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  1. Pictorial Realism.Catharine Abell - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (1):1 – 17.
    I propose a number of criteria for the adequacy of an account of pictorial realism. Such an account must: explain the epistemic significance of realistic pictures; explain why accuracy and detail are salient to realism; be consistent with an accurate account of depiction; and explain the features of pictorial realism. I identify six features of pictorial realism. I then propose an account of realism as a measure of the information pictures provide about how their objects would look, were one to (...)
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  2. Viewpoint is Also Held by Many Current-Day Evolu-Tionary Biologists (Eg, Dawkins and Krebs 1979; Vermeij 1994). Predation Can Be Regarded as the Most Basic in-Teraction Between Populations. Herbivory and Par. [REVIEW]Peter A. Abrams - 2001 - In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. pp. 277.
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  3. RNase III Nucleases and the Evolution of Antiviral Systems.Lauren C. Aguado & Benjamin R. tenOever - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2):1700173.
    Every living entity requires the capacity to defend against viruses in some form. From bacteria to plants to arthropods, cells retain the capacity to capture genetic material, process it in a variety of ways, and subsequently use it to generate pathogen-specific small RNAs. These small RNAs can then be used to provide specificity to an otherwise non-specific nuclease, generating a potent antiviral system. While small RNA-based defenses in chordates are less utilized, the protein-based antiviral invention in this phylum appears to (...)
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  4. Quantitative Parsimony and Explanatory Power.Baker Alan - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):245-259.
    The desire to minimize the number of individual new entities postulated is often referred to as quantitative parsimony. Its influence on the default hypotheses formulated by scientists seems undeniable. I argue that there is a wide class of cases for which the preference for quantitatively parsimonious hypotheses is demonstrably rational. The justification, in a nutshell, is that such hypotheses have greater explanatory power than less parsimonious alternatives. My analysis is restricted to a class of cases I shall refer to as (...)
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  5. Random Boolean Networks and Evolutionary Game Theory.J. McKenzie Alexander - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1289-1304.
    Recent years have seen increased interest in the question of whether it is possible to provide an evolutionary game-theoretic explanation for certain kinds of social norms. I sketch a proof of a general representation theorem for a large class of evolutionary game-theoretic models played on a social network, in hope that this will contribute to a greater understanding of the long-term evolutionary dynamics of such models, and hence the evolution of social norms.
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  6. Well‐Being and Philosophy of Science.Anna Alexandrova - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (3):219-231.
    This article is a mutual introduction of the science of well-being to philosophy of science and an explanation of how the two disciplines can benefit each other. In the process, I argue that the science of well-being is not helpfully viewed as a social or a natural, but rather as a mixed, science. Hence, its methodology will have to attend to its specific features. I discuss two of its methodological problems: justifying the role of values, and validating measures. I suggest (...)
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  7. Making Models Count.Anna Alexandrova - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):383-404.
    What sort of claims do scientific models make and how do these claims then underwrite empirical successes such as explanations and reliable policy interventions? In this paper I propose answers to these questions for the class of models used throughout the social and biological sciences, namely idealized deductive ones with a causal interpretation. I argue that the two main existing accounts misrepresent how these models are actually used, and propose a new account. *Received July 2006; revised August 2008. †To contact (...)
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  8. Review. Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. N Christie & ST Loseby.R. Alston - 1997 - The Classical Review 47 (2):370-371.
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  9. Refining the Boundary Conditions of the Darwinian Concept of Adaptation: The Affirmation of Darwinism Through Evo-Devo.Charles Joseph Alt - unknown
    This dissertation attempts to re-evaluate the Darwinian concept of adaptation in light of recent evidence from the fields of Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Self-Organization. Recent findings seem to suggest that certain features of organisms, genomes, etc., might be explicable as the product of fixed principles of self-organization, rather than as product(s) of natural selection. This and similar findings potentially alter the landscape for the Darwinian idea of adaptation driven by natural selection. It is my position that the reception of these (...)
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  10. Mandeville’s Ship: Theistic Design and Philosophical History in Charles Darwin’s Vision of Natural Selection.Stephen G. Alter - 2008 - Journal of the History of Ideas 69 (3):441-465.
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  11. Darwinism and the Linguistic Image.Stephen G. Alter - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):202-204.
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  12. Genetic and Cultural Kinship Among the Lamaleran Whale Hunters.Michael Alvard - 2011 - Human Nature 22 (1-2):89-107.
    The human ability to form large, coordinated groups is among our most impressive social adaptations. Larger groups facilitate synergistic economies of scale for cooperative breeding, such economic tasks as group hunting, and success in conflict with other groups. In many organisms, genetic relationships provide the structure for sociality to evolve via the process of kin selection, and this is the case, to a certain extent, for humans. But assortment by genetic affiliation is not the only mechanism that can bring people (...)
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  13. Cooperation, Evolution, and Culture.Michael Alvard - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):153-154.
    Rejecting evolutionary principles is a mistake, because evolutionary processes produced the irrational human minds for which Colman argues. An evolved cultural ability to acquire information socially and infer other's mental states (mind-reading) evokes Stackelberg reasoning. Much of game theory, however, assumes away information transfer and excludes the very solution that natural selection likely created to solve the problem of cooperation.
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  14. The Cognitive Dialectics of Evolutionary Processes in the Universe.V. A. Ambartsumian & V. V. Kaziutinskii - 1981 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 20 (3):25-59.
    One of the most important philosophical principles in contemporary natural science is the principle of the universality of evolutionary development , which was argued with much force and depth in F. Engels's The Dialectics of Nature. For the more than a century that has passed since Engels's sweeping synthesis of knowledge in the natural sciences, his revelation of the unity of the processes of evolution in inanimate and animate nature, including the inevitably and law-governed appearance of its "highest flower, the (...)
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  15. Book Review:Spirit in Evolution: From Amoeba to Saint. Herbert F. Standing. [REVIEW]E. S. Ames - 1930 - Ethics 41 (1):117-.
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  16. Carrie Chapman Catt and the Evolutionary Politics of Sex and Race, 1885-1940.Kevin Scott Amidon - 2007 - Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (2):305-328.
  17. The Frequency Hypothesis and Evolutionary Arguments.Yuichi Amitani - 2008 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 41 (1):79-94.
    Gerd Gigerenzer's views on probabilistic reasoning in humans have come under close scrutiny. Very little attention, however, has been paid to his evolutionary component of his argument. According to Gigerenzer, reasoning about probabilities as frequencies is so common today because it was favored by natural selection in the past. This paper presents a critical examination of this argument. It will show first, that, _pace_ Gigerenzer, there are some reasons to believe that using the frequency format was not more adaptive than (...)
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  18. A System of Innovation? Integrated Water Resources Management Complemented with Co-Evolution: Examples From Palestinian and Israeli Joint Water Management.Urooj Quezon Amjad - 2006 - World Futures 62 (3):157 – 170.
    A concept of co-evolution is argued to complement Integrated Water Resource Management's gap in administrative integration. Co-evolution's complement to Integrated Water Resource Management is explored through issues surrounding joint water management arrangements between the Israelis and Palestinians in the late 1990s and early 21st century. How co-evolution contributes to such a water management approach highlights how we might think about what it means to encourage innovation. Conclusions of the article suggest co-evolution provides the language and description for the changing interactions (...)
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  19. Evolutionary Significance of Variation.Variation Among Individuals - 2001 - In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies.
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  20. Application of Double-Cusp Catastrophe Theory to the Physical Evolution of Qualia: Implications for Paradigm Shift in Medicine and Psychology.Richard L. Amoroso - 2004 - Anticipative and Predictive Models in Systems Science 1 (1):19-26.
    Seminal work intended to found a new field of integrative Noetic Science is summarized. Until now the philosophy of Biological Mechanism has ruled medicine and psychology. Penrose claims, AA scientific world-view which does not profoundly come to terms with the problem of conscious mind can have no serious pretensions of completeness@. A noetic action principle synonymous with the historic concept of élan vital is introduced as the basis of a Continuous State Conscious Universe (CSCU). The least unit of CSCU superspace (...)
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  21. Heterozygosity and Mutation Rate: Evidence for an Interaction and its Implications.William Amos - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (1):82-90.
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  22. The Evolution of Science: Reformation and Counter-Reformation.S. Amsterdamski - 1975 - Diogenes 23 (89):21-43.
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  23. Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science.Stefan Amsterdamski - 1975 - D. Reidel Pub. Co..
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  24. Review. Darwinism's Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection. J Gayon.R. Amundsom - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):761-767.
  25. Review. Monad to Man: The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary Biology. Michael Ruse.R. Amundson - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):515-521.
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  26. Why Don't You Write About Something More Interesting, Lisa?Ron Amundson - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):439-446.
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  27. Phylogenic Reconstruction Then and Now.Ron Amundson - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):679-694.
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  28. Embryology and Evolution 1920-1960: Worlds Apart?Ron Amundson - 2000 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 22 (3):335 - 352.
    During the early part of the 20th century most embryologists were skeptical about the significance of Mendelian genetics to embryological development. A few embryologists began to study the developmental effects of Mendelian genes around 1940. Such work was a necessary step on the path to modern developmental biology. It occurred during the time when the Evolutionary Synthesis was integrating Mendelian and population genetics into a unified evolutionary theory. Why did the first embryological geneticists begin their study at that particular time? (...)
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  29. Typology Reconsidered: Two Doctrines on the History of Evolutionary Biology.Ron Amundson - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):153-177.
    Recent historiography of 19th century biology supports the revision of two traditional doctrines about the history of biology. First, the most important and widespread biological debate around the time of Darwin was not evolution versus creation, but biological functionalism versus structuralism. Second, the idealist and typological structuralist theories of the time were not particularly anti-evolutionary. Typological theories provided argumentation and evidence that was crucial to the refutation of Natural Theological creationism. The contrast between functionalist and structuralist approaches to biology continues (...)
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  30. Reviews-Monad to Man: The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Ron Amundson - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):515-521.
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  31. Liang Shuming and Henri Bergson on Intuition: Cultural Context and the Evolution of Terms.Yanming An - 1997 - Philosophy East and West 47 (3):337-362.
    Liang Shuming once applied the concept of intuition to characterize Chinese culture as a whole. Later, he not only replaced the theoretical position of intuition with the concept of reason, but discarded the term for intuition itself. This essay will answer three questions related to this academic riddle. (1) What does intuition mean to both Bergson and Liang? (2) What does the Chinese cultural heritage contribute to the formation of Liang's intuition? (3) What is the relationship between Liang's intuition and (...)
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  32. Aardwolf Adaptations: A Review.Mark D. Anderson - 2004 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 59 (2):99-104.
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  33. Evolution, Embodiment and the Nature of the Mind.Michael Anderson - manuscript
    In: B. Hardy-Vallee & N. Payette, eds. Beyond the brain: embodied, situated & distributed cognition. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar’s Press), in press. Abstract: In this article, I do three main things: 1. First, I introduce an approach to the mind motivated primarily by evolutionary considerations. I do that by laying out four principles for the study of the mind from an evolutionary perspective, and four predictions that they suggest. This evolutionary perspective is completely compatible with, although broader than, the embodied cognition (...)
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  34. Representation, Evolution and Embodiment.Michael L. Anderson - 2005 - Theoria Et Historia Scientarum.
    As part of the ongoing attempt to fully naturalize the concept of human being--and, more specifically, to re-center it around the notion of agency--this essay discusses an approach to defining the content of representations in terms ultimately derived from their central, evolved function of providing guidance for action. This 'guidance theory' of representation is discussed in the context of, and evaluated with respect to, two other biologically inspired theories of representation: Dan Lloyd's dialectical theory of representation and Ruth Millikan's biosemantics.
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  35. Supplementing Claire Colebrook: A Response to “Creative Evolution and the Creation of Man”.Nicole Anderson - 2010 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (s1):133-146.
    In her paper “Creative Evolution and the Creation of Man,” one of the arguments Colebrook puts forth is that as a means of challenging the mechanistic and teleological conception of Darwinian evolution, creative evolution takes an antihumanist position by positing that there is an absence of end, thus “man” is able to create his own end. But in taking this position, Colebrook points out that creative evolution re-establishes the humanistic discourse on the human that it was attempting to challenge. To (...)
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  36. Creation, Evolution, and Science Teaching in the Secondary School.Ted Anderson - 1982
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  37. Developing of the Future: Scaffolded Darwinism in Societal Evolution.Claes Andersson, Anton Törnberg & Petter Törnberg - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):417-418.
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  38. At the Crossroads of Logic, Psychology, and Behavioral Genetics.J. Ando, C. Shikishima, K. Hiraishi, Y. Sugimoto, R. Takemura & M. Okada - 2006 - In D. Andler, M. Okada & I. Watanabe (eds.), Reasoning and Cognition. pp. 9-36.
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  39. On Maxwell's Demons and the Origin of Evolutionary Variations: An Internalist Perspective.Eugenio Andrade - 2004 - Acta Biotheoretica 52 (1):17-40.
    This paper defends an internalist perspective of selection based on the hypothesis that considers living evolutionary units as Maxwell's demons (MD) or Zurek's Information Gathering and Using Systems (IGUS). Individuals are considered as IGUS that extract work by means of measuring and recording processes. Interactions or measurements convert uncertainty about the environment (Shannon's information, H) into internalized information in the form of a compressed record (Chaitin's algorithmic complexity, K). The requirements of the model and the limitations inherent to its formalization (...)
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  40. Affect, Thought, and Consciousness: The Freudian Theory of Psychic Structuring From an Evolutionary Perspective.Victor Manoel Andrade - 2003 - Neuro-Psychoanalysis 5 (1):71-80.
  41. The Concept of Race in Medicine.Robin O. Andreasen - 2008 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.
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  42. Standards of Conduct for Lawyers: An 800-Year Evolution.Carol Andrews - manuscript
    In this article, Professor examine the evolution of modern concepts of proper professional conduct for lawyers. Professor Andrews looks at various forms of legal ethics standards, beginning with medieval European lawyer oaths and continuing to the ABA's most recent statement of standards in the "Ethics 2000 version of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct." She reports that the standards for centuries have reflected six "core duties" of lawyers - litigation fairness, competence, loyalty, confidentiality, reasonable fees, and public service. These six (...)
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  43. The History of Hayek's Theory of Cultural Evolution.E. Angner - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (4):695-718.
    This paper traces the historical origins of Friedrich A. Hayek's theory of cultural evolution, and argues that Hayek's evolutionary thought was significantly inspired by Alexander M. Carr-Saunders and Oxford zoology. While traditional Hayek scholarship emphasizes the influence of Carl Menger and the British eighteenth-century moral philosophers, I claim that these sources underdetermine what was most characteristic of Hayek's theory, viz. the idea that cultural evolution is a matter of group selection, and the idea that natural selection operates on acquired as (...)
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  44. The Evolution of Eupathics: The Historical Roots of Subjective Measures of Well-Being.Erik Angner - manuscript
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  45. What’s so Special About Model Organisms?Rachel A. Ankeny & Sabina Leonelli - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):313-323.
    This paper aims to identify the key characteristics of model organisms that make them a specific type of model within the contemporary life sciences: in particular, we argue that the term “model organism” does not apply to all organisms used for the purposes of experimental research. We explore the differences between experimental and model organisms in terms of their material and epistemic features, and argue that it is essential to distinguish between their representational scope and representational target. We also examine (...)
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  46. On the Geogenous Evolution of Self-Reproducing Systems and Macromolecules.H. S. Anker - 1961 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 5 (1):86-88.
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  47. Frank N. Egerton,Hewett Cottrell Watson: Victorian Plant Ecologist and Evolutionist. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003; Michael Shermer,In Darwin's Shadow: The Life and Science of Alfred Russel Wallace: A Biographical Study on the Psychology of History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. [REVIEW]Peder Anker - 2003 - Metascience 12 (3):322-324.
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  48. Ethical Issues Related to Food Sector Evolution in Developing Countries: About Sustainability and Equity.Raoult-Wack Anne-Lucie & Bricas Nicolas - 2002 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):323-334.
    After a century of major technicaladvance, essentially achieved by and for theindustrialized countries, the evolution of thefood sector in southern countries should nolonger be thought of in terms of a ``headlongpursuit.'' In the present context of demographicgrowth, urbanization, poverty and disparities,environmental degradation, and globalization oftrade, new priorities have emerged, and newethical questions have been raised, mainlyrelated to sustainability and equity. Thispaper analyses these ethical concerns in thefollowing terms: can the model of food sectordevelopment initiated by the industrializedcountries be applied to (...)
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  49. The Transhuman Condition: A Report on Machines, Technics, and Evolution.Keith Ansell-Pearson - 1997 - Routledge.
    Evolution is seen to be entering a bio-technological phase. Nietzsche's affirmation that "man is something that must be overcome" no longer has a rhetorical ring given the means at our disposal at the end of the twentieth century. Viroid Life boldly challenges existing explanations of these changes inherited from modernity, arguing that they have exhausted their usefulness and new models are needed to guide us in mapping through the future. Exploring and critically examining the new realities of artificial life that (...)
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  50. Whither Evolution?G. F. Penn Anthony - 1975 - International Philosophical Quarterly 15 (1):71-82.
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