrides the freedom of the individual whether and with whom to procreate. Wikler tries to identify the "original sin" in Eugenics, which leads him to analyze and discard many usual objections against it. Agar 2008 is important as perhaps the first book that uses the expression "eugenics" with a positive connotation coherently throughout. Agar endorses eugenics achieved by parents in a society which respects reproductive liberties since, unlike traditional eugenics, it is compatible with a pluralism of different conceptions about human flourishing.Savulescu 2001 argues that couples or single reproducers have a prima facie moral duty to select the embryo with the best life prospects,  selecting against harmful genetic susceptibilities and in favor of beneficial ones. Wilkinson 2010 rejects the identification of "eugenics" and moral claims made in the context of the bioethical debate concerning pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and screening. He claims that it is wrong to the emotional power of "eugenic talk" to bypass rational critical faculties.

Introductions Harris 1993 Chadwick 2001 Wikler 1999 Wilkinson 2008 Buchanan 2007
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624 found
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  1. Eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, génie génétique) et l'eugénisme. Et de définir une ligne de conduite sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Tant que nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre le cancer, le diabète ou le VIH, nous acceptons également l'eugénisme positif tel qu'il est actuellement. Et tant que nous acceptons le dépistage (...)
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  2. Istoria eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Sir Francis Galton a sistematizat aceste idei și practici, influențat de cartea Originea Speciilor a vărului lui, Charles Darwin, prin care mecanismele de selecție naturală au fost potențial zădărnicite de civilizația umană. El a afirmat că societatea umană, protejând pe cei defavorizați și slabi, era în contradicție cu selecția naturală , și numai prin schimbarea acestor politici sociale ar putea fi salvată societatea de la o "revenirea spre mediocritate", frază transformată de el ulterior în "regresia spre mediocritatea." Charles Davenport, un (...)
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  3. Eugenia actuală.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Începând din anii 1980, ingineria genetică a fost folosită pe scară largă pentru a modifica genetic organisme și alimente. Practica testelor genetice prenatale identifică gene sau markeri genetici nedorite. Părinții potențiali pot alege să continue sarcina sau să renunțe la făt. Odată cu apariția diagnosticului genetic de preimplantare, părinții potențiali pot alege să utilizeze fertilizarea in vitro și apoi să testeze celulele timpurii ale embrionilor creați pentru a identifica embrionii cu gene pe care le preferă sau pe care să le (...)
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  4. L'eugénisme contemporain.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Depuis les années 1980, le génie génétique a été largement utilisé pour modifier génétiquement des organismes et des aliments. La pratique des tests génétiques prénataux identifie des gènes ou des marqueurs génétiques indésirables. Les parents peuvent choisir de poursuivre leur grossesse ou d'abandonner le bébé. Une fois le diagnostic génétique préimplantatoire réalisé, les parents potentiels peuvent choisir de recourir à la fécondation in vitro, puis de tester les cellules embryonnaires précoces pour identifier les embryons avec les gènes qu’ils préfèrent, ou (...)
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  5. Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    As eugenics is defined, it is very difficult to make a clear distinction between science (medicine, genetic engineering) and eugenics as a included field. And to set a line over which genetic engineering should not go further, according to moral, legal and religious norms. If we accept the help of genetics in finding ways to fight cancer, diabetes, or HIV, we also accept positive eugenics as they are defined now. And if we accept genetic screening, and interventions on the unborn (...)
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  6. L'éthique et l'avenir de l'eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les arguments concernant la sagesse de la poursuite des expérimentations génétiques et des effets eugéniques possibles du génie génétique se retrouvent généralement dans trois domaines : l'éthique biomédicale, la moralité, et la religion et le droit. L'utilisation potentielle du génie génétique a mis en discussion l'eugénisme dans le passé dans les litiges de bioéthique. Le séquençage du génome humain peut nous aider dans l'évolution humaine. Le projet sur le génome humain peut nous aider à comprendre les maladies afin d'orienter les (...)
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  7. Evolution de l'eugénisme jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Sir Francis Galton a systématisé les idées et pratiques de l'eugenisme, influencées par le livre L'origine des espèces de son cousin, Charles Darwin, par lesquelles les mécanismes de sélection naturels étaient potentiellement déjoués par la civilisation humaine. Il a affirmé que la société humaine, protégeant les plus défavorisés et les plus faibles, était en contradiction avec la sélection naturelle, et que seule une modification de ces politiques sociales permettrait à la société d'être sauvée d'un « retour à la médiocrité », (...)
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  8. The Future of Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    A "free-market" approach to the genetic development of children may result in a homogenising. Parents may be inclined to choose according to models accepted by society. In this case, improving technologies will "will grant racism and homophobia an unprecedented efficacy." One concern about the obligation to produce the best child in a particular society is that social norms may be discriminatory, so that in the end, for example, most children will be boys, extremists and heterosexuals. The sequencing of the human (...)
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  9. Etica eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Argumentele referitoare la înțelepciunea continuării experimentării genetice și posibilele efecte eugenice ale ingineriei genetice se încadrează în general în trei domenii: etica biomedicală, moralitatea și religia și legea. Utilizarea potențială a ingineriei genetice a readus în discuții eugenia din trecut în disputele despre bioetică. Există opinii conform cărora și programele de eugenie fără caracter coercitiv ar fi în mod inerent lipsite de etică. Principiul moral central al eticii biomedicale implică o obligație de a conferi beneficii și de a elimina daunele. (...)
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  10. Ce este eugenia?Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Termenul eugenie, ca practică și domeniu de studiu, a fost inventat către Francis Galton în 1883, bazându-se pe opera vărului său, Charles Darwin, genetica mendeliană și teoriile lui August Weismann (teoria plasmei germenilor, conform căreia informația ereditară este transmisă numai de celulele germinale din gonade (ovare și testicule), nu de celule somatice) . Galton a definit eugenismul drept "studiul tuturor agenților aflați sub control uman care pot îmbunătăți sau afecta calitatea rasială a generațiilor viitoare". Eugenia a fost descrisă ulterior ca (...)
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  11. The New (Liberal) Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Despite the Nazi horrors, in 1953 the new eugenics was founded, when Watson and Crick postulated the double helix of DNA as the basis of chemical heredity. In 1961, scientists have deciphered the genetic code of DNA, laying the groundwork for code manipulation and the potential building of new life forms. After thirty years from the discovery of the DNA structure, the experimenters began to carry out the first clinical studies of human somatic cell therapy. The practice of prenatal genetic (...)
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  12. Evoluția și etica eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În acest articol încerc să argumentez opinia că, așa cum este definită eugenia, este foarte dificil de făcut o diferențiere clară între știință (medicină, ingineria genetică) și eugenie. Și de stabilit o linie peste care ingineria genetică nu ar trebui să treacă, conform unor norme morale, juridice și religioase. Atâta timp cât acceptăm ajutorul geneticii în găsirea unor modalități de combatere a cancerului, diabetului sau HIV, acceptăm în mod implicit și eugenia pozitivă, conform definiției actuale. Și atâta timp cât acceptăm (...)
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  13. Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The main concern of the first eugenists, such as Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon of University College London , were the perceived intelligence factors considered to be correlated with the social class. In his speech "Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics", Karl Pearson equates eugenics with a field of medicine. Some areas of medicine that are not commonly recognized as eugenic affect the human genes background. These include sterilization and surgical techniques that allow the functioning of reproductive organs. Even medicines that (...)
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  14. Évolution et éthique de l'eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Étant donné la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, ingénierie génétique) et l'eugénisme en tant que domaine inclus. Et pour définir une ligne sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller plus loin, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Si nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre le cancer, le diabète ou le VIH, nous acceptons également l'eugénisme positif tel qu'il est défini à présent. (...)
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  15. Genetics, Eugenics and the Future: A Critique of Philip Kitcher's Utopian Eugenics.Mark Blocher - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 19.
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  16. The Debate Over Liberal Eugenics.Nicholas Agar, Dan W. Brock, Paul Lauritzen & Bernard G. Prusak - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  17. Eugenics: Then and Now.Carl Jay Bajema - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
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  18. China and Eugenics-Preliminary Remarks Concerning the Structure and Impact of a Problem of International Bioethics.Ole Doering - forthcoming - Bioethics in Asia.
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  19. What Sort of People Should There Be?Jonathan Glover - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
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  20. Lock Out'Back Door Eugenics.'.David Magnus - forthcoming - Penn Bioethics, 3 (1).
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  21. Eugenics: The Scrence and Religron of the Nazis.Benno Miiller-Hill - forthcoming - Paper Pre Sented at Conference on ‘the Meanmg of the Holocaust for Bioethics,” Minneapo Lrs, May.
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  22. Nietzsche’s Naturalist Morality of Breeding: A Critique of Eugenics as Taming.Donovan Miyasaki - forthcoming - In Vanessa Lemm (ed.), Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life. Fordham.
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  23. 4 the Eugenics Review.Mr Osborn & Mr Bloomfield - forthcoming - Eugenics Review.
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  24. Eugenics.Robert Sparrow - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  25. Can 'Eugenics' Be Defended?Walter Veit, Jonathan Anomaly, Peter Singer, Nick Agar, Francesca Minerva & Diana Fleischman - forthcoming - Monash Bioethics Review.
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  26. Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - forthcoming - In Maria E. Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  27. Race, Eugenics, and the Holocaust.Jonathan Anomaly - 2021 - In Bioethics and the Holocaust. Springer.
  28. Paul-André Rosental. A Human Garden: French Policy and the Transatlantic Legacies of Eugenic Experimentation. Translated by Carolyn Avery. Foreword by Theodore M. Porter. (Berghahn Monographs in French Studies, 16.) 248 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2019. $135 (Cloth); ISBN 9781789205435. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Alice L. Conklin - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):206-207.
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  29. Creating Future People: The Ethics of Genetic Enhancement.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - London, UK: Routledge.
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  30. Cognitive Enhancement and Network Effects: How Individual Prosperity Depends on Group Traits.Jonathan Anomaly & Garett Jones - 2020 - Philosophia (5):1-16.
    A central debate in bioethics is whether parents should try to influence the genetic basis of their children’s traits. We argue that the case for using mate selection, embryo selection, and other interventions to enhance heritable traits like intelligence is strengthened by the fact that they seem to have positive network effects. These network effects include increased cooperation in collective action problems, which contributes to social trust and prosperity. We begin with an overview of evidence for these claims, and then (...)
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  31. Great Minds Think Different: Preserving Cognitive Diversity in an Age of Gene Editing.Jonny Anomaly, Julian Savulescu & Christopher Gyngell - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (1):81-89.
  32. Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing.Donna Dickenson - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (1):75-77.
    Review of Francoise Baylis, Altered Inheritance: CRISPR and the Ethics of Human Genome Editing (2019).
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  33. Race, Technology, and Posthumanism.Holly Flint Jones & Nicholaos Jones - 2020 - In Mads Rosenthal Thomsen & Jacob Wamberg (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Posthumanism. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 161-170.
    This chapter briefly reviews the role of race (as a concept) in the history of theorizing the posthuman, engages with existing discussions of race as technology, and explores the significance of understanding race as technology for the field of posthumanism. Our aim is to engage existing literature that posits racialized individuals as posthumans and to consider how studying race might inform theories of the posthuman.
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  34. Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life.Vanessa Lemm (ed.) - 2020 - Fordham University Press.
  35. Genome Editing: Slipping Down Toward Eugenics?Davide Battisti - 2019 - Medicina Historica 3 (3):206-218.
    In this paper, I will present the empirical version of the slippery slope argument (SSA) in the field of genome editing. According to the SSA, if we adopt germline manipulation of embryos we will eventually end up performing or allowing something morally reprehensible, such as new coercive eugenics. I will investigate the actual possibility of sliding towards eugenics: thus, I will examine enhancement and eugenics both in the classical and liberal versions, through the lens of SSA. In the first part, (...)
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  36. The Trust Game CRISPR for Human Germline Editing Unsettles Scientists and Society.Matthias Braun & Darian Meacham - 2019 - EMBO Reports 20 (2).
  37. Wronging Future Children.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    The dominant framework for addressing procreative ethics has revolved around the notion of harm, largely due to Derek Parfit’s famous non-identity problem. Focusing exclusively on the question of harm treats what procreators owe their offspring as akin to what they would owe strangers (if they owe them anything at all). Procreators, however, usually expect (and are expected) to parent the persons they create, so we cannot understand what procreators owe their offspring without also appealing to their role as prospective parents. (...)
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  38. Cloning Centering at Egoism.Yusuke Kaneko - 2019 - The Basis : The Annual Bulletin of Research Center for Liberal Education 9:245-260.
    Cloning research caught a great deal of attention when Dolly the sheep was born (§4). While some fear surrounded the attainment (§§14-15), Wilmutʼs research itself has grown well, providing a less vicious manner to gain ES cells (§12). In this article, we review the progress of cloning research along with the concern of medical circles about its application to reproductive cloning, that is to say, making replicas of human beings (§§16-21). Note that all the content is ascribed to the author (...)
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  39. Should Parents Genetically Engineer Their Children?Walter Veit - 2019 - Psychology Today.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful, albeit unrealistic. However, recent scientific developments in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally.
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  40. Review of Colin Farrelly, Genetic Ethics. [REVIEW]Jonathan Anomaly - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:X-Y.
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  41. Defending Eugenics: From Cryptic Choice to Conscious Selection.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 35:24-35.
  42. Looking Into the Shadow: The Eugenics Argument in Debates on Reproductive Technologies and Practices.Giulia Cavaliere - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 36 (1-4):1-22.
    Eugenics is often referred to in debates on the ethics of reproductive technologies and practices, in relation to the creation of moral boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable technologies, and acceptable and unacceptable uses of these technologies. Historians have argued that twentieth century eugenics cannot be reduced to a uniform set of practices, and that no simple lessons can be drawn from this complex history. Some authors stress the similarities between past eugenics and present reproductive technologies and practices (what I define (...)
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  43. Selecting Against Disability: The Liberal Eugenic Challenge and the Argument From Cognitive Diversity.Christopher Gyngell & Thomas Douglas - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (2):319-340.
    Selection against embryos that are predisposed to develop disabilities is one of the less controversial uses of embryo selection technologies. Many bio-conservatives argue that while the use of ESTs to select for non-disease-related traits, such as height and eye-colour, should be banned, their use to avoid disease and disability should be permitted. Nevertheless, there remains significant opposition, particularly from the disability rights movement, to the use of ESTs to select against disability. In this article we examine whether and why the (...)
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  44. Philosophy in the Trenches: Reflections on The Eugenic Mind Project.Alan C. Love - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10.
    Robert Wilson’s The Eugenic Mind Project is a major achievement of engaged scholarship and socially relevant philosophy and history of science. It exemplifies the virtues of interdisciplinarity. As principal investigator of the Living Archives on Eugenics in Western Canada project, while employed in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Alberta, Wilson encountered a proverbial big ball of mud with questions and issues that involved local individuals living through a painful set of memories and implicated his institutional home in (...)
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  45. The Composite Redesign of Humanity’s Nature: A Work in Process.Lantz Miller - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):157-164.
    One of the most salient contemporary concerns in academic debates and pop culture alike is the extent to which new technologies may re-cast Homo sapiens. Species members may find themselves encased in a type of existence they deem to be wanting in comparison with their present form, even if the promised form was assured to be better. Plausibly, the concern is not merely fear of change or of the unknown, but rather it arises out of individuals’ general identification with what (...)
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  46. Killing in the Name of Care.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2018 - Levinas Studies 12:141-164.
    On 26 July 2016, Satoshi Uematsu murdered 19 and injured 26 at a caregiving facility in Sagamihara, Japan, making it the country’s worst mass killing since WWII. In this article, I offer an analysis of the Sagamihara 19 massacre. I draw on the work of Julia Kristeva and Emmanuel Levinas to argue that claims about disability experience are insufficient to justify normative projects. In short, disability is normatively ambiguous.
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  47. Der manipulierbare Embryo.Markus Rothhaar, Martin Hähnel & Roland Kipke (eds.) - 2018
    Der moralische Status menschlicher Embryonen ist und bleibt umstritten. Zugleich gibt es immer neue und tiefergehende biotechnologische Möglichkeiten, Embryonen zu manipulieren. Das betrifft insbesondere ihr Entwicklungspotential und die klare Zuordnung zur menschlichen Spezies. Dieses Buch untersucht, welche Auswirkungen diese neuen Manipulationsmöglichkeiten auf die Tragfähigkeit der Argumente haben, mit denen ein herausgehobener moralischer Status des Embryos begründet werden soll: die Potentialitäts- und Speziesargumente. In den Beiträgen werden aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Forschung mit Embryonen zusammengetragen und insbesondere folgende Fragen diskutiert: Was bedeuten (...)
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  48. Eugenia - Trecut, Prezent, Viitor.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Previzualizare carte -/- Așa cum este definită eugenia, este foarte dificil de făcut o diferențiere clară între știință (medicină, ingineria genetică) și eugenie. Și de stabilit o linie peste care ingineria genetică nu ar trebui să treacă, conform unor norme morale, juridice și religioase. Atâta timp cât acceptăm ajutorul geneticii în găsirea unor modalități de combatere a cancerului, diabetului sau HIV, acceptăm în mod implicit și eugenia pozitivă, conform definiției actuale. Și atâta timp cât acceptăm screening-ul genetic, și intervenții asupra (...)
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  49. Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement.Walter Veit - 2018 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):75-92.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful albeit unrealistic. However, recent scienti c breakthroughs in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally. In 2001, when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), enabled parents to select between multiple embryos, Julian Savulescu introduced the principle of procreative bene cence (PPB), stating that parents have the obligations to choose (...)
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  50. Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, I shall (...)
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