En el presente artículo analizamos la novela gráfica Pax Romana (Jonathan Hickman 2007) como una representación de las posturas de la filosofía de la historia de la Ilustración. El discurso prevaleciente en la mayoría de los personajes y en la trama, argumentamos, es equiparable con la concepción de la Historia del positivismo y el marxismo. Establecemos que, en esta visionaria muestra del noveno arte, la filosofía de la historia ilustrada prevalece sobre la filosofía de la historia cristiana, pese a que (...) gran parte del hilo argumental haya recaído en personajes que representan la dirigencia de la Iglesia Católica. El desenlace de la miniserie evidencia el triunfo, a través de los viajes en el tiempo, de las metas de la Ilustración, como lo son la difusión de la Razón, la ciencia, el Progreso y el bienestar en todo el orbe. Sorpresivamente, en tanto que los viajes en el tiempo son planificados por el Vaticano, se dejan a un lado los presupuestos básicos de la filosofía de la historia cristiana, principalmente la idea de que el Reino de Dios no se dará en la Tierra sino en un lugar metafísico, en el Final de los Tiempos. (shrink)
One might gather from a reading of Lacan’s ouvre that he never advanced an explicit and systematic theory of resistance and defense, his early critique of IPA methods notwithstanding. Indeed, the combativeness of this critique may lead readers to think that any talk of defense analysis is non-Lacanian. Yet such an omission of a key psychic phenomenon presents a puzzle for clinicians and theorists alike, insofar as it disallows a reckoning with a real-life phenomenon. Taking as its focus Lacan’s remarks (...) in Seminars 1 and 2, this article pushes beyond Lacan’s critique of Ego Psychology, claiming that it is possible to establish a positive Lacanian theory of defenses and of defense analysis in the clinical context. To this end, the article offers a systematic and standardized reconstruction of a positive – distinctively Lacanian – view of what defenses are, where they come from, and how analysts should handle them. In so doing, it presents his startling claim that resistance itself was ultimately a red herring, an artificial problem occasioned by the analyst’s erred handling of the transindividual defenses speaking through the analysand. (shrink)
A brief overview of the main Croatian philosophers of the 19th century is given (regardless of whether they worked in or outside of Croatia). Special attention is paid to Šimun Čučić (logic, metaphysics, ethics) and Franjo pl. Marković (logic, aesthetics). The philosophy of other authors is briefly summarized on the ground of the existing research results.
Zlatko Posavac is one of the most thorough and deepest experts on Croatian cultural history, with a focus on aesthetics both as a theory and as realized in artistic practice. On the basis of his improved factography, he examines aesthetic phenomena through the model of meaningful-stylistic structures and epochal change. As one of the fundamental phenomena, he highlights the "prevention of free transmission of tradition" (silencing, falsifying, expulsion of truth). He introduces significant structural shifts in cultural-historical periodization.
This article explores the question of how the members of the Lvov-Warsaw School promoted values that can be regarded as components of so-called logical culture. The author argues that these values are strictly connected with science. With references to Łukasiewicz, Czeżowski, and Kotarbiński,the article explores how values shape the logical culture and determines society as directed towards values. The article connects the meta-philosophical perspective with the philosophical one.
The book deals with the changing nature and with the history of the concept of scientific determinism from the classical mechanics until the time immediately preceding quantum mechanics: such a historical-philosophical reconstruction is aimed at (1) signalizing and overcoming the deficiencies of the received opinion on the topic and (2) understanding better a concept which has influenced science from the beginning. -/- Before dealing with historical matters I develop in the first Chapter a kind of new, three-dimensional “measurement system” for (...) analyzing any concept of scientific determinism: many different concepts have been developed in the course of history, and we need a classification system which, on the one hand, is inclusive and broad enough to deal with different concepts; on the other hand, which makes possible to differentiate with some precision between them. My “measurement system” has three dimension or parameter: the “strength” (of the determining link between different states of the physical system), the “depth” (depending on how strong the ontological commitment of the particular concept of scientific determinism is), and the breadth (referring to the domain or the object, to which a deterministic evolution is ascribed). -/- In the second chapter I discuss briefly some main shortcomings of the received opinion about scientific determinism. Then I try to identify the “core” of scientific determinism at its origins while at the same time embedding it in the broader historical-cultural context especially of the Renaissance. On the one hand I show how the core of scientific determinism was mathematical, and this distinguished it from other related concepts, as mechanism, the principle of sufficient reason, and the aristotelic conception of science. On the other hand, precisely the support which these related concepts provided to scientific determinism, together with its mathematical nature, endowed it with an incredible resistance against empirical classification. -/- In the following three chapters I analyze the historic-philosophical development of scientific determinism along the three parameter of my measurement system. -/- In the third Chapter I reconstruct the weakening of scientific determinism with respect to its depth: the starting point is the question about the extent in which the deterministic mathematical descriptions do refer. In the development of mechanics into analytical mechanics the more and more formal character of its mathematical descriptions became evident and it became less obvious that these formal, deterministic structures also have an immediate material truth. Parallel developments within epistemology, starting with Kantian philosophy (which I deal with quite in detail), let the deterministic structures (principle, laws, equations, causal relations) appear less absolute and real and more as a product of reason, as conventions, or as models. A brief consideration of the interpretation of mechanics and its principles by Jacobi, Hertz, Mach and Poincaré shows the implications of these developments. -/- The fourth chapter reconstructs the weakening of scientific determinism with respect to the strength of the determining link: here my work deepens the track which has been opened by Ian Hacking, who interpreted the so-called “probabilistic revolution” in the 19th Century as the main reason for the erosion of determinism. The increasing pervasiveness of statistical methods in the social and natural sciences in the course of the 19th Century gave rise to a conception of scientific laws which could dispense with strict determinism. A new, empirical interpretation of probability (Frequentism) and the statistical explanation of thermodynamic phenomena in physics even suggested chance phenomena to be a necessary condition for the emergence of natural laws. -/- The last part of my work (Ch. 5, 6 and 7) considers the period (2nd half of the 19th century until ca. 1920) in which the concept of scientific determinism became explicit and was discussed as a world-picture or a world-view – that is, in its maximal breadth. I argue that there were two main reasons for the emergence of an explicit and ideological opposition “determinism vs. indeterminism” at that time: the first was the successful application of the deterministic paradigm to sociology, history, physiology and psychology in the course of the 19th Century, which provided scientific determinism with ethical implications (in particular with respect to the problem of free will, which scientific determinism seemed to deny). The second, related reason is that in the 19th Century natural scientists became public men, science was increasingly popularized and scientific issues were increasingly related to life-issues, to worldview-questions, and even to politics. In Chapter 6 I reconstruct the debates on the issue “determinism vs. indeterminism” in such a public, ideological and sometimes even political context. Among the discussants were Fechner, Du Bois-Reymond, Helmholtz, Bernard, Ostwald, Haeckel, Boussinesq, Maxwell, Boutroux, Poincaré, Renouvier, James und Peirce. Also in Vienna the debate on the issue of determinism was fervid and took ideological and political connotations: Michael Stöltzner and Deborah Coen have pointed to a particular tradition of “Vienna Indeterminism” (Stöltzner), or Viennese liberal probabilism (Coen), which was characterized by a strongly empirical conception of science and by the full acceptance and appreciation of statistical thinking in science. In the last Chapter of my work I focus on the early philosophy of Edgar Zilsel, a philosopher who stood near to the Vienna Circle and who has been much neglected in the literature by now, and I suggest considering it as part of the “Vienna Indeterminism”. First, I show how he gave an indeterministic foundation both to statistical and causal knowledge as well as to irreversibility in physics. Second, I inquire into his philosophy of probability and show how it developed in parallel to the ones of Hans Reichenbach and Richard von Mises. Finally, Zilsel happens to be a further, relevant case-study for pointing to the ideological and political side of the issue of determinism. -/- At the end of this reconstruction it should have become clear how no physical theory, no empirical evidence and no experimental confirmation can support or contradict scientific determinism in its non-trivial formulations. The validity of any such formulation depends strongly not only (from the systematical point of view) from the definition of other concepts (like time, physical state, causality etc.), but also from the particular conception of science which more or less implicitly constitutes its background, and which is subjected to historical change. -/- (ISBN: 9783495491034). (shrink)
It is widely believed that the ancient Greeks thought that Thales was the first philosopher, and that they therefore maintained that philosophy had a Greek origin. This paper challenges these assumptions, arguing that most ancient Greek thinkers who expressed views about the history and development of philosophy rejected both positions. I argue that not even Aristotle presented Thales as the first philosopher, and that doing so would have undermined his philosophical commitments and interests. Beyond Aristotle, the view that Thales was (...) the first philosopher is attested almost nowhere in antiquity. In the classical, Hellenistic, and post-Hellenistic periods, we witness a marked tendency to locate the beginning of philosophy in a time going back further than Thales. Remarkably, ancient Greek thinkers most often traced the origins of philosophy to earlier non-Greek peoples. Contrary to the received view, then, I argue that (1) vanishingly few Greek writers pronounced Thales the first philosopher; and (2) most Greek thinkers did not even advocate a Greek origin of philosophy. Finally, I show that the view that philosophy originated with Thales (along with its misleading attribution to the Greeks in general) has roots in problematic, and in some cases manifestly racist, eighteenth-century historiography of philosophy. (shrink)
Çağımızın seçkin kültür ve düşünce tarihçilerinden Frank Turner’ın Yale Üniversite’sinde verdiği derslerden oluşan Rousseau’dan Nietzsche’ye Avrupa Düşünce Tarihi, Aydınlanma döneminden yirminci yüzyılın başına dek Avrupa’da yaşanan radikal değişimi fikir akımları ve öncü figürler üzerinden anlatıyor. Oxford Today’in editörü Richard Lofthouse tarafından derlenen bu dersler, farklı disiplinleri ustaca bir araya getirerek döneme dair kapsamlı bir bakış açısı sunuyor. Yale’in en sevilen hocalarından Turner’ın açık, akıcı ve öğretici üslubu sayesinde düşünce tarihinin zorlu dönemeçlerinde kolaylıkla yol alacak, dersler bittikten sonra kitabın sonundaki okuma (...) listesini takip ederek daha fazlasını öğrenmek isteyeceksiniz. (shrink)
This paper explores Landmann-Kalischer’s analogy between the sensing of secondary qualities and the feeling of values in her work “Philosophie der Werte” (Philosophy of Values) (1910). Attention is paid to the epistemic motivation of the analogy, the distinction between pure feelings and affects, and the relation of pure feelings to value judgments. Her account is contrasted with two other accounts of the Brentanian tradition: Scheler’s approach within early phenomenology and Meinong’s account within the Graz School. I demonstrate that Landmann-Kalischer’s pioneering (...) work helped to forge a new view of affectivity which became dominant among Brentano’s followers. According to this new view, there is a type of affective experience which is both intentional and cognitive. More precisely, she argued that the affective experience in question is a feeling. The paper also argues that her account can enrich today’s meta-ethical research. It is argued that her account of pure feelings provides arguments against the view that makes emotions responsible for the apprehension of value. Furthermore, it is shown that we need an analysis of how objective knowledge of value can be obtained from our affective intuitions. -/- . (shrink)
The early modern period (roughly, 1600–1800 ce) in Europe brought tremendous changes in intellectual, political, and cultural life. It was a period in which philosophical debates were inevitably bound up with questions about the nature and sources of religious truth. A chronological examination of some of the period’s major thinkers highlights two issues that were central to the development of philosophy of religion in the period. The first concerns the relations between God, the soul, and the body; the other concerns (...) the relationship between human reason and divine revelation. (shrink)
This book examines the way in which Robert Boyle seeks to accommodate his complex chemical philosophy within the framework of a mechanistic theory of matter. More specifically, the book proposes that Boyle regards chemical qualities as properties that emerged from the mechanistic structure of chymical atoms. Within Boyle’s chemical ontology, chymical atoms are structured concretions of particles that Boyle regards as chemically elementary entities, that is, as chemical wholes that resist experimental analysis. Although this interpretation of Boyle’s chemical philosophy has (...) already been suggested by other Boyle scholars, the present book provides a sustained philosophical argument to demonstrate that, for Boyle, chemical properties are dispositional, relational, emergent, and supervenient properties. This argument is strengthened by a detailed mereological analysis of Boylean chymical atoms that establishes the kind of theory of wholes and parts that is most consistent with an emergentist conception of chemical properties. The emergentist position that is being attributed to Boyle supports his view that chemical reactions resist direct explanation in terms of the mechanistic properties of fundamental particles, as well as his position regarding the scientific autonomy of chymistry from mechanics and physics. (shrink)
Traditionally, conceptual thinking is explored via philosophical analysis or psychological experimentation. We seek to complement these mainstream approaches with the perspective of a first person exploration into pure thinking. To begin with, pure thinking is defined as a process and differentiated from its content, the concepts itself. Pure thinking is an active process and not a series of associative thought-events; we participate in it, we immerse ourselves within its active performance. On the other hand, concepts are also of an experiential (...) nature. And yet, little is known about what is it like to have or produce a thought, a concept, or an idea? Is a concept our own construction, a product of our own activity, or is it something we merely discover instead of producing it? We address these issues in a systematic first person enquiry into pure thinking. (shrink)
Cathars, a Christian dualist-gnostic order of the Middle Ages, is not known well in our country and has some certain striking features among the religious movement in this cultural area. The Cathars were denounced as heretics due to the mentioned features, and attracted the antagonism of the Churchseverely by their irreconcilable stances in basic dogmas and practices including the perception of God, baptism, Jesus Christ, Holy Virgin, the primordial sin, the Sacred Scripture. Thus, they witnessed the greatest massacres in a (...) manner unprecedently throughout the history. As a result of the attacks of the Papacy and the Inquisition against their leaders as well as their proponents, thousands of their followers were sacrificed. Moreover, the Cathars put their stamp on history as one of the most oppressed societies within the history in consequence of the carnages carried out by a certain Crusade called Albigeois, and they were exterminated by burning at the stake, which indicates the extent of the oppression they witnessed. (shrink)
The so-called ‘redintegration experiment’ is traditionally at the center of the comments on the supposed Boyle/Spinoza controversy. A. Clericuzio influentially argued in his publications that, in De nitro, Boyle accounted for the ‘redintegration’ of saltpeter on the grounds of the chemical properties of corpuscles and “did not make any attempt to deduce them from mechanical principles”. By way of contrast, this paper argues that with his De nitro Boyle wanted to illustrate and promote his new corpuscular or mechanical philosophy, and (...) that he made significant attempts to explain the phenomena in terms of mechanical qualities. Boyle had borrowed the ‘redintegration experiment’ from R. Glauber and used it in an attempt to demonstrate that his philosophy was superior to the Peripatetic and Paracelsian theory. Consequently, Clericuzio’s characterization of the Boyle/Spinoza controversy as a discussion between a strict mechanical philosopher and a chemist is problematic and a wider view of Spinoza’s interpretation and its context gives a fairer picture. (shrink)
Drawing on recent work in social epistemology, critical race theory, and settler colonial studies, Millicent Churcher outlines how Adam Smith’s account of ‘sympathy’ as an imaginative and reflective capacity provides fertile resources for addressing systemic failures to recognize the histories, needs, and experiences of marginalized social groups.
8-9 Kasım 2012’de, Hacettepe Üniversitesi İngilizce İktisat Bölümü tarafından düzenlenen “Marx, Marksizmler ve Özgürlük” konferansı uzun zamandır üzerinde çalıştığım konular ile ilgili görüşlerimi sunma fırsatı verdi. Praksis dergisini ilk yayınladığım 1996 yılında aşağıda sunduğum düşüncelerimin temellerini atmıştım aslında. Ancak hala teoride ki sorunu bir bütün olarak, Marx ve Engels’te değil Marksizmin kavranılışında olduğunda ısrarcıydım. Çalışmalarım, Marx’ın tarih, diyalektik yöntem, sınıf savaşımı, kapitalizm eleştirisi ve bilim anlayışı gibi pek çok temel konuda tamamen farklı teorik perspektif ve anlayış geliştirmemle sonuçlandı. Bu görüşlerimi (...) kamuoyu ile ilk paylaştığım zemin yukarıda adı geçen bilimsel konferans oldu. Kendi teorik geçmişimle de bir hesaplaşma olan bu metin kuşkusuz okuru tatmin etmekten uzaktır. Çünkü yeni bir bilim teorisi için bir başlangıç metnidir; 19. yüz yıl sosyal teorileri üzerinde yükselen geleneksel ideolojik ön yargılardan kurtulmuş aklın, çağdaş bilimsel verilere yaslanarak yeni maceralara cesaretle atılmayı özendirecek olan bir başlangıç metni. (shrink)
This is a one paragraph review of a book by Julius Simon, in German, which book detailed the German editions and reviews of Emerson. According to the review, the book, emphasizes themes in Emerson including "Verinnerlichung" and "Vergeistigung" "stimulated largely in reaction against Nietzsche.".
Philosophizing and the True Knowledge of Human Being -/- Abstract -/- The article presents the principles and method of classical philosophy. This kind of philosophy, developed mainly in ancient and medieval times, is still viable and interesting today. What is more important, it can be used as grounds for academic philosophy. Doing so provides a philosopher with resources for autonomy in her philosophical inquiry as well as the usefulness and application of its results for various cultural, social, and political tasks. (...) The last part of the article explains the manner in which the principles of philosophy may be connected with different ways of classical philosopher’s concern the with knowledge of the human being understood as a special, unique being, with her transcendence behind her biological nature and human society. In the conclusion, several tasks for philosophical reflection are given. In all its parts, the article emphasizes the importance of the concept of philosophizing subject for the understanding of philosophy. -/- Keywords: ; ; ; ; , ; . (shrink)
This work begins with two related premises: that dialectical thoughts are apparently predominant in Romantic writing, and that recent anti-dialectical discourses describing the human subject recast our relationship to the writings and philosophies of the Romantic age. The first premise is typified in M. H. Abrams' claim that Wordsworth is the exemplary poet of Romanticism who traces the affinities between British Romanticism and German, post-Kantian dialectical thought. The second premise is more complicated because it asks us to reevaluate our understanding (...) of Romantic writers and our critical tradition with respect to these writers. This reevaluation allows us to see that, despite its apparent affinity with dialectical conceptualizations, Romantic poetry pushes toward radical presentations of human subjectivity and autonomy. ;The dissertation divides thematically between the opening chapters on Romanticism and its dialectical heritage and the concluding readings which suggest that alternative, heterodox models of history and consciousness provide politically enabling descriptions of the human subject. The work describes a Romantic subjectivity unfettered by the ideals of a guiding; consciousness: a type of Romantic subject that resists a synthesizing relationship with its object . Consequently, two types of Romantic politics from Blake and Shelley suggest a subjective consciousness built on anti-dialectical concepts and movements. For Los, it is a consciousness of self-annihilation, a nomadic movement between points of encounter. For Prometheus, the subject position is settled into an historical notion of community in which the heteroglot voices of a dissenting culture sound. While these readings move toward varied conclusions, they share the common effect of departing from a totalizing dialectical conception of history and self. In part, then, this study contributes to an understanding of Romanticism as complex and heterogeneous, historically definable and currently legitimate. (shrink)
These essays suggest a number of answers to the question: Why Nietzsche still? They show that Nietzsche still has a great deal to say to those who read him with an eye toward developing critical responses to the present and the future that will follow.
Le philosophe canadien Charles Taylor est un des penseurs contemporains qui jouit d’une reconnaissance mondiale : il a initié et participé à plusieurs débats relatifs au libéralisme, au communautarisme et au multiculturalisme. Son œuvre est pluridimensionnelle puisque ses travaux portant, entre autres, sur la théorie de science, la théorie du langage, la théorie de l’action et de la personne, la théorie de la modernité.La pensée de Charles Taylor s’est élaborée non seulement en se nourrissant des traditions aussi bien phénoménologique qu’analytique, (...) mais, très concrètement, en prise directe avec les problèmes soulevés dans la société canadienne par la très grande diversité des immigrations. Sa pensée mérite d’autant plus à être méditée que les tentations de repli communautaire, si ce n’est de purification ethnique, semblent aujourd’hui croissantes. Les contributions – pour moitié en anglais – de ce colloque organisé à Budapest en 2012 en l’honneur et en présence de Charles Taylor invitent au contraire à interroger et à poursuivre son analyse des conditions qui permettraient l’avènement d’un monde véritablement pluriel. (shrink)
La mediación filosófica, la relación entre didáctica y filosofía en la Enseñanza Secundaria es desde hace tiempo un cuestión problemática y polémica. Esta reflexión trata precisamente de acercarse a las causas que la motivan y a los posicionamientos que se han generado. Tras analizar el estado de la cuestión, el autor apunta una nueva orientación que sea internamente coherente y que responda a las necesidades de un nuevo tiempo y sociedad: la orientación intrínsecamente constitutiva de la mediación.
Through a 'fuzzy' grammar of identity it is possible to link the causal theory of reference with bioethics. Some arguments on abortíon derived from the theory of natural kind terms point to a post-modernism in analytical philosophy.
Luis Jiménez Moreno murió en octubre de 2007 a los 77 años de edad. Durante los últimos 30 años perteneció a la Universidad Complutense, de la que llegó a ser catedrático. Había estudiado en Salamanca, Roma, Valencia y Munich. Su tesis doctoral sobre el pensamiento antropológico de Nietzsche fue dirigida por Aranguren. Fue catedrático de instituto en Andújar, Ávila y Badalona, y profesor de universidad en Barcelona y Madrid. El presente artículo recoge los datos fundamentales de su vida, así como (...) toda su obra dividida en libros, artículos, ensayos, conferencias, ponencias y comunicaciones en congresos, seminarios, simposios, reuniones científicas, etc. (shrink)