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  1. added 2020-04-29
    Artifacts and Artefacts: A Methodological Classification of Context-Specific Regularities.Vadim Keyser - 2019 - In History and Philosophy of Technoscience: Perspectives on Classification in Synthetic Sciences: Unnatural Kinds. London, UK: pp. 63-77.
    Traditionally, in the literature on robustness analysis objects are classified as genuine phenomena (natural objects, events, and processes) or artifacts (results produced in error). But much of biological measurement requires the manipulation of local experimental conditions in order to produce new effects. These types of intervention-based regularities are neither natural objects nor artifacts; characterizing them as either fails adequately to address key ontological properties as well as their role in scientific practice. It is argued that a new classification, based on (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-26
    [History of the Research on Differentiating Hepatitis A and B].J. L. Meyer - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (1):93-111.
    The numerous researches devoted to 'jaundice' during the Second World War have brought to light the existence of an infectious type of hepatic jaundice or 'homologous serum jaundice' following parenteral injection of vaccines containing human serum and blood transfusions, which were carried out on a large scale at the time. This type of serum jaundice was then gradually differentiated from 'catarrhal', contagious or epidemic jaundice by clinical trials along with large series of animal studies. Finally, the epidemiological, clinical and biological (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-26
    [The Vaccine Metaphor. From Inoculation to Vaccination].A. M. Moulin - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14 (2):271-297.
    The episodes of cowpox inoculation (1798) and rabies preventive treatment (1885) are celebrated as the landmark of modern medicine. Paradoxically, these two advances have been accomplished without any theoretical breakthrough in the understanding of immunity. Going further, they were made possible by a long past of empirical procedures among which smallpox inoculation played an outstanding role. The paper explores the paradox of 'Immunization without Immunology' and Pasteur's reconstruction of the past, through his successful use of a metaphor. 'Vaccine', originally linked (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-26
    Should I Enroll in a Randomized Clinical Trial? A Critical Commentary.Robert M. Veatch - 1988 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 10 (5):7.
  5. added 2020-03-21
    Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications.Eric Schiffman, Richard Ohrbach, E. Truelove, Edmond Truelove, John Look, Gary Anderson, Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Others - 2014 - Journal of Oral and Facial Pain and Headache 28 (1):6-27.
    Aims: The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandi¬bular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms were demonstrated to be reliable but below target sensitivity and specificity. Empirical data supported Axis I algorithm revisions that were valid. Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. An international consensus workshop was convened to obtain recommendations and finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods: A comprehensive search of published TMD diagnostic literature was followed by review and (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-13
    Extrapolating From Laboratory Behavioral Research on Non-Human Primates is Unjustified.Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Conducting research on animals is supposed to be valuable because it provides information on how human mechanisms work. But for the use of animal models to be ethically justified, it must be epistemically justified. The inference from an observation about an animal model to a conclusion about humans must be warranted for the use of animals to be moral. When researchers infer from animals to humans, it’s an extrapolation. Often non-human primates are used as animal models in laboratory behavioral research. (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-10
    Re-Thinking Reproducibility as a Criterion for Research Quality.Sabina Leonelli - 2018 - Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 36 (B):129-146.
    A heated debate surrounds the significance of reproducibility as an indicator for research quality and reliability, with many commentators linking a "crisis of reproducibility" to the rise of fraudulent, careless and unreliable practices of knowledge production. Through the analysis of discourse and practices across research fields, I point out that reproducibility is not only interpreted in different ways, but also serves a variety of epistemic functions depending on the research at hand. Given such variation, I argue that the uncritical pursuit (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-17
    Evidence, Errors, and Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Steven Joffe & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (3):299-307.
    Novel therapeutics enter human testing after they show promise in animal and in vitro studies. They then begin a life cycle that extends from early phase trials without control groups, to randomized trials, to approval by regulatory authorities, to coverage by payers, to use in clinical practice. At each stage, scientific evidence is critical to determining whether to progress to the next step in this life cycle. Each of these decisions also implicitly involves issues of value and ethical norms based (...)
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  9. added 2020-02-12
    Introduction À l'Étude de la Médecine Expérimentale.Claude Bernard - 1865 - Librairie Joseph Gilbert.
  10. added 2020-02-10
    Expanding Theory Testing in General Relativity: LIGO and Parametrized Theories.Lydia Patton - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    The multiple detections of gravitational waves by LIGO (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), operated by Caltech and MIT, have been acclaimed as confirming Einstein's prediction, a century ago, that gravitational waves propagating as ripples in spacetime would be detected. Yunes and Pretorius (2009) investigate whether LIGO's template-based searches encode fundamental assumptions, especially the assumption that the background theory of general relativity is an accurate description of the phenomena detected in the search. They construct the parametrized post-Einsteinian (ppE) framework in response, (...)
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  11. added 2020-02-09
    Randomization in Experimental Design.Zeno Gerhard Swijtink - 1982 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    Experimental randomization is defended as a procedure to select an allocation of treatments in comparative experiments. To be convincing, a comparative experiment should allow many alternative allocations of treatments over experimental units, that look equally informative "on paper," but may have underlying differences. Randomization prevents these underlying differences to be causally influential when an allocation is chosen for implementation. Randomization helps prevent bias. ;Both Bayesian criticisms of randomization and what seems to be the opinion of the early Fisher are rejected. (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-09
    Claude Bernard's Revised Edition of His "Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale".Claude Bernard & Paul Cranefield - 1979 - Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):210-210.
  13. added 2020-02-08
    Kenneth W. Goodman: Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Fallibility and Responsibility in Clinical Science. [REVIEW]Jason Grossman - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (3):421-423.
  14. added 2020-02-07
    Targeted Chemotherapy, the Medical Ecosystem, and the Future of American Health Care.Muriel R. Gillick - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):268-284.
    In light of the central role that medications play in medical progress, the declining rate of new drug development over the past decade is cause for concern . Without important breakthroughs in drug discovery, the future will not be auspicious for the many people suffering from chronic and incurable illnesses. The sluggish pace of pharmaceutical innovation has been particularly characteristic of the largest drug manufacturers, which have generally focused their energies on potential blockbuster medications, those that can generate over $1 (...)
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  15. added 2020-02-07
    Introducing Knowledge-Based Medicine - Conference Presentation - Medicine is Not Science: Guessing the Future, Predicting the Past.Clifford Miller - 2014 - Conference Presentation Universidad Franscisco de Vitoria Person Centered Medicine July 2014; 07/2014.
    There is a middle ground of imperfect knowledge in fields like medicine and the social sciences. It stands between our day-to-day relatively certain knowledge obtained from ordinary basic observation of regularities in our world and our knowledge from well-validated theories in the physical sciences. -/- The latter enable reliable prediction a great deal of the time of the happening of events never before experienced. The former enable prediction only of what has happened before and beyond that of educated guesses which (...)
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  16. added 2020-02-06
    How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials.Don Marquis - unknown
    An apparent ethical dilemma arises when physicians consider enrolling their patients in randomized clinical trials. Suppose that a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatments is in progress, and a physician has an opinion about which treatment is better. The physician has a duty to promote the patient's best medical interests and therefore seems to be obliged to advise the patient to receive the treatment that the physician prefers. This duty creates a barrier to the enrollment of patients in randomized clinical (...)
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  17. added 2020-02-05
    Crucial Stem Cell Experiments? Stem Cells, Uncertainty, and Single-Cell Experiments.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (2):183-205.
    I have previously argued that stem cell experiments cannot demonstrate that a single cell is a stem cell. Laplane and others dispute this claim, citing experiments that identify stem cells at the singlecell level. This paper rebuts the counterexample, arguing that the alleged ‘crucial stem cell experiments’ do not measure self-renewal for a single cell, do not establish a single cell’s differentiation potential, and, if interpreted as providing results about single cells, fall into epistemic circularity. I then discuss the source (...)
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  18. added 2020-02-05
    Who Goes First?: The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine By Lawrence K. Altman.Richard M. Ratzan - 1999 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (1):154-159.
  19. added 2020-02-05
    A General Theory of Oxygen Toxicity in Man.D. R. Shanklin - 1969 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 13 (1):80-100.
  20. added 2020-02-03
    The Logic of Medicine By Edmond A. Murphy.Daniel Albert - 1998 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (1):144-145.
  21. added 2020-02-03
    The Relevance of Modern Clinical Trial Methodology to the Practice of Medicine.Jacob E. Bearman & Byron Wm Brown - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):259-268.
  22. added 2020-02-03
    The Savage Cell: A Report on Cancer and Cancer Research.Charles Huggins - 1965 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 8 (2):275-275.
  23. added 2020-02-03
    Physician, Pheal Thyself.William M. Landau - 1964 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 7 (2):179-182.
  24. added 2020-01-29
    Doctors, Patients, and Placebos.Louis Lasagna - 1988 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31 (2):309-311.
  25. added 2020-01-29
    Invalidity of Using So-Called Starling Curves in Clinical Medicine.Mark D. Altschule - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (2):171-187.
  26. added 2020-01-29
    Vasospasm in Ischemic Heart Disease—A Hypothesis.H. Richard Hellstrom - 1973 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 16 (3):427-440.
  27. added 2020-01-29
    Myocardial Infarction, Experimental Cardiac Necroses, and Potassium.Plinio Prioreschi - 1966 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 9 (3):369-376.
  28. added 2020-01-29
    Mirage of Health by René Dubos.John F. Enders - 1960 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 3 (3):435-436.
    This is a book that is much easier to read than to review. For its originality and charm lie chiefly in the luminous, lively style and the choice of illustrative material garnered with great skill from an impressive array of authors ancient and modern. In these respects this long essay, which is as much philosophical and literary as scientific, is clearly in the distinguished tradition of French critical and philosophical writing although the language is English. It is easy to imagine (...)
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  29. added 2020-01-29
    Etiologic Factors in Obesity and Leanness.Jay Tepperman - 1958 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1 (3):293-306.
  30. added 2020-01-20
    Medical Experimentation on Prisoners.Carl Cohen - 1978 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 21 (3):357-372.
  31. added 2020-01-12
    Two Decades of Experimental and Clinical Orthotopic Homotransplantation of the Heart.Norman E. Shumway & Edward B. Stinson - 1979 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 22 (2-2):S81-S88.
  32. added 2020-01-11
    The Costs and Effectiveness of Different Benefit Designs for Treating Tobacco Dependence: Results From a Randomized Trial.H. A. Halpin, S. B. McMenamin, J. Rideout & G. Boyce-Smith - 2006 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 43 (1):54-65.
  33. added 2019-12-03
    Review of Peoples' Science: Bodies and Rights on the Stem Cell Frontier. [REVIEW]Joan H. Robinson - 2016 - Spontaneous Generations 8 (1):112-114.
  34. added 2019-12-02
    Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.Alexander Morgan Capron - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):55-77.
    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae. In 1865, in his great work, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, Dr. Claude Bernard, the French physician who first established the use of the scientific method in medicine, echoed the earlier injunctions of physician-moralist Moses Maimonides in counseling his fellow physicians not to treat their patients solely as a means of advancing knowledge. Yet such cautions had no apparent effect on the physicians who, (...)
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  35. added 2019-12-02
    Standardized Study Designs, Value Judgments, and Financial Conflicts of Interest in Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):529-551.
    The potential for financial conflicts of interest to influence scientific research in problematic ways has recently become a significant topic of discussion across numerous fields. The chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries have all been accused of suppressing evidence that their products are harmful, producing studies with questionable methodologies, generating questionable reinterpretations of studies that challenge their products, and working with public relations firms and front groups to mislead the public about relevant science. In an effort to address these influences, (...)
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  36. added 2019-12-02
    The Role of the Virtuous Investigator in Protecting Human Research Subjects.Christine Grady & Anthony S. Fauci - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):122-131.
    Dr. Henry Beecher, a renowned Harvard Medical School anesthesiologist, sent shock waves through the medical research community and the lay press when he described 22 examples of “unethical or questionably ethical studies” by reputable researchers at major institutions in his now well-known 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article. Beecher concluded this exposé by noting: “The ethical approach to experimentation in man has several components: two are more important than the others, the first being informed consent.... Secondly, there is the (...)
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  37. added 2019-12-02
    Editors' Introduction.Franklin G. Miller & John Lantos - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):1-1.
    On June 16, 1966, the New England Journal of Medicine published “Ethics and Clinical Research” by Henry K. Beecher. Beecher’s account of 22 examples of unethical contemporary clinical research shook up the medical profession and helped pave the way for U.S. federal regulation of research involving human subjects. Five decades later, in this issue of Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, we pay tribute to the lasting significance of this whistle-blowing article and to the remarkable contributions of Henry Beecher. Beecher was (...)
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  38. added 2019-12-02
    Emerging Science, Emerging Democracy: Stem Cell Research and Policy in Taiwan.Jennifer A. Liu - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):609-636.
    “You are interested in ethics,” the clinician said, “there are problems with medical ethics in Taiwan.” It was 2005, shortly after I had moved to Taiwan. A little later, a professor told me of a university hospital that served as a site for a transnational clinical trial run by a pharmaceutical company. He said that since no informed consent procedure was in place at that time, the hospital had simply obtained employer consent. “That’s why companies want to come to Taiwan (...)
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  39. added 2019-12-01
    A Challenge for Evidence-Based Policy.Adam La Caze & Mark Colyvan - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (1):1-13.
    Evidence-based policy has support in many areas of government and in public affairs more generally. In this paper we outline what evidence-based policy is, then we discuss its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, we argue that it faces a serious challenge to provide a plausible, over-arching account of evidence. We contrast evidence-based policy with evidence-based medicine, especially the role of evidence in assessing the effectiveness of medicines. The evidence required for policy decisions does not easily lend itself to randomized controlled (...)
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  40. added 2019-12-01
    Facts, Artifacts, and Mesosomes: Practicing Epistemology with the Electron Microscope.Nicolas Rasmussen - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (2):227-265.
  41. added 2019-11-27
    The Placebo Effect.Jennifer Corns - forthcoming - In The Philosophy of Pain. Routledge.
    Despite the conceptual problems in identifying the placebo effect, an increasing number of multidisciplinary inquiries rest on the assumption that there is a distinct class of effects, placebo effects. In this chapter, I argue against this assumption. I present cases and characterizations of the placebo effect as offered in the literature, and argue that the latter are subject to insurmountable problems. Moreover, I argue that identification of placebo effects as such is not useful for the three main purposes offered in (...)
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  42. added 2019-11-22
    Pain Research: Where We Are and Why It Matters.Jennifer Corns - 2017 - In The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Pain. Routledge.
  43. added 2019-11-22
    Evidence-Based Practice in Physical Therapy in Austria: Current State and Factors Associated with EBP Engagement.Gudrun Diermayr, Herbert Schachner, Margit Eidenberger, Monika Lohkamp & Nancy M. Salbach - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1219-1234.
  44. added 2019-11-22
    Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics Through Official and Subaltern Perspectives.Matthew Weinstein - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (8-9):961-975.
    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of (...)
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  45. added 2019-09-26
    Philosophy of Science and the Replicability Crisis.Felipe Romero - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11).
    Replicability is widely taken to ground the epistemic authority of science. However, in recent years, important published findings in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences have failed to replicate, suggesting that these fields are facing a “replicability crisis.” For philosophers, the crisis should not be taken as bad news but as an opportunity to do work on several fronts, including conceptual analysis, history and philosophy of science, research ethics, and social epistemology. This article introduces philosophers to these discussions. First, I (...)
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  46. added 2019-09-26
    Who Should Do Replication Labor?Felipe Romero - 2018 - Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1 (4):516-537.
    . Scientists, for the most part, want to get it right. However, the social structures that govern their work undermine that aim, and this leads to nonreplicable findings in many fields. Because the social structure of science is a decentralized system, it is difficult to intervene. In this article, I discuss how we might do so, focusing on self-corrective-labor schemes. First, I argue that we need to implement a scheme that makes replication work outcome independent, systematic, and sustainable. Second, I (...)
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  47. added 2019-06-26
    Examining the Structured Uses of Concepts as Tools: Converging Insights.Eden T. Smith - 2019 - Filozofia Nauki 4 (28):7-22.
    Examining the historical development of scientific concepts is important for understanding the structured routines within which these concepts are currently used as goal-directed tools in experiments. To illustrate this claim, I will outline how the concepts of mental imagery and hallucinations each draw on an older interdependent set of associations that, although nominally-discarded, continues to structure their current independent uses for pursuing discrete experimental goals. In doing so, I will highlight how three strands of literature offer mutually instructive insights for (...)
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  48. added 2019-06-12
    Theory Testing in Experimental Biology: The Chemiosmotic Mechanism of ATP Synthesis.Marcel Weber - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (1):29-52.
    Historians of biology have argued that much of the dynamics of experimental disciplines such as genetics or molecular biology can be understood from studying experimental systems and model organisms alone . Such accounts contrast sharply with more traditional philosophies of science which viewed scientific research essentially as a process of inventing and testing theories. I present a case from the history of biochemistry which can be viewed from both the experimental systems perspective and from the methodology of theory testing. I (...)
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  49. added 2019-06-06
    University in Second Life —the Experiment’s Results.Andrzej Wodecki & Rafał Moczadło - 2009 - Dialogue and Universalism 19 (1-2):109-120.
    The article presents some conclusions arising from an educational experiment conducted by the University Centre for Distance Learning. The aim of the experiment was to verify the applicability of Second Life for educational purposes. The most important conclusion of the experiment is that SL is not as much productive as an e-learning platform but it is quite efficient for the realization of multi-disciplinary projects. It is also effective as a tool for creating digital animations and simulations. Moreover, the article presents (...)
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  50. added 2019-06-06
    David Gooding. Experiment and the Making of Meaning: Human Agency in Scientific Observation and Experiment. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990. Pp. Xviii + 310. ISBN 0-7923-0719-4. £60.00. [REVIEW]Frank James - 1991 - British Journal for the History of Science 24 (3):386-388.
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