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1 — 50 / 221
  1. added 2018-12-03
    A Fistful of Tips for a Fruitful High Throughput Sequencing Experiment.José L. Lavín, Mirian Sánchez-Morán, Laura Bárcena, Ana R. Cortazar, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Monika González & Ana M. Aransay - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (5):1700037.
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  2. added 2018-09-16
    Criticizing a Difference of Contexts: On Reichenbach’s Distincition Between “Context of Discovery” and “Context of Justification”.Gregor Schiemann - 2002 - In Schickore J. & Steinle F. (eds.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Max-Planck-Institut. pp. 237-251.
    With his distinction between the "context of discovery" and the "context of justification", Hans Reichenbach gave the traditional difference between genesis and validity a modern standard formulation. Reichenbach's distinction is one of the well-known ways in which the expression "context" is used in the theory of science. My argument is that Reichenbach's concept is unsuitable and leads to contradictions in the semantic fields of genesis and validity. I would like to demonstrate this by examining the different meanings of Reichenbach's context (...)
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  3. added 2018-08-02
    Why Experiments Matter.Adrian Currie & Arnon Levy - 2018 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-25.
    Traditionally, experimentation is considered a privileged means of confirmation. However, how experiments are a better confirmatory source than other strategies is unclear, and recent discussions have identified experiments with various modeling strategies on the one hand, and with ‘natural’ experiments on the other hand. We argue that experiments aiming to test theories are best understood as controlled investigations of specimens. ‘Control’ involves repeated, fine-grained causal manipulation of focal properties. This capacity generates rich knowledge of the object investigated. ‘Specimenhood’ involves possessing (...)
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  4. added 2018-06-09
    Hypocretin Regulates Brain Reward Function and Cocaine Consumption in Rats.Benjamin Boutrel, Paul J. Kenny, Cory Wright, R. Winsky, S. Specio, George Koob, Athina Markou & L. De Lecea - 2003 - Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 29:879.7.
    Hypocretin regulates brain reward function and cocaine consumption in rats. The hypocretinergic (Hcrt) system is implicated in energy homeostasis, feeding and sleep regulation. Hypocretinergic cell bodies are located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and project throughout the brain. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the role of the Hcrt system in regulating brain reward function and the reinforcing properties of cocaine in rats. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds provide an accurate measure of brain reward function in rats. Here (...)
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  5. added 2018-06-09
    The Effect of Blockade of NMDA and Metabotropic Glutamate5 (mGluR5) Receptors in Nicotine-Dependent Rats.Paul J. Kenny, Cory Wright, F. Gasparini & Athina Markou - 2003 - Behavioural Pharmacology 12 (1):S52.
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  6. added 2018-06-09
    Stimulation of mGluR2/3 Receptors Precipitates Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats: Role of mGluR5 and NMDA Receptors.Paul J. Kenny, Cory Wright, Fabrizio Gasparini & Athina Markou - 2001 - Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27:376.2.
    Elevations in brain stimulation reward (BSR) thresholds have been observed in rats undergoing nicotine withdrawal and have been proposed as a sensitive measure of the negative affective state associated with nicotine withdrawal. mGluR are presynaptic autoreceptors that decrease glutamate release when stimulated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of glutamate neurotransmission in nicotine dependence. The mGluR agonist LY314582 (2.5–7.5 mg/kg) precipitated nicotine withdrawal as measured by elevations in BSR thresholds in nicotine-treated rats but not in controls. (...)
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  7. added 2018-06-08
    Disposition Impossible.C. S. Jenkins & Daniel Nolan - 2012 - Noûs 46 (4):732-753.
  8. added 2018-03-15
    Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meeting Objectivity and Logic.Fred Grinnell - 2009 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
  9. added 2018-02-16
    Pragmatic Warrant for Frequentist Statistical Practice: The Case of High Energy Physics.Kent Staley - 2017 - Synthese 194 (2).
    Amidst long-running debates within the field, high energy physics has adopted a statistical methodology that primarily employs standard frequentist techniques such as significance testing and confidence interval estimation, but incorporates Bayesian methods for limited purposes. The discovery of the Higgs boson has drawn increased attention to the statistical methods employed within HEP. Here I argue that the warrant for the practice in HEP of relying primarily on frequentist methods can best be understood as pragmatic, in the sense that statistical methods (...)
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  10. added 2018-02-16
    On the Identity of Thought Experiments: Thought Experiments Rethought.Alisa Bokulich & Mélanie Frappier - 2017 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach J. H. Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. Routledge.
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  11. added 2018-02-16
    Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1997 - Routledge.
    _Brute Science_ investigates whether biomedical research using animals is, in fact, scientifically justified. Hugh LaFollette and Niall Shanks examine the issues in scientific terms using the models that scientists themselves use. They argue that we need to reassess our use of animals and, indeed, rethink the standard positions in the debate.
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  12. added 2018-02-12
    Optogenetics, Pluralism, and Progress.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (00):1090-1101.
    Optogenetic techniques are described as “revolutionary” for the unprecedented causal control they allow neuroscientists to exert over neural activity in awake behaving animals. In this paper, I demonstrate by means of a case study that optogenetic techniques will only illuminate causal links between the brain and behavior to the extent that their error characteristics are known and, further, that determining these error characteristics requires comparison of optogenetic techniques with techniques having well known error characteristics and consideration of the broader neural (...)
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  13. added 2018-02-12
    Judging Mechanistic Neuroscience: A Preliminary Conceptual-Analytic Framework for Evaluating Scientific Evidence in the Courtroom.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan & Emily Baron - 2018 - Psychology, Crime and Law (00):00-00.
    The use of neuroscientific evidence in criminal trials has been steadily increasing. Despite progress made in recent decades in understanding the mechanisms of psychological and behavioral functioning, neuroscience is still in an early stage of development and its potential for influencing legal decision-making is highly contentious. Scholars disagree about whether or how neuroscientific evidence might impact prescriptions of criminal culpability, particularly in instances in which evidence of an accused’s history of mental illness or brain abnormality is offered to support a (...)
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  14. added 2017-12-22
    Functional Equivalence of Masking and Cue Reduction in Perception of Shape at a Slant.William Epstein & Gary Hatfield - 1978 - Perception and Psychophysics 23 (2):137-144.
    In a backward masking paradigm Epstein, Hatfield, and Muise (1977) found that presentation of a frontoparallel pattern mask caused the perceived shape of elliptical figures which were rotated in depth to conform to a projective shape function. The current study extended the masking function by examining the effect of a mask which was partially or wholly cotemporal with the target. The study also assessed the functional equivalence of the masking treatment and the conventional treatment for minimizing depth information. Reports of (...)
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  15. added 2017-12-22
    The Locus of Masking Shape-at-a-Slant.William Epstein & Gary Hatfield - 1978 - Perception and Psychophysics 24 (6):501-504.
    Twelve subjects provided shape and orientation judgments for a set of projectively equivalent, variously rotated rectangles under three viewing conditions—monoptic, dichoptic, and binocular—with and without the presence of a pattern mask. In the absence of the mask, partial constancy was exhibited under the first two conditions and near perfect constancy under the binocular condition. Orientation was discriminated. Presence of the mask produced projective shape matching and diminished orientation discrimination. It is argued that the site of masking was postchiasmal, and the (...)
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  16. added 2017-12-18
    Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Jeff Kochan - 2017 - Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.
    Review: 'Half an original interpretation of Heidegger's early work and half an attempt to buttress the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) with a more philosophically rigorous grounding, Science as Social Existence will be of interest not only to Heidegger scholars but to anyone engaged in science and technology studies. [...] This is an informative and original book. Kochan should be praised for his clear, pleasant-to-read prose.' (Michael Butler, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, for CHOICE).
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  17. added 2017-12-08
    Annual Modulation Experiments, Galactic Models and WIMPs.Robert G. Hudson - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):97-119.
  18. added 2017-12-08
    Annual Modulation Experiments, Galactic Models and WIMPs.Robert G. Hudson - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):97-119.
  19. added 2017-12-03
    Einstein, Michelson, and the "Crucial" Experiment.Gerald Holton - 1969 - Isis 60 (2):133-197.
  20. added 2017-12-01
    How the Models of Chemistry Vie.James R. Hofmann - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:405 - 419.
    Building upon Nancy Cartwright's discussion of models in How the Laws of Physics Lie, this paper addresses solid state research in transition metal oxides. Historical analysis reveals that in this domain models function both as the culmination of phenomenology and the commencement of theoretical explanation. Those solid state chemists who concentrate on the description of phenomena pertinent to specific elements or compounds assess models according to different standards than those who seek explanation grounded in approximate applications of the Schroedinger equation. (...)
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  21. added 2017-11-25
    Philosophy and Experimental Physics.Karl Herzfeld - 1952 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 26:54-61.
  22. added 2017-11-11
    Ontology-Based Knowledge Representation of Experiment Metadata in Biological Data Mining.Scheuermann Richard, Kong Megan, Dahlke Carl, Cai Jennifer, Lee Jamie, Qian Yu, Squires Burke, Dunn Patrick, Wiser Jeff, Hagler Herb, Herb Hagler, Barry Smith & David Karp - 2009 - In Jake Chen & Stefano Lonardi (eds.), Biological Data Mining. Boca Raton: Chapman Hall / Taylor and Francis. pp. 529-559.
    According to the PubMed resource from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, over 750,000 scientific articles have been published in the ~5000 biomedical journals worldwide in the year 2007 alone. The vast majority of these publications include results from hypothesis-driven experimentation in overlapping biomedical research domains. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of information being generated by the biomedical research enterprise has made it virtually impossible for investigators to stay aware of the latest findings in their domain of interest, let alone to (...)
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  23. added 2017-11-05
    A Methodological Problem in Rheology: I: Experimental Evidence on the Rheology of Complex Alloys and its Philosophical Significance.A. GrAseam, G. W. Scoot Blair & And R. F. J. Withers - 1961 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11 (44):265-280.
  24. added 2017-10-31
    Everything You Did Not Necessarily Want to Know About Gravitational Waves. And Why.Yves Gingras - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (1):268-282.
  25. added 2017-10-26
    The Discovery and Nondiscovery of Parity Nonconservation.Allan Franklin - 1979 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10 (3):201-257.
  26. added 2017-10-13
    Corpuscles, Electrons and Cathode Rays: J.J. Thomson and the ‘Discovery of the Electron’.Isobel Falconer - 1987 - British Journal for the History of Science 20 (3):241-276.
    On 30 April, 1897, J. J. Thomson announced the results of his previous four months' experiments on cathode rays. The rays, he suggested, were negatively charged subatomic particles. He called the particles ‘corpuscles’. They have since been re-named ‘electrons’ and Thomson has been hailed as their ‘discoverer’. Contrary to the accounts of most later writers, I show that this discovery was not the outcome of a concern with the nature of cathode rays which had occupied Thomson since 1881 and had (...)
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  27. added 2017-10-13
    Scientific Method.James Kern Feibleman - 1972 - The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
  28. added 2017-10-13
    Scientific Method. The Hypothetico-Experimental Laboratory Procedure of the Physical Sciences. --.James Kern Feibleman - 1972 - M. Nijhoff.
  29. added 2017-10-11
    Duhemian Themes in Expected Utility Theory.Philippe Mongin - 2009 - In Anastasios Brenner and Jean Gayon (ed.), French Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 303-357.
    This monographic chapter explains how expected utility (EU) theory arose in von Neumann and Morgenstern, how it was called into question by Allais and others, and how it gave way to non-EU theories, at least among the specialized quarters of decion theory. I organize the narrative around the idea that the successive theoretical moves amounted to resolving Duhem-Quine underdetermination problems, so they can be assessed in terms of the philosophical recommendations made to overcome these problems. I actually follow Duhem's recommendation, (...)
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  30. added 2017-09-25
    Foundations of Science.Norman Robert Campbell - 1920 - New York: Dover Publications.
  31. added 2017-09-01
    Recipes for Science: An Introduction to Scientific Methods and Reasoning.Angela Potochnik, Matteo Colombo & Cory Wright - 2018 - New York: Routledge.
    There is widespread recognition at universities that a proper understanding of science is needed for all undergraduates. Good jobs are increasingly found in fields related to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Medicine, and science now enters almost all aspects of our daily lives. For these reasons, scientific literacy and an understanding of scientific methodology are a foundational part of any undergraduate education. Recipes for Science provides an accessible introduction to the main concepts and methods of scientific reasoning. With the help of (...)
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  32. added 2017-08-27
    The ImmPort Antibody Ontology.William Duncan, Travis Allen, Jonathan Bona, Olivia Helfer, Barry Smith, Alan Ruttenberg & Alexander D. Diehl - 2016 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Biological Ontology 1747.
    Monoclonal antibodies are essential biomedical research and clinical reagents that are produced by companies and research laboratories. The NIAID ImmPort (Immunology Database and Analysis Portal) resource provides a long-term, sustainable data warehouse for immunological data generated by NIAID, DAIT and DMID funded investigators for data archiving and re-use. A variety of immunological data is generated using techniques that rely upon monoclonal antibody reagents, including flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA. In order to facilitate querying, integration, and reuse of data, standardized terminology (...)
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  33. added 2017-07-12
    Experimental Knowledge and the Theory of Producing It: Hermann von Helmholtz.Gregor Schiemann - 2008 - In U. Feest & G. Hon (eds.), Generating Experimental Knowledge. Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.
    Helmholtz's public reflection about the nature of the experiment and its role in the sciences is a historically important description, which also helps to analyze his own works. It is a part of his conception of science and nature, which can be seen as an ideal type of science and its goals. But its historical reach seems to be limited in an important respect. Helmholtz's understanding of experiments is based on the idea that their planning, realization and evaluation lies in (...)
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  34. added 2017-07-04
    Theory and Observation: The Experimental Nexus.David Gooding - 1990 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (2):131 – 148.
    Abstract Philosophical discussions of experiment usually focus exclusively on testing predictions. In this paper I compare G. Morpurgo's experimental test of the Gell?Mann/ Zweig quark hypothesis with two neglected uses of experiment: constructing representations of new phenomena and inventing the instruments that produce such phenomena. These roles are illustrated by J. B. Biot's 1821 observations of electromagnetism and by Michael Faraday's invention of the first electromagnetic motor, also in 1821. The comparison identifies similarities between observation and experiment, showing how both (...)
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  35. added 2017-06-14
    Imagination: A Sine Qua Non of Science.Michael T. Stuart - 2017 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy (49):9-32.
    What role does the imagination play in scientific progress? After examining several studies in cognitive science, I argue that one thing the imagination does is help to increase scientific understanding, which is itself indispensable for scientific progress. Then, I sketch a transcendental justification of the role of imagination in this process.
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  36. added 2017-06-05
    Robert Boyle and the Experimental Ideal.Rose-Mary C. Sargent - 1987 - Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    After years of relative neglect, experimental science has once again become an object of scrutiny. Philosophers such as Hacking and Cartwright have examined contemporary science in an attempt to display the epistemic status of experimental results, while sociologists such as Shapin and Schaffer have focussed on historical cases in an attempt to display the conventional basis of experimentation. In this study I am concerned with the epistemological question: How can one justify the claim that it is rational to believe that (...)
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  37. added 2017-05-08
    Measurement in Science.Eran Tal - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  38. added 2017-03-17
    Design for Experimenting.Jed Z. Buchwald - 1993 - In Paul Horwich (ed.), World Changes. Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. MIT Press. pp. 169--206.
  39. added 2017-02-15
    Review: The New Experimentalism. [REVIEW]Robert Ackermann - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (2):185 - 190.
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  40. added 2017-02-14
    De Moderne Geschiedschrijving: Een Wetenschap Zonder Experiment.R. C. Van Caenegem - 1969 - Philosophica 7.
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  41. added 2017-01-31
    Essay Review: Experiment in Scientific Practice, the Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural SciencesThe Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences. Edited by GoodingDavid, PinchTrevor and SchafferSimon . Pp. Xvii + 481£45.00/$80.00 , £17.50/$29.95. [REVIEW]Jan Golinski - 1990 - History of Science 28 (2):203-209.
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  42. added 2017-01-28
    The Neglect of Experiment.Allan Franklin - 1990 - Noûs 24 (4):631-634.
    What role have experiments played, and should they play, in physics? How does one come to believe rationally in experimental results? The Neglect of Experiment attempts to provide answers to both of these questions. Professor Franklin's approach combines the detailed study of four episodes in the history of twentieth century physics with an examination of some of the philosophical issues involved. The episodes are the discovery of parity nonconservation in the 1950s; the nondiscovery of parity nonconservation in the 1930s, when (...)
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  43. added 2017-01-17
    Essay Review: Experiment in Scientific Practice, the Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences.Jan Golinski - 1990 - History of Science 28 (2):203-209.
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  44. added 2017-01-16
    An Experiment in Regelation.D. W. Townsend & R. P. Vickery - 1967 - Philosophical Magazine 16 (144):1275-1280.
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  45. added 2017-01-16
    Experiment or Suffocate.Iris Conlay - 1947 - New Blackfriars 28 (323):61-64.
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  46. added 2017-01-15
    Replicability of Experiment.John D. Norton - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (2):229.
    The replicability of experiment is routinely offered as the gold standard of evidence. I argue that it is not supported by a universal principle of replicability in inductive logic. A failure of replication may not impugn a credible experimental result; and a successful replication can fail to vindicate an incredible experimental result. Rather, employing a material approach to inductive inference, the evidential import of successful replication of an experiment is determined by the prevailing background facts. Commonly, these background facts do (...)
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  47. added 2017-01-15
    The Neglect of Experiment.Allan Franklin - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    What role have experiments played, and should they play, in physics? How does one come to believe rationally in experimental results? The Neglect of Experiment attempts to provide answers to both of these questions. Professor Franklin's approach combines the detailed study of four episodes in the history of twentieth century physics with an examination of some of the philosophical issues involved. The episodes are the discovery of parity nonconservation in the 1950s; the nondiscovery of parity nonconservation in the 1930s, when (...)
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  48. added 2017-01-15
    Kontinent? Ein Gelungenes Experiment?Kurt Marko - 1980 - Studies in Soviet Thought 21 (3):221-225.
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  49. added 2016-12-20
    Epistemology and Scientific Strategy.R. F. J. Withers - 1959 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (38):89-102.
  50. added 2016-12-18
    The Logic of Crucial Experiments.Ioannis Votsis - unknown
    Although Duhem’s thesis that in physics crucial experiments are impossible contains some grains of truth in it, its effects have been greatly exaggerated. In this talk I argue against this and other associated theses by pointing out the various ways in which these theses can be curtailed. In the process of doing so, I examine a few recent attempts to overcome the problems posed by these theses and identify their strengths and weaknesses.
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1 — 50 / 221