About this topic
Summary

Experimental moral philosophy explores issues in ethics using empirical methods, such as surveys to investigate people’s judgments about particular moral issues, brain imagining to examine the neural bases of moral judgment, and behavioral experiments to examine how various factors influence people’s moral behavior.  A significant focus of this interdisciplinary work has been on people’s particular judgments concerning issues such as moral permissibility, moral responsibility, and moral relativism and on the roles of moral reasoning, moral intuitions, and moral emotions in our moral judgments.  Such empirical research can help support or challenge various ethical theories that rely on assumptions about human psychology. 

Key works

Key early works on the roles of reasoning, intuition, and emotion in moral judgment include Greene 2007, Haidt 2001, Cushman et al 2006, and Nichols & Mallon 2006.  Key studies of moral responsibility include Knobe 2003, Nichols & Knobe 2007, Nahmias et al 2005, Cushman 2008, and Young et al 2007

Introductions For an introduction to issues in experimental moral philosophy, see Doris & Group 2010, Knobe et al 2012, and Appiah 2008
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693 found
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Experimental Philosophy: Bioethics
  1. Genomic Privacy, Identity and Dignity.Shlomo Cohen & Ro'I. Zultan - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (5):317-322.
    Significant advancements towards a future of big data genomic medicine, associated with large-scale public dataset repositories, intensify dilemmas of genomic privacy. To resolve dilemmas adequately, we need to understand the relative force of the competing considerations that make them up. Attitudes towards genomic privacy are complex and not well understood; understanding is further complicated by the vague claim of ‘genetic exceptionalism’. In this paper, we distinguish between consequentialist and non-consequentialist privacy interests: while the former are concerned with harms secondary to (...)
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  2. Potentials of Experimental Bioethics.Koji Ota - 2021 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 54 (2):3-26.
    There is an emerging experimental trend in bioethics and neuroethics. We briefly review several topics in this trend and discuss how the existing and future studies can have normative implications related to bioethical/neuroethical issues. Particularly, we consider three major ways to draw such implications; (1) contributing to conceptual analysis and philosophical (counter-)evidence, (2) figuring out the unreliability of moral thinking and thereby providing a debunking argument, and (3) estimating the feasibility of ethical norms and policies.
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  3. Hit by the Virtual Trolley: When is Experimental Ethics Unethical?Jon Rueda - 2022 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):7-27.
    The trolley problem is one of the liveliest research frameworks in experimental ethics. In the last decade, social neuroscience and experimental moral psychology have gone beyond the studies with mere text-based hypothetical moral dilemmas. In this article, I present the rationale behind testing the actual behaviour in more realistic scenarios through Virtual Reality and summarize the body of evidence raised by the experiments with virtual trolley scenarios. Then, I approach the argument of Ramirez and LaBarge (2020), who claim that the (...)
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  4. Streamlined Versus Traditional Consent for Low-Risk Comparative Effectiveness Trials: A Randomized Experimental Study to Measure Patients' and Public Attitudes.Nancy Kass, Ruth Faden, Stephanie Morain, Kristina Hallez, Rebecca Stametz, Amanda Milo & Deserae Clarke - 2022 - Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research.
    Aim: Streamlining consent for low-risk comparative effectiveness research (CER) could facilitate research, while safeguarding patients' rights. Materials & methods: 2618 adults were randomized to one of seven consent approaches (six streamlined and one traditional) for a hypothetical, low-risk CER study. A survey measured understanding, voluntariness, and feelings of respect. Results: Participants in all arms had a high understanding of the trial and positive attitudes toward the consent interaction. Highest satisfaction was with a streamlined approach showing a video before the medical (...)
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  5. Exculpation and Stigma in Tourette Syndrome: An Experimental Philosophy Study.Jo Bervoets, Jarl K. Kampen & Kristien Hens - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-16.
    Purpose: There is a widespread recognition that biomedical explanations offer benefits to those diagnosed with a mental disorder. Recent research points out that such explanations may nevertheless have stigmatizing effects. In this study, this ‘mixed blessing’ account of biomedical explanations is investigated in a case of philosophical interest: Tourette Syndrome. Method: We conducted a vignette survey with 221 participants in which we first assessed quantitative attributions of blame as well as the desire for social distance for behavior associated with Tourette (...)
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  6. Pain Priors, Polyeidism, and Predictive Power: A Preliminary Investigation Into Individual Differences in Ordinary Thought About Pain.Emma Borg, Sarah Fisher, Nat Hansen, Rich Harrison, Tim Salomons, Deepak Ravindran & Harriet Wilkinson - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3):113-135.
    According to standard philosophical and clinical understandings, pain is an essentially mental phenomenon. In a challenge to this standard conception, a recent burst of empirical work in experimental philosophy, such as that by Justin Sytsma and Kevin Reuter, purports to show that people ordinarily conceive of pain as an essentially bodily phenomenon—specifically, a quality of bodily disturbance. In response to this bodily view, other recent experimental studies have provided evidence that the ordinary concept of pain is more complex than previously (...)
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  7. A plea for an experimental philosophy of medicine.Andreas De Block & Kristien Hens - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3):81-89.
  8. Experimental philosophy of medicine and the concepts of health and disease.Walter Veit - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3):169-186.
    If one had to identify the biggest change within the philosophical tradition in the twenty-first century, it would certainly be the rapid rise of experimental philosophy to address differences in intuitions about concepts. It is, therefore, surprising that the philosophy of medicine has so far not drawn on the tools of experimental philosophy in the context of a particular conceptual debate that has overshadowed all others in the field: the long-standing dispute between so-called naturalists and normativists about the concepts of (...)
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  9. Experimental Philosophical Bioethics of Personal Identity.Brian D. Earp, Jonathan Lewis, J. Skorburg, Ivar Hannikainen & Jim A. C. Everett - forthcoming - In Kevin P. Tobia (ed.), Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 183-202.
    The question of what makes someone the same person through time and change has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. In recent years, the question of what makes ordinary or lay people (that is, individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, including non-philosophers) judge that someone is – or isn’t – the same person has caught the interest of experimental psychologists. These latter, empirically oriented researchers have sought to understand the cognitive processes and eliciting factors that shape ordinary people’s judgments (...)
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  10. An Experimental Philosophical Bioethical Study of How Human Rights Are Applied to Clitorectomy on Infants Identified as Female and as Intersex.Annette Smith & Peter Hegarty - 2020 - Culture, Health and Sexuality 23 (4):548-563.
    Clitorectomies performed on the genitals of infants identified as female and as intersex have been described both as similar procedures and as different procedures. The former types of surgery have been recognised more consistently as human rights abuses than the latter in recent decades. We tested social psychological explanations of why human rights are differently recognised when infants are described as 'intersex' or 'female'; 122 laypeople in the UK read one of two near-identical descriptions of clitorectomies performed on intersex or (...)
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  11. Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Kneer & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Cognition and Emotion 8.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did not stem (...)
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  12. Moral Awareness of College Students Regarding Artificial Intelligence.Manh Tung Ho & Nader Ghotbi - 2021 - Asian Bioethics Review 13 (4):421-433.
    To evaluate the moral awareness of college students regarding artificial intelligence systems, we have examined 467 surveys collected from 152 Japanese and 315 non-Japanese students in an international university in Japan. The students were asked to choose a most significant moral problem of AI applications in the future from a list of ten ethical issues and to write an essay about it. The results show that most of the students considered unemployment to be the major ethical issue related to AI. (...)
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  13. Assessing Ethical Reasoning Among Junior British Army Officers Using the Army Intermediate Concept Measure.David I. Walker, Stephen J. Thoma & James Arthur - 2021 - Journal of Military Ethics 20 (1):2-20.
    Army Officers face increased moral pressure in modern warfare, where character judgement and ethical judgement are vital. This article reports the results of a study of 242 junior British Army offi...
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  14. Absolutely Right and Relatively Good: Consequentialists See Bioethical Disagreement in a Relativist Light.Hugo Viciana, Ivar R. Hannikainen & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2021 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 12 (3):190-205.
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  15. Measuring the Quality of Life in Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals.Michael Büsselmann, Larissa Titze, Maximilian Lutz, Manuela Dudeck & Judith Streb - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: In Germany, a large proportion of mentally ill offenders spends many years in a forensic psychiatric hospital. To ensure that the highly restrictive living conditions in these closed institutions meet patient needs, research must assess and analyze patient quality of life. For this purpose, we adapted the Measuring the Quality of Prison Life questionnaire to measure the quality of life in forensic psychiatric hospitals from the patient perspective. This study aimed to assess the reliability and construct validity of the (...)
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  16. Is the Phenomenological Overflow Argument Really Supported by Subjective Reports?Florian Cova, Maxence Gaillard & François Kammerer - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (3):422-450.
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  17. Feeling the Right Way: Normative Influences on People's Use of Emotion Concepts.Rodrigo Díaz & Kevin Reuter - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (3):451-470.
    It is generally assumed that emotion concepts are purely descriptive. However, recent investigations suggest that the concept of happiness includes information about the morality of the agent's life. In this study, we argue that normative influences on emotion concepts are not restricted to happiness and are not about moral norms. In a series of studies, we show that emotion attribution is influenced by whether the agent's psychological and bodily states fit the situation in which they are experienced. People consider that (...)
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  18. Reactance, Morality, and Disgust: The Relationship Between Affective Dispositions and Compliance with Official Health Recommendations During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Rodrigo Díaz & Florian Cova - 2021 - Cognition and Emotion (1).
    Emergency situations require individuals to make important changes in their behavior. In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, official recommendations to avoid the spread of the virus include costly behaviors such as self-quarantining or drastically diminishing social contacts. Compliance (or lack thereof) with these recommendations is a controversial and divisive topic, and lay hypotheses abound regarding what underlies this divide. This paper investigates which cognitive, moral, and emotional traits separate people who comply with official recommendations from those who don't. In (...)
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  19. The End of the ‘Bad Seed’ Era? Epigenetics’ Contribution to Violence Prevention Initiatives in Public Health.Anna Meurer - 2021 - The New Bioethics 27 (2):159-175.
    Despite numerous initiatives and significant resource investment, violence remains a pervasive threat to public health. The burgeoning field of epigenetics may offer an exciting new possibility for violence prevention efforts by illuminating the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions. In particular, it may improve our ability to design more effective primary interventions, facilitate improved intervention tailoring, and better position communities to be active agents in their well-being. However, without attention to the distinction between awareness, self-efficacy, and agency, it risks encouraging a false (...)
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  20. Self-Interested Framed and Prosocially Framed Messaging Can Equally Promote COVID-19 Prevention Intention: A Replication and Extension of Jordan Et Al.'s Study (2020) in the Japanese Context. [REVIEW]Takeru Miyajima & Fumio Murakami - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    How can we effectively promote the public’s prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection? Jordan et al. found with United States samples that emphasizing either self-interest or collective-interest of prevention behaviors could promote the public’s prevention intention. Moreover, prosocially framed messaging was more effective in motivating prevention intention than self-interested messaging. A dual consideration of both cultural psychology and the literature on personalized matching suggests the findings of Jordan et al. are counterintuitive, because persuasion is most effective when the frame of (...)
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  21. Perceiving Utilitarian Gradients: Heart Rate Variability and Self-Regulatory Effort in the Moral Dilemma Task.Alejandro Rosas, Juan Pablo Bermúdez, Jorge Martínez Cotrina, David Aguilar-Pardo, Juan Carlos Caicedo Mera & Diego Mauricio Aponte - 2021 - Social Neuroscience 16 (4):391–405.
    It is not yet clear which response behavior requires self-regulatory effort in the moral dilemma task. Previous research has proposed that utilitarian responses require cognitive control, but subsequent studies have found inconsistencies with the empirical predictions of that hypothesis. In this paper we treat participants’ sensitivity to utilitarian gradients as a measure of performance. We confronted participants (N = 82) with a set of five dilemmas evoking a gradient of mean utilitarian responses in a 4-point scale and collected data on (...)
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  22. Trends in Swedish Physicians’ Attitudes Towards Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Cross-Sectional Study.Niklas Juth, Mikael Sandlund, Ingemar Engström, Anna Lindblad & Niels Lynøe - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-9.
    AimsTo examine attitudes towards physician-assisted suicide among physicians in Sweden and compare these with the results from a similar cross-sectional study performed in 2007.ParticipantsA random selection of 250 physicians from each of six specialties and all 127 palliative care physicians in Sweden were invited to participate in this study.SettingA postal questionnaire commissioned by the Swedish Medical Society in collaboration with Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. ResultsThe total response rate was 59.2%. Slightly fewer than half [47.1% ] of the respondents from the (...)
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  23. “Let’s Test Crazy Ideas!” A Laboratory for Experimental Bioethics.Sihem Neil Abtroun & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (6):57-58.
    In their article, Pavarani and colleagues offer a vision of evolutionary bioethics that focuses on innovation and empirical research as a means to enrich the field of bioethics. Empirical bi...
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  24. Advancing Methods in Empirical Bioethics: Bioxphi Meets Digital Technologies.Brian D. Earp, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Emilian Mihailov - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (6):53-56.
    Historically, empirical research in bioethics has drawn on methods developed within the social sciences, including qualitative interviews, focus groups, ethnographic studies, and opinion surveys, t...
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  25. How Pills Undermine Skills: Moralization of Cognitive Enhancement and Causal Selection.Emilian Mihailov, Blanca Rodríguez López, Florian Cova & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 91:103120.
    Despite the promise to boost human potential and wellbeing, enhancement drugs face recurring ethical scrutiny. The present studies examined attitudes toward cognitive enhancement in order to learn more about these ethical concerns, who has them, and the circumstances in which they arise. Fairness-based concerns underlay opposition to competitive use—even though enhancement drugs were described as legal, accessible and affordable. Moral values also influenced how subsequent rewards were causally explained: Opposition to competitive use reduced the causal contribution of the enhanced winner’s (...)
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  26. Do Moral Development Levels of the Nurses Affect Their Ethical Decision Making? A Descriptive Correlational Study.Sümeyye Arslan, Sinem Türer Öztik & Nevin Kuzu Kurban - 2021 - Clinical Ethics 16 (1):9-16.
    Background In the globalizing world, nurses often meet humans from different cultures and values. This fact has led them to make ethical decisions, which do not comply with their own moral jurisdictions at care setting. Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between moral development levels of the nurses and their scores of nursing principled thinking and practical consideration during decision making for ethical dilemmas. Methods This was a descriptive correlational study. Nursing Dilemma Test, Moral Development (...)
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  27. Experimental Philosophy of Medicine and the Concepts of Health and Disease.Walter Veit - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-18.
    If one had to identify the biggest change within the philosophical tradition in the twenty-first century, it would certainly be the rapid rise of experimental philosophy to address differences in intuitions about concepts. It is, therefore, surprising that the philosophy of medicine has so far not drawn on the tools of experimental philosophy in the context of a particular conceptual debate that has overshadowed all others in the field: the long-standing dispute between so-called naturalists and normativists about the concepts of (...)
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  28. Experimental Philosophical Bioethics and Normative Inference.Brian D. Earp, Jonathan Lewis, Vilius Dranseika & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3-4):91-111.
    This paper explores an emerging sub-field of both empirical bioethics and experimental philosophy, which has been called “experimental philosophical bioethics” (bioxphi). As an empirical discipline, bioxphi adopts the methods of experimental moral psychology and cognitive science; it does so to make sense of the eliciting factors and underlying cognitive processes that shape people’s moral judgments, particularly about real-world matters of bioethical concern. Yet, as a normative discipline situated within the broader field of bioethics, it also aims to contribute to substantive (...)
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  29. Personal Transformation and Advance Directives: An Experimental Bioethics Approach.Brian D. Earp, Stephen R. Latham & Kevin P. Tobia - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):72-75.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 72-75.
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  30. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making.Nora Heinzelmann, Giuseppe Ugazio & Philippe Tobler - 2012 - Frontiers in Neuroscience 6:94.
    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, (...)
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  31. Is the Unexamined Professional Life Worth Practicing? Factors Influencing Ethical Practice in Psychologists.Shruti Venkatesh & Peter Lovibond - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (5):326-341.
    One way to improve ethical standards and competency of psychologists is by understanding how they respond to ethical dilemmas. This study asked psychologists to choose what they would do and what would be the worst thing to do in response to each of 20 vignettes describing an ethically difficult scenario. Participants were 95 registered psychologists practicing in an Australian state. Normative responses for “would” and “worst” responses were defined by a reference group of five psychologists experienced in professional ethics. The (...)
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  32. How Do People Use ‘Killing’, ‘Letting Die’ and Related Bioethical Concepts? Contrasting Descriptive and Normative Hypotheses.David Rodríguez‐Arias, Blanca Rodríguez López, Anibal Monasterio‐Astobiza & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):509-518.
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  33. Medical Students’ Exposure to Ethics Conflicts in Clinical Training: Implications for Timing UME Bioethics Education.S. D. Stites, S. Rodriguez, C. Dudley & A. Fiester - 2020 - HEC Forum 32 (2):85-97.
    While there is significant consensus that undergraduate medical education should include bioethics training, there is widespread debate about how to teach bioethics to medical students. Educators disagree about course methods and approaches, the topics that should be covered, and the effectiveness and metrics for UME ethics training. One issue that has received scant attention is the timing of bioethics education during medical training. The existing literature suggests that most medical ethics education occurs in the pre-clinical years. Follow-up studies indicate that (...)
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  34. Minds, Brains, and Hearts: An Empirical Study on Pluralism Concerning Death Determination.Vilius Dranseika & Ivars Neiders - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):35-48.
    Several authors in bioethics literature have expressed the view that a whole brain conception of death is philosophically indefensible. If they are right, what are the alternatives? Some authors have suggested that we should go back to the old cardiopulmonary criterion of death and abandon the so-called Dead Donor Rule. Others argue for a pluralist solution. For example, Robert Veatch has defended a view that competent persons should be free to decide which criterion of death should be used to determine (...)
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  35. Deciding When a Life is Not Worth Living: An Imperative to Measure What Matters.Monica E. Lemmon - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (1):18-19.
    As a neonatal neurologist, I serve families facing tragic decisions in which they must balance trade-offs between death and life with profound disability. I often find myself in complex discussions about future outcome, in which families sort through in real-time what information they value most in making such a choice. Will he laugh? Will he be in pain? Will he know how much he’s loved? In this month’s feature article, Brick et al share the results of an online survey aimed (...)
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  36. What Do Students Perceive as Ethical Problems? A Comparative Study of Dutch and Indonesian Medical Students in Clinical Training.Amalia Muhaimin, Derk Ludolf Willems, Adi Utarini & Maartje Hoogsteyns - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (4):391-408.
    Previous studies show that medical students in clinical training face ethical problems that are not often discussed in the literature. In order to make teaching timely and relevant for them, it is important to understand what medical students perceive as ethical problems, as various factors may influence their perception, including cultural differences and working environment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore students’ perceptions of what an ethical problem is, during their clinical training in the hospital, and compare (...)
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  37. Ethical Concerns with the Use of Intelligent Assistive Technology: Findings From a Qualitative Study with Professional Stakeholders.Tenzin Wangmo, Mirjam Lipps, Reto W. Kressig & Marcello Ienca - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-11.
    Background Advances in artificial intelligence, robotics and wearable computing are creating novel technological opportunities for mitigating the global burden of population ageing and improving the quality of care for older adults with dementia and/or age-related disability. Intelligent assistive technology is the umbrella term defining this ever-evolving spectrum of intelligent applications for the older and disabled population. However, the implementation of IATs has been observed to be sub-optimal due to a number of barriers in the translation of novel applications from the (...)
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  38. Do Publics Share Experts’ Concerns About Brain–Computer Interfaces? A Trinational Survey on the Ethics of Neural Technology.Matthew Sample, Sebastian Sattler, David Rodriguez-Arias, Stefanie Blain-Moraes & Eric Racine - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 2019 (6):1242-1270.
    Since the 1960s, scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals have developed brain–computer interface (BCI) technologies, connecting the user’s brain activity to communication or motor devices. This new technology has also captured the imagination of publics, industry, and ethicists. Academic ethics has highlighted the ethical challenges of BCIs, although these conclusions often rely on speculative or conceptual methods rather than empirical evidence or public engagement. From a social science or empirical ethics perspective, this tendency could be considered problematic and even technocratic because (...)
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  39. From X-Phi to Bioxphi: Lessons in Conceptual Analysis 2.0.Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 11 (1):34-36.
    Recent developments in experimental philosophy (‘x-phi’) suggest that there is a new way in which the empirical and normative dimensions of bioethics can be brought into successful dialogue with one another. It revolves around conceptual analysis – though not the kind of conceptual analysis one might perform in an armchair. Following Édouard Machery, this is Conceptual Analysis Rebooted. In short, morally-pertinent medical concepts like ‘treatment’, ‘euthanasia’ and ‘sanctity of life’ can each have several meanings that underwrite inferences with different moral (...)
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  40. Addiction, Identity, Morality.Brian D. Earp, Joshua August Skorburg, Jim A. C. Everett & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 10 (2):136-153.
    Background: Recent literature on addiction and judgments about the characteristics of agents has focused on the implications of adopting a ‘brain disease’ versus ‘moral weakness’ model of addiction. Typically, such judgments have to do with what capacities an agent has (e.g., the ability to abstain from substance use). Much less work, however, has been conducted on the relationship between addiction and judgments about an agent’s identity, including whether or to what extent an individual is seen as the same person after (...)
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  41. Human Decisions in Moral Dilemmas Are Largely Described by Utilitarianism: Virtual Car Driving Study Provides Guidelines for Autonomous Driving Vehicles.Anja K. Faulhaber, Anke Dittmer, Felix Blind, Maximilian A. Wächter, Silja Timm, Leon R. Sütfeld, Achim Stephan, Gordon Pipa & Peter König - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):399-418.
    Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles. We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments. Participants had to make decisions between (...)
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  42. What we (Should) Talk about when we Talk about Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity.Robyn Bluhm, Laura Cabrera & Rachel McKenzie - 2020 - Neuroethics 13 (3):289-301.
    A number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists (...)
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  43. Nudging in the Clinic: The Ethical Implications of Differences in Doctors’ and Patients’ Point of View.David Avitzour & Ittay Nissan-Rozen - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):183-189.
    There is an extensive ethical debate regarding the justifiability of doctors nudging towards healthy behaviour and better health-related choices. One line of argument in favour of nudging is based on empirical findings, according to which a healthy majority among the public support nudges. In this paper, we show, based on an experiment we conducted, that, in health-related choices, people’s ethical attitudes to nudging are strongly affected by the point of view from which the nudge is considered. Significant differences have been (...)
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  44. Mapping Bioethics in Latin America: History, Theoretical Models, and Scientific Output.Lucas F. Garcia, Marcia S. Fernandes, Jonathan D. Moreno & Jose R. Goldim - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (3):323-331.
    Objective: To present a narrative review of the history of bioethics in Latin America and of scientific output in this interdisciplinary field. Methods: This was a mixed-methods study. Results: A total of 1458 records were retrieved, of which 1167 met the inclusion criteria. According to the Web of Science classification, the predominant topics of study were medical ethics, social sciences and medicine, and environmental and public health topics. Four themes of bioethics output in the Latin American literature have emerged: issues (...)
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  45. Top 10 Health Care Ethics Challenges Facing the Public: Views of Toronto Bioethicists.Bell Jennifer, K. MacRae Susan, M. Breslin Jonathan & A. Singer Peter - 2005 - BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):5.
    Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. (...)
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  46. In Defense of a Pluralistic Policy on the Determination of Death.Ivars Neiders & Vilius Dranseika - 2018 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 8 (3-4):179-188.
    In his paper “The challenge of brain death for the sanctity of life ethic”, Peter Singer advocates two options for dealing with death criteria in a way that is compatible with efficient organ transplantation policy. He suggests that we should either redefine death as cortical death or go back to the old cardiopulmonary criterion and scrap the Dead Donor Rule. We welcome Singer’s line of argument but raise some concerns about the practicability of the two alternatives advocated by him. We (...)
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  47. Parents’ Attitudes Toward Consent and Data Sharing in Biobanks: A Multisite Experimental Survey.Armand H. Matheny Antommaria, Kyle B. Brothers, John A. Myers, Yana B. Feygin, Sharon A. Aufox, Murray H. Brilliant, Pat Conway, Stephanie M. Fullerton, Nanibaa’ A. Garrison, Carol R. Horowitz, Gail P. Jarvik, Rongling Li, Evette J. Ludman, Catherine A. McCarty, Jennifer B. McCormick, Nathaniel D. Mercaldo, Melanie F. Myers, Saskia C. Sanderson, Martha J. Shrubsole, Jonathan S. Schildcrout, Janet L. Williams, Maureen E. Smith, Ellen Wright Clayton & Ingrid A. Holm - 2018 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 9 (3):128-142.
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  48. The Experimental Psychology of Moral Enhancement: We Should If We Could, But We Can't.Sylvia Terbeck & Kathryn B. Francis - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 83:313-328.
    In this chapter we will review experimental evidence related to pharmacological moral enhancement. Firstly, we will present our recent study in which we found that a drug called propranolol could change moral judgements. Further research, which also investigated this, found similar results. Secondly, we will discuss the limitations of such approaches, when it comes to the idea of general “human enhancement”. Whilst promising effects on certain moral concepts might be beneficial to the development of theoretical moral psychology, enhancement of human (...)
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  49. Using Experience Sampling to Examine Links Between Compassion, Eudaimonia, and Prosocial Behavior.Jason D. Runyan, Brian N. Fry, Timothy A. Steenbergh, Nathan L. Arbuckle, Kristen Dunbar & Erin E. Devers - 2019 - Journal of Personality 87 (3):690-701.
    Objective: Compassion has been associated with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior, and has been regarded as a virtue, both historically and cross-culturally. However, the psychological study of compassion has been limited to laboratory settings and/or standard survey assessments. Here, we use an experience sampling method (ESM) to compare naturalistic assessments of compassion with standard assessments, and to examine compassion, its variability, and associations with eudaimonia and prosocial behavior. -/- Methods: Participants took a survey which included standard assessments of compassion and eudaimonia. (...)
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  50. Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology.Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (2):131-164.
    Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutili- tarian modes of moral decision-making. This research has generated important insights into people’s attitudes toward instrumental harm—that is, the sacrifice of an individual to save a greater number. But this approach also has serious limitations. Most notably, it ignores the positive, altruistic core of utilitarianism, which is characterized by impartial concern for the well-being of everyone, whether near or far. Here, we develop, refine, and validate a (...)
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