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  1. Commentary: The Randomized Clinical Trial: For Whose Benefit?Arthur Schafer - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  2. Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  3. Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga: What is the Right Dose? [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 81.
  4. The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - 2020 - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science protected from corporate malfeasance in a capitalist economy? Our (...)
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  5. Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  6. Warranted Diagnosis.David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY. Buffalo: pp. 1-10.
    A diagnostic process is an investigative process that takes a clinical picture as input and outputs a diagnosis. We propose a method for distinguishing diagnoses that are warranted from those that are not, based on the cognitive processes of which they are the outputs. Processes designed and vetted to reliably produce correct diagnoses will output what we shall call ‘warranted diagnoses’. The latter are diagnoses that should be trusted even if they later turn out to have been wrong. Our work (...)
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  7. Evidence Based or Person Centered? An Ontological Debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the two seem committed (...)
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  8. Mechanistic Information as Evidence in Decision-Oriented Science.José Luis Luján, Oliver Todt & Juan Bautista Bengoetxea - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):293-306.
    Mechanistic information is used in the field of risk assessment in order to clarify two controversial methodological issues, the selection of inference guides and the definition of standards of evidence. In this paper we present an analysis of the concept of mechanistic information in risk assessment by recurring to previous philosophical analyses of mechanistic explanation. Our conclusion is that the conceptual analysis of mechanistic explanation facilitates a better characterization of the concept of mechanistic information. However, it also shows that the (...)
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  9. Evidence Based on What?Rani Lill Anjum, Roger Kerry & Stephen D. Mumford - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):E11-E12.
  10. Epidemiological Explanations. [REVIEW]Olaf Dammann - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):509-519.
  11. How Norms Make Causes.Maria Kronfeldner - 2014 - International Journal of Epidemiology 43:1707–1713.
    This paper is on the problem of causal selection and comments on Collingwood's classic paper "The so-called idea of causation". It discusses the relevance of Collingwood’s control principle in contemporary life sciences and defends that it is not the ability to control, but the willingness to control that often biases us towards some rather than other causes of a phenomenon. Willingness to control is certainly only one principle that influences causal selection, but it is an important one. It shows how (...)
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  12. Book Review Jeremy Howick , The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine . Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell (2011), 248 Pp., $61.95 (Paper).Alex Broadbent - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (1):165-168.
  13. Causal Inference, Mechanisms, and the Semmelweis Case.Raphael Scholl - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):66-76.
    Semmelweis’s discovery of the cause of puerperal fever around the middle of the 19th century counts among the paradigm cases of scientific discovery. For several decades, philosophers of science have used the episode to illustrate, appraise and compare views of proper scientific methodology.Here I argue that the episode can be profitably reexamined in light of two cognate notions: causal reasoning and mechanisms. Semmelweis used several causal reasoning strategies both to support his own and to reject competing hypotheses. However, these strategies (...)
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  14. Possibilities and Limits of Medical Science: Debates Over Double‐Blind Clinical Trials of Intercessory Prayer.Wendy Cadge - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):43-64.
    . This article traces the intellectual history of scientific studies of intercessory prayer published in English between 1965 and the present by focusing on the conflict and discussion they prompted in the medical literature. I analyze these debates with attention to how researchers articulate the possibilities and limits medical science has for studying intercessory prayer over time. I delineate three groups of researchers and commentators: those who think intercessory prayer can and should be studied scientifically, those who are more skeptical (...)
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  15. EnviroGenomarkers: The Interplay Between Mechanisms and Difference Making in Establishing Causal Claims.Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2012 - Medicine Studies 3 (4):249-262.
    According to Russo and Williamson :157–170, 2007, Hist Philos Life Sci 33:389–396, 2011a, Philos Sci 1:47–69, 2011b), in order to establish a causal claim of the form, ‘C is a cause of E’, one typically needs evidence that there is an underlying mechanism between C and E as well as evidence that C makes a difference to E. This thesis has been used to argue that hierarchies of evidence, as championed by evidence-based movements, tend to give primacy to evidence of (...)
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  16. Spin Doctors.Michael Loughlin - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 51 (51):68-73.
    Evidence Based Medicine is a thesis about reasoning: it champions a certain way of thinking about practice, one based not on the particular, not on thecontext-specific, but on broad statistical concerns. It emphasises “the increasing realisation of the power of probabilistic reasoning” to establish “a new epidemiologic standard”. So the claims of the “EBMers” imply a whole position in medical epistemology. But authors seem unwilling to give a detailed exposition, let alone defence of this position to critics. Hence the accusations (...)
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  17. Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare.Leslie Martin, Kelly Haskard-Zolnierek & M. Robin DiMatteo - 2010 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Relationships, jobs, and health behaviors-these are what New Year's resolutions are made of. Every year millions resolve to adopt a better diet, exercise more, become fit, or lose weight but few put into practice the health behaviors they aspire to. For those who successfully begin, the likelihood that they will maintain these habits is low. Healthcare professionals recognize the importance of these, and other, health behaviors but struggle to provide their patients with the tools necessary for successful maintenance of their (...)
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  18. Randomized Controlled Trials and the Flow of Information: Comment on Cartwright.Sherrilyn Roush - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):137-145.
    The transferability problem—whether the results of an experiment will transfer to a treatment population—affects not only Randomized Controlled Trials but any type of study. The problem for any given type of study can also, potentially, be addressed to some degree through many different types of study. The transferability problem for a given RCT can be investigated further through another RCT, but the variables to use in the further experiment must be discovered. This suggests we could do better on the epistemological (...)
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  19. Causal (Mis)Understanding and the Search for Scientific Explanations: A Case Study From the History of Medicine.Leen De Vreese - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (1):14-24.
    In 1747, James Lind carried out an experiment which proved the usefulness of citrus fruit as a cure for scurvy. Nonetheless, he rejected the earlier hypothesis of Bachstrom that the absence of fresh fruit and vegetables was the only cause of the disease. I explain why it was rational for James Lind not to accept Bachstrom’s explanation. I argue that it was the urge for scientific understanding that guided Lind in his rejection and in the development of his alternative theory (...)
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  20. Interpreting Causality in the Health Sciences.Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (2):157 – 170.
    We argue that the health sciences make causal claims on the basis of evidence both of physical mechanisms, and of probabilistic dependencies. Consequently, an analysis of causality solely in terms of physical mechanisms or solely in terms of probabilistic relationships, does not do justice to the causal claims of these sciences. Yet there seems to be a single relation of cause in these sciences - pluralism about causality will not do either. Instead, we maintain, the health sciences require a theory (...)
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  21. Evidence-Based Medicine, Case-Based Medicine; Scientific Medicine, Quasi-Scientific Medicine. Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Practice: An Alternative to Evidence-Based Approaches. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practic.Olli S. Miettinen - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):260-264.
    In this issue of Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, Tonelli criticizes the ‘philosophy’ of the evidence‐based medicine (EBM) movement and advocates a ‘case‐based’ or ‘casuistic’ alternative to EBM – I shall call this case‐based medicine, CBM. -/- Here, I summarize Tonelli’s article, comment on it critically, and then proceed to advocate commitment to knowledge‐based medicine instead. More specifically, I advocate commitment to scientific medicine and to its precursor, quasi‐scientific medicine – to efforts to bring these about as expeditiously as (...)
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  22. Kenneth W. Goodman: Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Fallibility and Responsibility in Clinical Science. [REVIEW]Jason Grossman - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (3):421-423.
  23. Skepticism, Statistical Methods, and the Cigarette: A Historical Analysis of a Methodological Debate.Mark Parascandola - 2004 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2):244-261.
  24. What is Clinical Effectiveness?Richard Ashcroft - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (2):219-233.
    Clinical trials and other forms of evaluation of medical treatment are held to give an objective assessment of the ‘clinical effectiveness’ of the medical treatments under evaluation. This kind of evaluation is central to the evidence-based medicine movement, as it provides a basis for the rational selection of treatment. The ethical status of randomised clinical trials is widely agreed to depend crucially upon the state of equipoise regarding which of two (or more) treatments is more (or most) effective in a (...)
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  25. Evidence-Based and Evidence-Free Generalisations: A Tale of Two Cultures.Raymond Tallis - 1999 - In David Fuller & Patricia Waugh (eds.), The Arts and Sciences of Criticism. Oxford University Press.
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  26. Scientific Status of Aromatherapy.J. R. King - 1994 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 37 (3):409.
  27. Reply to David Papineau.Peter Urbach - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):712-715.
  28. Commentary On: Tone Kvernbekk's "Evidence-Based Practice , Means-End Reasoning and Goal Directed Theories".Tracy Bowell - unknown