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  1. Proof of Concept Research.Steve Elliott - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Researchers often pursue proof of concept research, but criteria for evaluating such research remain poorly specified. This paper proposes a general framework for proof of concept research that knits together and augments earlier discussions. The framework includes prototypes, proof of concept demonstrations, and post facto demonstrations. With a case from theoretical evolutionary genetics, the paper illustrates the general framework and articulates some of the reasoning strategies used within that field. This paper provides both specific tools with which to understand how (...)
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  2. Philosophy of Immunology.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2020.
    Philosophy of immunology is a subfield of philosophy of biology dealing with ontological and epistemological issues related to the studies of the immune system. While speculative investigations and abstract analyses have always been part of immune theorizing, until recently philosophers have largely ignored immunology. Yet the implications for understanding the philosophical basis of organismal functions framed by immunity offer new perspectives on fundamental questions of biology and medicine. Developed in the context of history of medicine, theoretical biology, and medical anthropology, (...)
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  3. What is a Hologenomic Adaptation? Emergent Individuality and Inter-Identity in Multispecies Systems.Javier Suárez & Vanessa Triviño - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 187 (11).
    Contemporary biological research has suggested that some host–microbiome multispecies systems (referred to as “holobionts”) can in certain circumstances evolve as unique biological individual, thus being a unit of selection in evolution. If this is so, then it is arguably the case that some biological adaptations have evolved at the level of the multispecies system, what we call hologenomic adaptations. However, no research has yet been devoted to investigating their nature, or how these adaptations can be distinguished from adaptations at the (...)
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  4. The Function of Pain.Laurenz C. Casser - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-15.
    Various prominent theories of pain assume that it is pain’s biological function to inform organisms about damage to their bodies. I argue that this is a mistake. First, there is no biological evidence to support the notion that pain was originally selected for its informative capacities, nor that it currently contributes to the fitness of organisms in this specific capacity. Second, neurological evidence indicates that modulating mechanisms in the nociceptive system systematically prevent pain from serving a primarily informative role. These (...)
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  5. The Sexual Selection of Hominin Bipedalism.Michael Dale - 2018 - Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 11:47-60.
    In this article, I advance a novel hypothesis on the evolution of hominin bipedalism. I begin by arguing extensively for how the transition to bipedalism must have been problematic for hominins during the Neogene. Due to this and the fact that no other primate has made the unusual switch to bipedalism, it seems likely that the selection pressure towards bipedalism was unusually strong. With this in mind, I briefly lay out some of the most promising hypotheses on the evolutionary origin (...)
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  6. Is the Neo-Aristotelian Concept of Organism Presupposed in Biology?Parisa Moosavi - 2020 - In Martin Hähnel (ed.), Aristotelian Naturalism: A Research Companion. Springer.
    According to neo-Aristotelian ethical naturalism, moral goodness is an instance of natural goodness, a kind of normativity supposedly already present in nature in the biological realm of non-human living things. Proponents of this view appeal to Michael Thompson’s conception of a life-form--the form of a living organism--to give an account of natural goodness. However, although neo-Aristotelians call themselves naturalists, they hardly ever consult the science of biology to defend their commitments regarding biological organisms. This has led many critics to argue (...)
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  7. The Evolution Concept: The Concept Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):354-378.
    This is an epistemologically-driven history of the concept of evolution. Starting from its inception, this work will follow the development of this pregnant concept. However, in contradistinction to previous attempts, the objective will not be the identification of the different meanings it adopted through history, but conversely, it will let the concept to be unfolded, to be explicated and to express its own inner potentialities. The underlying thesis of the present work is, therefore, that the path that leads to the (...)
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  8. Equilibrium Explanation as Structural Non-Mechanistic Explanation: The Case Long-Term Bacterial Persistence in Human Hosts.Javier Suárez & Roger Deulofeu - 2019 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 3 (38):95-120.
    Philippe Huneman has recently questioned the widespread application of mechanistic models of scientific explanation based on the existence of structural explanations, i.e. explanations that account for the phenomenon to be explained in virtue of the mathematical properties of the system where the phenomenon obtains, rather than in terms of the mechanisms that causally produce the phenomenon. Structural explanations are very diverse, including cases like explanations in terms of bowtie structures, in terms of the topological properties of the system, or in (...)
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  9. Levels of Organization in the Biological Sciences.Daniel Stephen Brooks, James DiFrisco & William C. Wimsatt (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
    The subject of this edited volume is the idea of levels of organization: roughly, the idea that the natural world is segregated into part-whole relationships of increasing spatiotemporal scale and complexity. The book comprises a collection of essays that raise the idea of levels into its own topic of analysis. Owing to the wide prominence of the idea of levels, the scope of the volume is aimed at theoreticians, philosophers, and practicing researchers of all stripes in the life sciences. The (...)
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  10. Review of Samir Okasha, Agents and Goals in Evolution. [REVIEW]Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1:1.
    Review of Samir Okasha's Agents and Goals in Evolution, Oxford University Press, 2018.
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  11. A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats from a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-being.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - Acta Analytica 2019:1-23.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  12. De oorsprong en evolutie van leven: 15 van het standaardparadigma afwijkende thesen.Nathalie Gontier - 2004 - Brussel, België: VUBPRESS.
    Translation: How did life originate? What were the first life forms? How did the cells of our body evolve? Is natural selection the only mechanism whereby evolution occurs? What did Darwin mean with the term natural selection and do we still use that definition today? Does evolution occur slow or fast? Are we determined by our genes? We all ask ourselves these questions from time to time. Scientists however often get too technical and philosophers too speculative in their answers. This (...)
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  13. Evolutionary Epistemology, Language, and Culture: A Non-Adaptationist Systems Theoretical Approach.Nathalie Gontier, Jean Paul Van Bendegem & Diederik Aerts (eds.) - 2006 - Springer.
    For the first time in history, scholars working on language and culture from within an evolutionary epistemological framework, and thereby emphasizing complementary or deviating theories of the Modern Synthesis, were brought together. Of course there have been excellent conferences on Evolutionary Epistemology in the past, as well as numerous conferences on the topics of Language and Culture. However, until now these disciplines had not been brought together into one all-encompassing conference. Moreover, previously there never had been such stress on alternative (...)
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  14. Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation and Evidence.Emanuelle Serrelli & Nathalie Gontier (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
    This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics, and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin (...)
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  15. Deleuze, Technology, and Thought.Daniel W. Smith - 2018 - Tamkang Review 49 (1):33-52.
  16. Multiple Realizability and Biological Modality.Rami Koskinen - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (5):1123-1133.
    Critics of multiple realizability have recently argued that we should concentrate solely on actual here-and-now realizations that are found in nature. The possibility of alternative, but unactualized, realizations is regarded as uninteresting because it is taken to be a question of pure logic or an unverifiable scenario of science fiction. However, in the biological context only a contingent set of realizations is actualized. Drawing on recent work on the theory of neutral biological spaces, the paper shows that we can have (...)
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  17. How to Determine whether Evolution Debunks Moral Realism.Thomas Pölzler - 2018 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 23 (1):35-60.
    Anti-realist evolutionary debunking arguments purport to show that if there were objective moral truths, then evolutionary evidence would suggest that our moral judgements are unjustified (which excludes or makes it unlikely that these truths exist). Recent controversies about these arguments can often be traced back to confusion about how its premises are to be supported or undermined. My aim in this paper is accordingly a clarificatory one. I will attempt to identify which kinds of philosophical or scientific evidence would have (...)
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  18. Neural Darwinism. The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection. By Gerald M. Edelman. Pp. 371. £9·95.E. A. Salzen - 1990 - Journal of Biosocial Science 22 (4):521-522.
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  19. Phylogeny, Ecology and Behaviour. By D. R. Brooks & D. A. McLennan. Pp. 434.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (1):139-141.
  20. Mating Markets: A Naturally Selected Sex Allocation Theory of Sexual Selection.Marion Blute - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):103-111.
    This article utilizes three premises. There are commonly ecologically oriented, naturally selected specialized differences in frequency and/or quality as well as sexually selected differences between the sexes. Sex in the sense of coming together and going apart or going apart and coming together is trade in these naturally selected differences, i.e., there is a mating market in sexual species. While such trade is beneficial to the population as a whole, sexual competition and selection is conflict over the profits of that (...)
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  21. How Does Human Nature Relate to Nature?Derek Brereton - 2001 - Alethia 4 (1):24-28.
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  22. Evolutionary Religion - W. Burkert: Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions. Pp. Xiv + 255. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1996. £18. 95. ISBN: 0-674-17569-7. [REVIEW]Hugh Bowden - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (1):94-95.
  23. W. K. L ACEY : Augustus and the Principate. The Evolution of the System . (ARCA: Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs, 35.) Pp. X + 245. Leeds: Francis Cairns, 1996. Cased, £36/$52.50. ISBN: 0-905205-91-X. [REVIEW]B. Levick - 1999 - The Classical Review 49 (1):284-285.
  24. Book Review - Economics and Philosophy: The Evolutionary Foundations of Economics, Kurt Dopfer. Cambridge University Press, 2005, 577 +XIII Pages. [REVIEW]Jack J. Vromen - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):131-138.
  25. The Evolutionary Contingency Thesis and Evolutionary Idiosyncrasies.T. Wong - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):22.
    Much philosophical progress has been made in elucidating the idea of evolutionary contingency in a recent re-burgeoning of the debate. However, additional progress has been impaired on three fronts. The first relates to its characterisation: the under-specification of various contingency claims has made it difficult to conceptually pinpoint the scope to which ‘contingency’ allegedly extends, as well as which biological forms are in contention. That is—there appears to be no systematic means with which to fully specify contingency claims which has (...)
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  26. Evolutionary causes as mechanisms: a critical analysis.Saúl Pérez-González & Victor J. Luque - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (2):13.
    In this paper, we address the question whether a mechanistic approach can account for evolutionary causes. The last decade has seen a major attempt to account for natural selection as a mechanism. Nevertheless, we stress the relevance of broadening the debate by including the other evolutionary causes inside the mechanistic approach, in order to be a legitimate conceptual framework on the same footing as other approaches to evolutionary theory. We analyse the current debate on natural selection as a mechanism, and (...)
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  27. Neural Reuse and the Modularity of Mind: Where to Next for Modularity?John Zerilli - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):1-20.
    The leading hypothesis concerning the “reuse” or “recycling” of neural circuits builds on the assumption that evolution might prefer the redeployment of established circuits over the development of new ones. What conception of cognitive architecture can survive the evidence for this hypothesis? In particular, what sorts of “modules” are compatible with this evidence? I argue that the only likely candidates will, in effect, be the columns which Vernon Mountcastle originally hypothesized some 60 years ago, and which form part of the (...)
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  28. When is It Co-Evolution? A Reply to Steen and Co-Authors.Mark Sagoff - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):10.
    David Steen and co-authors in this journal offer a philosophical argument to support an “Evolutionary Community Concept” to identify what they call “evolutionary communities.” They describe these as “unique collections of species that interact and have co-evolved in a given geographic area” and that include “co-evolved dependencies between different parts of a community.” Steen et al. refer to the coevolution of assemblages, collections, communities, dependencies, interspecific and abiotic interactions, and traits, but they do not define “co-evolution” or provide an example (...)
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  29. The Coherence of Evolutionary Theory with Its Neighboring Theories.Seungbae Park - 2019 - Acta Biotheoretica 67 (2):87-102.
    Evolutionary theory coheres with its neighboring theories, such as the theory of plate tectonics, molecular biology, electromagnetic theory, and the germ theory of disease. These neighboring theories were previously unconceived, but they were later conceived, and then they cohered with evolutionary theory. Since evolutionary theory has been strengthened by its several neighboring theories that were previously unconceived, it will be strengthened by infinitely many hitherto unconceived neighboring theories. This argument for evolutionary theory echoes the problem of unconceived alternatives. Ironically, however, (...)
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  30. Does God Roll Dice? Neutrality and Determinism in Evolutionary Ecology.Som B. Ale, Abdel Halloway, William A. Mitchell & Christopher J. Whelan - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):3.
    A tension between perspectives that emphasize deterministic versus stochastic processes has sparked controversy in ecology since pre-Darwinian times. The most recent manifestation of the contrasting perspectives arose with Hubbell’s proposed “neutral theory”, which hypothesizes a paramount role for stochasticity in ecological community composition. Here we shall refer to the deterministic and the stochastic perspectives as the niche-based and neutral-based research programs, respectively. Our goal is to represent these perspectives in the context of Lakatos’ notion of a scientific research program. We (...)
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  31. Mapping Biological Transmission: An Empirical, Dynamical, and Evolutionary Approach.Livio Riboli-Sasco & Francesca Merlin - 2017 - Acta Biotheoretica 65 (2):97-115.
    The current debate over extending inheritance and its evolutionary impact has focused on adding new categories of non-genetic factors to the classical transmission of DNA, and on trying to redefine inheritance. Transmitted factors have been mainly characterized by their directions of transmission and the way they store variations. In this paper, we leave aside the issue of defining inheritance. We rather try to build an evolutionary conceptual framework that allows for tracing most, if not all forms of transmission and makes (...)
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  32. Erratum To: Exploring Darwinian Worlds: From Darwin to the Extended Synthesis: Essay Review of T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre and M. Silberstein : Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences, Springer, Dordrecht, 2015, 910 Pp, $349.00, ISBN: 978-94-017-9014-7.Andrea Borghini & Elena Casetta - 2017 - Acta Biotheoretica 65 (1):95-95.
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  33. Exploring Darwinian Worlds: From Darwin to the Extended Synthesis: Essay Review of T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre and M. Silberstein : Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences, Springer, Dordrecht, 2015, 910 Pp, $349.00, ISBN: 978-94-017-9014-7.Andrea Borghini & Elena Casetta - 2017 - Acta Biotheoretica 65 (1):87-94.
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  34. On the Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to Ethical Naturalism.Parisa Moosavi - 2017 - In Gary Keogh (ed.), The Ethics of Nature and The Nature of Ethics. pp. 37-50.
    Neo-Aristotelian metaethical naturalism aims to naturalize ethical normativity by showing that it is continuous with natural normativity, a kind of normativity already present in nature among plants and animals. Opponents of this view argue that evolutionary biology rejects the neo-Aristotelian notion of natural normativity, while its proponents argue that the opponents’ appeal to evolutionary biology is misguided and misses the point of the metaethical project. In this paper, I first argue that evolutionary biology is in fact relevant for assessing the (...)
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  35. The Origin of Species by Means of Mathematical Modelling.Nikolai Bessonov, Natalia Reinberg, Malay Banerjee & Vitaly Volpert - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (4):333-344.
    Darwin described biological species as groups of morphologically similar individuals. These groups of individuals can split into several subgroups due to natural selection, resulting in the emergence of new species. Some species can stay stable without the appearance of a new species, some others can disappear or evolve. Some of these evolutionary patterns were described in our previous works independently of each other. In this work we have developed a single model which allows us to reproduce the principal patterns in (...)
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  36. Reconsidering the Meaning of Concepts in Biology: Why Distinctions Are So Important.Kostas Kampourakis & Florian Stern - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800148.
    Concepts have a central and important place in science, therefore, it is important that their meanings are always made clear. However, such clarity does not always exist, even in the case of such fundamental biological concepts as “gene” and “adaptation.” A quick look at textbooks reveals that different meanings may be attributed to the same concept, even within the same textbook, without explicitly discussing the differences of those meanings. This can be misleading, and mask important conceptual differences. Therefore, the differences (...)
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  37. A Darwinian Perspective: Right Premises, Questionable Conclusion. A Commentary on Niall Shanks and Rebecca Pyles' "Evolution and Medicine: The Long Reach of "Dr. Darwin"".Melnick Ronald & Vineis Paolo - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (1):6.
    As Dobzhansky wrote, nothing in biology makes sense outside the context of the evolutionary theory, and this truth has not been sufficiently explored yet by medicine. We comment on Shanks and Pyles' recently published paper, Evolution and medicine: the long reach of "Dr. Darwin", and discuss some recent advancements in the application of evolutionary theory to carcinogenesis. However, we disagree with Shanks and Pyles about the usefulness of animal experiments in predicting human hazards. Based on the darwinian observation of inter-species (...)
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  38. An Emerging System to Study Photosymbiosis, Brain Regeneration, Chronobiology, and Behavior: The Marine Acoel Symsagittifera Roscoffensis.Enrique Arboleda, Volker Hartenstein, Pedro Martinez, Heinrich Reichert, Sonia Sen, Simon Sprecher & Xavier Bailly - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800107.
  39. “Replaying Life's Tape”: Simulations, Metaphors, and Historicity in Stephen Jay Gould's View of Life.David Sepkoski - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 58:73-81.
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  40. Evelleen Richards, Darwin and the Making of Sexual Selection , 672 pp., 48 halftones, $47.50 Cloth, ISBN 9780226436906. [REVIEW]Bernard Lightman - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):597-600.
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  41. The Extended (Evolutionary) Synthesis Debate: Where Science Meets Philosophy.Massimo Pigliucci & Leonard Finkelman - 2015 - BioScience 64 (6):511-516.
    Recent debates between proponents of the modern evolutionary synthesis (the standard model in evolutionary biology) and those of a possible extended synthesis are a good example of the fascinating tangle among empirical, theoretical, and conceptual or philosophical matters that is the practice of evolutionary biology. In this essay, we briefly discuss two case studies from this debate, highlighting the relevance of philosophical thinking to evolutionary biologists in the hope of spurring further constructive cross-pollination between the two fields.
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  42. Die ›Evolutionstheorien‹ Goethes Und Schopenhauers. Eine Kritische Aufarbeitung des Wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Forschungsstandes.Jens Lemanski - 2016 - In Daniel Schubbe & Søren Fauth (eds.), Schopenhauer und Goethe: Biographische und philosophische Perspektiven. Hamburg, Deutschland: pp. 247-299.
    This article compares the research literature published by Goethe and Schopenhauer on the subject of evolutionary theory. The metatheoretical thesis is supported that the results of any comparison between Schopenhauer or Goethe and a concrete theory of evolution always depend on three dimensions: 1. the scientific point of view of the comparative, 2. the meaning and definition of the central terms and 3. the selection of the analyzed primary literature. It is also argued that no previously published study was able (...)
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  43. G rant R amsey and C harles H. P ence , Chance in Evolution, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016, 384 pp., $45. [REVIEW]Thomas Bonnin - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):52.
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  44. Vestigial Drifting Drives in Homo Sapiens.Paolo Rognini - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (3):199-211.
    In this study some typical aspects of human behavior are reconsidered in a new evolutionary perspective. Firstly, a theoretical paradigm is introduced, according to which animals show a natural propensity to maintain behavior far beyond the time when the triggering motivation has been removed;, these drifting conducts are defined as Vestigial Drifting Drives or. Such a paradigm is then applied to those human attitudes that once conferred an adaptive advantage on our species but have now become dysfunctional within the framework (...)
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  45. Natural Selection and Drift as Individual-Level Causes of Evolution.Pierrick Bourrat - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (3):159-176.
    In this paper I critically evaluate Reisman and Forber’s :1113–1123, 2005) arguments that drift and natural selection are population-level causes of evolution based on what they call the manipulation condition. Although I agree that this condition is an important step for identifying causes for evolutionary change, it is insufficient. Following Woodward, I argue that the invariance of a relationship is another crucial parameter to take into consideration for causal explanations. Starting from Reisman and Forber’s example on drift and after having (...)
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  46. Book Review: Dancing with the Sacred: Ecology, Evolution, and GodDancing with the Sacred: Ecology, Evolution, and GodbyPetersKarl E.Trinity Press International, Hamsburg, 2002. 171 Pp. $15.00. ISBN 1-56338-393-4. [REVIEW]Frank R. Hensley - 2004 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 58 (1):101-102.
  47. Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design.Linden J. Ball, Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Ian Dennis & Thomas C. Ormerod - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247-270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic in nature, much (...)
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  48. Small RNAs and Transposable Elements Are Key Components in the Control of Adaptive Evolution in Eukaryotes.Guy Barry - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800070.
  49. Joint Attention: New Developments in Psychology, Philosophy of Mind, and Social Neuroscience by Axel Seemann.James M. Dow - 2013 - Humana Mente 6 (24).
  50. The Domain Relativity of Evolutionary Contingency.Cory Lewis - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):25.
    A key issue in the philosophy of biology is evolutionary contingency, the degree to which evolutionary outcomes could have been different. Contingency is typically contrasted with evolutionary convergence, where different evolutionary pathways result in the same or similar outcomes. Convergences are given as evidence against the hypothesis that evolutionary outcomes are highly contingent. But the best available treatments of contingency do not, when read closely, produce the desired contrast with convergence. Rather, they produce a picture in which any degree of (...)
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