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  1. The Aims and Structures of Research Projects That Use Gene Regulatory Information with Evolutionary Genetic Models.Steve Elliott - 2017 - Dissertation, Arizona State University
  2. Darwinian Dialectics. [REVIEW]Hajo Greif - 2020 - Science & Education 29 (2):[1-4].
    Review of: Robert J. Richards and Michael Ruse: Debating Darwin. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2016. ISBN: 9780226384429, 320 pages, price: $30.00 (hardcover).
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  3. The Unfinished Synthesis?: Paleontology and Evolutionary Biology in the 20th Century.David Sepkoski - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):687-703.
    In the received view of the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, paleontology was given a prominent role in evolutionary biology thanks to the significant influence of paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson on both the institutional and conceptual development of the Synthesis. Simpson's 1944 Tempo and Mode in Evolution is considered a classic of Synthesis-era biology, and Simpson often remarked on the influence of other major Synthesis figures – such as Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky – on his developing thought. Why, (...)
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  4. Randomness Increases Order in Biological Evolution.Giuseppe Longo & Maël Montévil - 2012 - In M. Dinneen, B. Khoussainov & A. Nies (eds.), Computation, Physics and Beyond. Berlin Heidelberg: pp. 289-308.
    n this text, we revisit part of the analysis of anti-entropy in Bailly and Longo (2009} and develop further theoretical reflections. In particular, we analyze how randomness, an essential component of biological variability, is associated to the growth of biological organization, both in ontogenesis and in evolution. This approach, in particular, focuses on the role of global entropy production and provides a tool for a mathematical understanding of some fundamental observations by Gould on the increasing phenotypic complexity along evolution. Lastly, (...)
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  5. Developmental Roles and Evolutionary Significance of AMPA‐Type Glutamate Receptors.Shinobu Hirai, Kohji Hotta & Haruo Okado - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800028.
    Organogenesis and metamorphosis require the intricate orchestration of multiple types of cellular interactions and signaling pathways. Glutamate (Glu) is an excitatory extracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system, while Ca2+ is a major intracellular signaling molecule. The first Glu receptors to be cloned are Ca2+‐permeable receptors in mammalian brains. Although recent studies have focused on Glu signaling in synaptic mechanisms of the mammalian central nervous system, it is unclear how this signaling functions in development. Our recent article demonstrated that Ca2+‐permeable (...)
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  6. Developmental Roles and Evolutionary Significance of AMPA‐Type Glutamate Receptors.Shinobu Hirai, Kohji Hotta & Haruo Okado - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800028.
    Organogenesis and metamorphosis require the intricate orchestration of multiple types of cellular interactions and signaling pathways. Glutamate (Glu) is an excitatory extracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system, while Ca2+ is a major intracellular signaling molecule. The first Glu receptors to be cloned are Ca2+‐permeable receptors in mammalian brains. Although recent studies have focused on Glu signaling in synaptic mechanisms of the mammalian central nervous system, it is unclear how this signaling functions in development. Our recent article demonstrated that Ca2+‐permeable (...)
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  7. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell.Claes Andersson & Petter Törnberg - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):86-102.
    Despite remarkable empirical and methodological advances, our theoretical understanding of the evolutionary processes that made us human remains fragmented and contentious. Here, we make the radical proposition that the cultural communities within which Homo emerged may be understood as a novel exotic form of organism. The argument begins from a deep congruence between robust features of Pan community life cycles and protocell models of the origins of life. We argue that if a cultural tradition, meeting certain requirements, arises in the (...)
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  8. Tissue Mechanical Forces and Evolutionary Developmental Changes Act Through Space and Time to Shape Tooth Morphology and Function.Zachary T. Calamari, Jimmy Kuang‐Hsien Hu & Ophir D. Klein - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800140.
    Efforts from diverse disciplines, including evolutionary studies and biomechanical experiments, have yielded new insights into the genetic, signaling, and mechanical control of tooth formation and functions. Evidence from fossils and non‐model organisms has revealed that a common set of genes underlie tooth‐forming potential of epithelia, and changes in signaling environments subsequently result in specialized dentitions, maintenance of dental stem cells, and other phenotypic adaptations. In addition to chemical signaling, tissue forces generated through epithelial contraction, differential growth, and skeletal constraints act (...)
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  9. Diet, Gut Microbes and Host Mate Choice.Philip T. Leftwich, Matthew I. Hutchings & Tracey Chapman - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800053.
    All organisms live in close association with microbes. However, not all such associations are meaningful in an evolutionary context. Current debate concerns whether hosts and microbes are best described as communities of individuals or as holobionts (selective units of hosts plus their microbes). Recent reports that assortative mating of hosts by diet can be mediated by commensal gut microbes have attracted interest as a potential route to host reproductive isolation (RI). Here, the authors discuss logical problems with this line of (...)
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  10. Evolutionary Arguments Against Moral Realism: Why the Empirical Details Matter (and Which Ones Do).Jeroen Hopster - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):41.
    The aim of this article is to identify the strongest evolutionary debunking argument against moral realism and to assess on which empirical assumptions it relies. In the recent metaethical literature, several authors have de-emphasized the evolutionary component of EDAs against moral realism: presumably, the success or failure of these arguments is largely orthogonal to empirical issues. I argue that this claim is mistaken. First, I point out that Sharon Street’s and Michael Ruse’s EDAs both involve substantive claims about the evolution (...)
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  11. Evolutionary Models and the Normative Significance of Stability.Arnon Levy - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):33.
    Many have expected that understanding the evolution of norms should, in some way, bear on our first-order normative outlook: How norms evolve should shape which norms we accept. But recent philosophy has not done much to shore up this expectation. Most existing discussions of evolution and norms either jump headlong into the is/ought gap or else target meta-ethical issues, such as the objectivity of norms. My aim in this paper is to sketch a different way in which evolutionary considerations can (...)
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  12. Evolutionary Psychology is Not the Only Productive Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Consumer Behavior.Stephen M. Downes - 2013 - Journal of Consumer Psychology 23 (3):400-403.
    I respond to Vladas Griskevicius and Douglas T. Kendrick (G&K) and Gad Saad's (S) defenses of the view that Consumer Studies would benefit from the appeal to evolution in all work aimed at understanding consumer behavior. I argue that G&K and S's reliance on one theoretical perspective, that of evolutionary psychology, limits their options. Further, I point out some specific problems with the theoretical perspective of evolutionary psychology. Finally, I introduce some alternative evolutionary approaches to studying human behavior that could (...)
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  13. The Roots of Multilevel Selection: Concepts of Biological Individuality in the Early Twentieth Century.Abraham H. Gibson, Christina L. Kwapich & Martha Lang - 2013 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (4):505-532.
    As multilevel selection theory has gained greater acceptance over the past quarter-century, scientists and scholars have shown an increased interest in the theory's historical antecedents. Despite this interest, however, the early twentieth century remains largely unexplored. It is generally assumed that biologists thought "naively" about evolutionary dynamics during this era, and that their attempts to explain biological phenomena often lacked sophistication. Now that several recent works have called attention to the complex relationship between biological individuality and the levels of selection, (...)
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  14. Applying iPSCs for Preserving Endangered Species and Elucidating the Evolution of Mammalian Sex Determination.Arata Honda - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (6):1700152.
    The endangered species Tokudaia osimensis has the unique chromosome constitution of 2n = 25, with an XO/XO sex chromosome configuration (2n = 25; XO). There is urgency to preserve this species and to elucidate the regulator(s) that can discriminate the males and females arising from the indistinguishable sex chromosome constitution. However, it is not realistic to examine this rare animal species by sacrificing individuals. Recently, true naïve induced pluripotent stem cells were successfully generated from a female T. osimensis, and the (...)
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  15. What’s Wrong with the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis? A Critical Reply to Welch.Koen B. Tanghe, Alexis De Tiège, Lieven Pauwels, Stefaan Blancke & Johan Braeckman - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):23.
    Welch :263–279, 2017) has recently proposed two possible explanations for why the field of evolutionary biology is plagued by a steady stream of claims that it needs urgent reform. It is either seriously deficient and incapable of incorporating ideas that are new, relevant and plausible or it is not seriously deficient at all but is prone to attracting discontent and to the championing of ideas that are not very relevant, plausible and/or not really new. He argues for the second explanation. (...)
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  16. Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke.Ronald A. Jenner - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (1):1700196.
    Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear (...)
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  17. Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Natural Selection: A Question of Priority.Curtis Johnson - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (1):45-85.
    No single author presented Darwin with a more difficult question about his priority in discovering natural selection than the British comparative anatomist and paleontologist Richard Owen. Owen was arguably the most influential biologist in Great Britain in Darwin’s time. Darwin wanted his approbation for what he believed to be his own theory of natural selection. Unfortunately for Darwin, when Owen first commented in publication about Darwin’s theory of descent he was openly hostile. Darwin was taken off-guard. In private meetings and (...)
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  18. "Goethe's Plant Morphology: The Seeds of Evolution".Tanya Kelley - 2007 - Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 1 (1):1-15.
    I argue that Goethe’s scientific writings carry in them the seeds of the theory of evolution. Goethe’s works on plant morphology reflects the conflicting ideas of his era on the discreteness and on the stability of species. Goethe’s theory of plant morphology provides a link between the discontinuous view of nature, as exemplified in works of the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), and the continuous view of nature, as exemplified in the work of the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882).
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  19. Recent Trends in Evolutionary Ethics: Greenbeards!Joseph Heath & Catherine Rioux - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (1-2):16.
    In recent years, there has been growing awareness among evolutionary ethicists that systems of cooperation based upon “weak” reciprocity mechanisms lack scalability, and are therefore inadequate to explain human ultrasociality. This has produced a shift toward models that strengthen the cooperative mechanism, by adding various forms of commitment or punishment. Unfortunately, the most prominent versions of this hypothesis wind up positing a discredited mechanism as the basis of human ultrasociality, viz. a “greenbeard.” This paper begins by explaining what a greenbeard (...)
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  20. Equilibrium Without Rationality: Microeconomics: Behavior, Institutions and Evolution Samuel Bowles Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.Elias L. Khalil - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (1):90-92.
  21. Timothy Shanahan, The Evolution of Darwinism: Selection, Adaptation, and Progress in Evolutionary Biology. New York: Cambridge University Press , 352 Pp., $28.99. [REVIEW]Sander Gliboff - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (4):654-656.
  22. The Darwinian Muddle on the Division of Labour: An Attempt at Clarification.Emmanuel D’Hombres - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (1):1-22.
    It is of philosophical and epistemological interest to examine how Darwin conceived the process of division of labour within Natural History. Darwin observed the advantages brought by division of labour to the human economy, and considered that the principle of divergence within nature, which is, according to him, one of the two ‘keystones’ of his theory, gave comparable advantages. This led him to re-examine Milne-Edwards’ view on the notion of division of physiological labour, and to introduce this with modifications into (...)
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  23. Evolution: Limited and Predictable or Unbounded and Lawless?Wim Hordijk - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (4):187-191.
    In this brief commentary I compare and contrast two different views of evolution: one of limited (convergent) evolution and mathematical predictability, and one of unbounded diversity and no entailing laws. Clearly these opposing views cannot both be true at the same time. Their disagreement seems to rest on different underlying assumptions, and the challenge is to see if they can be reconciled.
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  24. How Exaptations Facilitated Photosensory Evolution: Seeing the Light by Accident.Gregory S. Gavelis, Patrick J. Keeling & Brian S. Leander - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (7):1600266.
    Exaptations are adaptations that have undergone a major change in function. By recruiting genes from sources originally unrelated to vision, exaptation has allowed for sudden and critical photosensory innovations, such as lenses, photopigments, and photoreceptors. Here we review new or neglected findings, with an emphasis on unicellular eukaryotes (protists), to illustrate how exaptation has shaped photoreception across the tree of life. Protist phylogeny attests to multiple origins of photoreception, as well as the extreme creativity of evolution. By appropriating genes and (...)
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  25. A Historical Taxonomy of Origin of Species Problems and Its Relevance to the Historiography of Evolutionary Thought.Koen Tanghe - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (4):927-987.
    Historians tend to speak of the problem of the origin of species or the species question, as if it were a monolithic problem. In reality, the phrase refers to a, historically, surprisingly fluid and pluriform scientific issue. It has, in the course of the past five centuries, been used in no less than ten different ways or contexts. A clear taxonomy of these separate problems is useful or relevant in two ways. It certainly helps to disentangle confusions that have inevitably (...)
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  26. Natural Selection, Adaptive Topographies and the Problem of Statistical Inference: The Moraba scurra Controversy Under the Microscope.Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (4):753-796.
    This paper gives a detailed narrative of a controversial empirical research in postwar population genetics, the analysis of the cytological polymorphisms of an Australian grasshopper, Moraba scurra. This research intertwined key technical developments in three research areas during the 1950s and 1960s: it involved Dobzhansky’s empirical research program on cytological polymorphisms, the mathematical theory of natural selection in two-locus systems, and the building of reliable estimates of natural selection in the wild. In the mid-1950s the cytologist Michael White discovered an (...)
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  27. From Pleistocene to Holocene: the prehistory of southwest Asia in evolutionary context.Trevor Watkins - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):22.
    In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, (...)
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  28. Cost, Expenditure and Vulnerability.David Kalkman, Carl Brusse & Justin Bruner - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (3):357-375.
    The handicap principle stipulates that signal reliability can be maintained if signals are costly to produce. Yet empirical biologists are typically unable to directly measure evolutionary costs, and instead appeal to expenditure as a sensible proxy. However the link between expenditure and cost is not always as straightforward as proponents of HP assume. We consider signaling interactions where whether the expenditure associated with signaling is converted into an evolutionary cost is in some sense dependent on the behavior of the intended (...)
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  29. Did Sex Chromosome Turnover Promote Divergence of the Major Mammal Groups?Jennifer A. M. Graves - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (8):734-743.
    Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male‐determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of (...)
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  30. Understanding Why We Age and How: Evolutionary Biology Meets Different Model Organisms and Multi-Level Omics.Eric Gilson & Thomas C. G. Bosch - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (6):494-497.
    The conference explored an extraordinary diversity of aging strategies in organisms ranging from short‐lived species to “immortal” animals and plants. Research on the biological processes of aging is at the brink of a revolution with respect to our understanding of its underlying mechanisms as well as our ability to prevent and cure a wide variety of age‐related pathologies.
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  31. Intracellular Evolution of Mitochondrial DNA and the Tragedy of the Cytoplasmic Commons.David Haig - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (6):549-555.
    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential (...)
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  32. Evolution of Strategies to Stay in the Game.J. Jokela & E. Haukioja - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):177-196.
    Life-history evolution is a complex process. Life-history theory covers the fundamental level of the process, the evolution of life-history traits. Life-history traits interact; those coevolving as a response to the same selection pressure form life-history tactics. Top level of the hierarchy, life-history strategy, is formed by genetically interconnected tactics. Our aim is to expand the traditional view to life-history evolutionby considering what boundary conditions a successful life-history strategy has to fulfil. We claim that the most fundamental condition successful strategies have (...)
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  33. Modularity, and the Psychoevolutionary Theory of Emotion.P. E. Griffiths - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (2):175.
    It is unreasonable to assume that our pre-scientific emotion vocabulary embodies all and only those distinctions required for a scientific psychology of emotion. The psychoevolutionary approach to emotion yields an alternative classification of certain emotion phenomena. The new categories are based on a set of evolved adaptive responses, or affect-programs, which are found in all cultures. The triggering of these responses involves a modular system of stimulus appraisal, whose evoluations may conflict with those of higher-level cognitive processes. Whilst the structure (...)
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  34. Mating Games: Cultural Evolution and Sexual Selection.A. Block & S. Dewitte - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):475-491.
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  35. The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution.Helen Cruz & Johan Smedt - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):351-368.
  36. Darwin and the Linguists: The Coevolution of Mind and Language, Part 1. Problematic Friends.Stephen G. Alter - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (3):573-584.
  37. The Handicap Principle and the Argument of Subversion From Within.Christian Baron - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):347-355.
    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using this set of debates as a case study, this paper argues that different applications of epistemic values were one of the factors behind the disagreements between John Maynard Smith and Amotz Zahavi over a number of important evolutionary issues. The paper also argues that these different applications (...)
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  38. Individuality, Subjectivity, and Minimal Cognition.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (6):775-796.
    The paper links discussions of two topics: biological individuality and the simplest forms of mentality. I discuss several attempts to locate the boundary between metabolic activity and ‘minimal cognition.’ I then look at differences between the kinds of individuality present in unicellular life, multicellular life in general, and animals of several kinds. Nervous systems, which are clearly relevant to cognition and subjectivity, also play an important role in the form of individuality seen in animals. The last part of the paper (...)
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  39. Turtles Are Not Just Walking Stones: Conspicuous Coloration and Sexual Selection in Freshwater Turtles.Jindřich Brejcha & Karel Kleisner - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (2):247-266.
    Turtles are among the most intriguing amniotes but their communication and signaling have rarely been studied. Traditionally, they have been seen as basically just silent armored ‘walking stones’ with complex physiology but no altruism, maternal care, or aesthetic perception. Recently, however, we have witnessed a radical change in the perception of turtle behavioral and cognitive skills. In our study, we start by reviewing some recent findings pertaining to various highly developed behavioral and cognitive patterns with special emphasis on turtles. Then (...)
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  40. The Adaptation of Man as a Socio-Natural Problem.Ekaterina V. Petrova - 2008 - Dialogue and Universalism 18 (11-12):151-162.
    Man is a biosocial entity, so, in the study of his adaptive peculiarities two directions, that is, biologic and social, can be determined. Within the biological framework it is possible to combine evolutionary, genetic, medical-biological and ecological investigations. Recently, the problem of man’s adaptation to profound changes taking place in the environment, under the impact of man’s activity, becomes of growing importance. The second direction of the man adaptation research may be called social or socio-cultural. In the course of social (...)
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  41. The Problems of Biological Design.Tim Lewens - 2005 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 56:14-15.
    Here is one way that philosophers and biologists sometimes speak of Darwin’s explanatory innovation: ‘Eyes, organs of echolocation, camouflage and the like are all wonderful instances of contrivance, of complex adaptation, of good design. Paley and the other natural theologians sought to explain this good design by appeal to an intelligent designer. Darwin, on the other hand, offers us a superior explanation for the appearance of this same property: Darwin shows us that we can explain good design through the action (...)
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  42. Is Increasing Autonomy a Factor of Evolution?Arantza Etxeberria - 2015 - Science & Education 24 (9-10):1257-1262.
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  43. Darwinism Without Populations: A More Inclusive Understanding of the “Survival of the Fittest”.Frédéric Bouchard - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):106-114.
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  44. Placental Endogenous Retrovirus : Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Significance.J. Robin Harris - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (4):307-316.
    That endogenous retrovirus (ERV) is present within the placenta of humans and other mammals has been known for the past 25 years, but the significance of this observation is still not fully understood. Much molecular biological data have emerged in recent years to support the earlier electron microscopic data on the presence of placental ERV. The evidence for ERV in animal and human placental tissue is presented, then integrated with data on the the presence of ERV in a range of (...)
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  45. The Preface to Darwin’s Origin of Species: The Curious History of the “Historical Sketch”.Curtis N. Johnson - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):529-556.
    Almost any modern reader's first encounter with Darwin's writing is likely to be the "Historical Sketch," inserted by Darwin as a preface to an early edition of the Origin of Species, and having since then appeared as the preface to every edition after the second English edition. The Sketch was intended by him to serve as a short "history of opinion" on the species question before he presented his own theory in the Origin proper. But the provenance of the "Historical (...)
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  46. Deconstructing Darwin: Evolutionary Theory in Context.David L. Hull - 2005 - Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):137-152.
    The topic of this paper is external versus internal explanations, first, of the genesis of evolutionary theory and, second, its reception. Victorian England was highly competitive and individualistic. So was the view of society promulgated by Malthus and the theory of evolution set out by Charles Darwin and A.R. Wallace. The fact that Darwin and Wallace independently produced a theory of evolution that was just as competitive and individualistic as the society in which they lived is taken as evidence for (...)
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  47. The Initial Reactions of French Biologists to Darwin's Origin of Species.John Farley - 1974 - Journal of the History of Biology 7 (2):275-300.
  48. Before the Crusade: Evolution in American Secondary Education Before 1920.Edward J. Larson - 1987 - Journal of the History of Biology 20 (1):89-114.
  49. On Fitness and Adaptedness and Their Role in Evolutionary Explanation.Richard E. Michod - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289-302.
  50. Biology and Ideology From Descartes to Dawkins.Denis R. Alexander & Ronald L. Numbers (eds.) - 2010 - University of Chicago Press.
    Over the course of human history, the sciences, and biology in particular, have often been manipulated to cause immense human suffering. For example, biology has been used to justify eugenic programs, forced sterilization, human experimentation, and death camps—all in an attempt to support notions of racial superiority. By investigating the past, the contributors to _Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins_ hope to better prepare us to discern ideological abuse of science when it occurs in the future. Denis R. Alexander (...)
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