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Summary

Work in this area  explores the philosophical dimensions of mothering, including (at least) considerations of pregnancy, adoption, childbirth, and mothering, and draws from a well of interdisciplinary work and first-hand experiences.  This topic area includes issues related to pregnancy, adoption, childbirth, and mothering and intersects with virtually every field of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and critical race and disability theory.  There are urgent ethical matters regarding the value of motherhood in general and to potential mothers in particular; some, but not all of which, are related to care ethics.  Motherhood provides a perfect opportunity to raises aesthetic issues of beauty and disgust and questions about how aesthetic taste and judgment might interact with parental feelings of moral obligation. There are also social and political issues, such as the long-standing feminist debate over whether pregnancy and/or motherhood is liberating or enslaving, in women’s interest or against it, the challenges of anti-racist mothering in a white supremacist culture, and the responsibilities of a community to families.  Metaphysical, phenomenological, and epistemological questions also arise when we reflect on the physical experience of being pregnant: for example, questions about the oneness and duplication of souls and bodies, the extension of bodies, the existence of non-material beings, and the relationship between the identity of mothers and their children, as well as questions about knowledge and the value of truth and truth-telling.   

Key works One of the earliest works on feminism and mothering is "Of Women Born" by Adrienne Rich (1974). Later feminist philosophy of mothering should not be viewed as synonymous with care ethics, but two of the foundational works in the field of feminist mothering is Ruddick 1989 and Held 1993. For an influential argument for why feminists ought be wary of marriage and motherhood there is Card 1996.
Introductions Ferguson 1986; DiQuinzio 1993.
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521 found
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  1. Maternal Competition in Women.Catherine Linney, Laurel Korologou-Linden & Anne Campbell - forthcoming - Human Nature.
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  2. Philosophy and the Maternal.Charlotte Knowles - 2020 - Studies in the Maternal 13 (1):1-8.
    Reflections on the role and position of maternal relations within philosophy as a practical discipline, as a metaphor for philosophical practice, and as a subject of philosophical investigation.
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  3. Moral Reasons Not to Breastfeed: A Response to Woollard and Porter.Laura Frances Callahan - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):213-214.
    Woollard and Porter argue that mothers have no moral duty to breastfeed their babies. Rather, mothers simply have moral reason(s) to breastfeed, stemming from the benefits of breast feeding for babies. According to Woollard and Porter, doing what one has moral reason to do is often supererogatory, not obligatory. I agree that mothers have no moral duty to breastfeed. However, it is misleading to suggest that mothers in general have moral reason to breastfeed and to liken not breastfeeding to not (...)
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  4. What a Child Can Teach Us.Maria Fannin - 2019 - In Luce Irigaray, Mahon O’Brien & Christos Hadjioannou (eds.), Towards a New Human Being. Springer Verlag. pp. 17-34.
    Luce Irigaray’s work explores the debt owed to the maternal body and the obscured or derelict figure of the maternal in the Western philosophical tradition. Her writing is deeply concerned with the status of the maternal and with the effort to revalue the maternal at a symbolic level in Western metaphysics and culture. One of the major contributions of her philosophy is its emphasis on the central, yet denigrated, unthought or disregarded bodily dimensions of maternity. Throughout her philosophical oeuvre, Irigaray (...)
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  5. Understanding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: A Multidisciplinary Analysis.Erica Preston-Roedder, Hannah Fagen, Jessica Martucci & Anne Barnhill - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (2):117-147.
    In the United States, roughly 1 out of 4 births takes place at a hospital certified as Baby-Friendly. This paper offers a multi-disciplinary perspective on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including empirical, normative, and historical perspectives. Our analysis is novel in that we trace how medical practices of “quality improvement,” which initially appear to have little to do with breastfeeding, may have shaped the BFHI. Ultimately, we demonstrate that a rich understanding of the BFHI can be obtained by tracing how (...)
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  6. Maternal Health-Seeking Behaviour and Under-Five Mortality in Zimbabwe.Nyasha Chadoka-Mutanda & Clifford O. Odimegwu - 2017 - Journal of Biosocial Science 49 (3):408-421.
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  7. Mother Love, Maternal Ambivalence, and the Possibility of Empowered Mothering.Tatjana Takševa - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (1):152-168.
    Dominant cultural ideologies of motherhood define the nature of mother love. Recent developments in motherhood studies, and the work of a small number of feminist philosophers and scholars of motherhood, have challenged the tenets of these ideologies by daring to speak the “unspeakable”: that mother love is often and for all mothers, whether consciously or not, permeated by powerful negative and conflicting emotions termed maternal ambivalence. In this essay, relying on recorded personal narratives by Bosnian women who are raising children (...)
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  8. Firestonian Futures and Trans‐Affirming Presents.Loren Cannon - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):229-244.
    Shulamith Firestone's Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution was, upon its original publication, both radicacmen would be freed from the burden of childbirth, in which the nuclear family, gender roles, typical constructions of marriage and parenting are all a thing of the past, still for many seems radical, even forty-five years after its debut in 1970. With Firestone's recent passing, it is a particularly suitable time to reconsider her work in light of the medical, technological, and social changes (...)
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  9. Confucian Mothering: The Origin of Tiger Mothering?Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2016 - In Mathew Foust & Sor-Hoon Tan (eds.), Feminist Encounters with Confucius. Boston, USA: Brill. pp. 40-68.
    In recent years, the notion of “tiger mother” has been popularized since Amy Chua’s publication of her memoir, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (2011). This notion is allegedly representative of “Chinese” mothering that produces “stereotypically successful kids” (ibid., p.3). No wonder, the characteristics of the tiger mother revolve around strict disciplining and pressuring of children to excel academically based on her assumption that children “owe everything” to her and that she knows “what is best for [the] children” (ibid., p.53). (...)
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  10. Feeding the Hungry Other: Levinas, Breastfeeding, and the Politics of Hunger.Robyn Lee - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):259-274.
    Breastfeeding has become a subject of moral concern as its benefits have become well known. Encouraging mothers to breastfeed has been the goal of extensive public health promotion efforts. Emmanuel Levinas makes absolute responsibility to the Other central to his ethics, with giving food to the Other the paradigmatic ethical act. However, Levinas also provides an important critique of the autonomous individual who is taken for granted by breastfeeding promotion efforts. I argue that the ethical obligation to feed the hungry (...)
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  11. Review of Blended: Writers on the Stepfamily Experience. [REVIEW]Shelley M. Park - 2016 - Journal of the Motherhood Initiative 7 (1):211-12.
  12. Frontiers in Parenthood: Queer Mothering, Maternal Ambivalence, Adoption, and Reproductive Technology.Maureen Sander‐Staudt - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):460-465.
  13. Mother Love, Maternal Ambivalence, and the Possibility of Empowered Mothering.Tatjana Takševa - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (4).
    Dominant cultural ideologies of motherhood define the nature of mother love. Recent developments in motherhood studies, and the work of a small number of feminist philosophers and scholars of motherhood, have challenged the tenets of these ideologies by daring to speak the “unspeakable”: that mother love is often and for all mothers, whether consciously or not, permeated by powerful negative and conflicting emotions termed maternal ambivalence. In this essay, relying on recorded personal narratives by Bosnian women who are raising children (...)
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  14. Maternal–Fetal Conflict and Periviability.Alan Vincelette - 2016 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 16 (3):401-407.
    A recent statement of consensus held that the principle of double effect would allow the induction of a previable fetus in order to eliminate a grave and present danger to the life of a mother suffering from peripartum cardiomyopathy. The author responds to this declaration, points out some limitations preventing it from being a vehicle for broader agreement, and offers an alternative, namely, medical induction of labor in cases of maternal–fetal vital conflict can be justified if the fetus has at (...)
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  15. The Formation of the Maternal–Fetal Relationship.Michelle N. Armendariz & Dorothy S. Martinez - 2015 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 15 (3):443-451.
    Previously conducted research has determined that physiological and psychophysiological communications evident during pregnancy are vital to the bond formed prenatally. These innate biological responses are further enhanced through psychophysiological factors, such as maternal prenatal stress, which attest to the essential communication between a mother and child in maternal–fetal attachment. A consideration of these factors is necessary with the increase in assisted reproductive technology, such as in vitro fertilization, surrogacy, and elective cesarean section, as this may affect the development of the (...)
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  16. Caregivers’ Role in Maternal–Fetal Conflict.Ercan Avci - 2015 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 5 (1):67-76.
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  17. My Two Moms: Disability, Queer Kinship, and the Maternal Subject.Harold Braswell - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (1):234-250.
    Dominant Western discourses of motherhood have depicted disabled women as incapable of being mothers. In contrast to these representations, recent literature in disability studies has argued that disabled women can provide maternal care and should therefore retain custody over their children. This literature is commendable, but its emphasis on custodial rights excludes from the category of “mother” those disabled women who cannot maintain child custody. In this article, I challenge this exclusion via an account of my experience with my two (...)
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  18. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes.Daniela Cutas & Anna Smajdor - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (2):386-402.
    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that (...)
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  19. Hyper-Abjects: Finitude, “Sustainability,” and the Maternal Body in the Anthropocene.Bethany Doane - 2015 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 5 (2):251-267.
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  20. Motherhood Discourse as Neoliberal Project: Poem Performances: “Declaration,” “Ode,” “Snare”. Gringle - 2015 - Feminist Studies 41 (3):566.
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  21. On Okin’s Critique of Libertarianism.Daniel J. Hicks - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (1):37-57.
    Susan Moller Okin's critique of libertarianism in Justice, Gender, and the Family has received only slight attention in the libertarian literature. I find this neglect of Okin's argument surprising: The argument is straightforward and, if sound, it establishes a devastating conflict between the core libertarian notions of self-ownership and the acquisition of property through labour. In this paper, I first present a reconstruction of Okin's argument. In brief, she points out that mothers make children through their labour; thus it would (...)
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  22. Queer Earth Mothering: Thinking Through the Biological Paradigm of Motherhood.Justin Morris - 2015 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 1 (2):1-27.
    I consider Christine Overall’s proposal that counteracting the ecological threats born from overconsumption and overpopulation morally obligates Westerners to limit their procreative output to one child per person. I scrutinize what Overall finds valuable about the genetic link in the parent-child relationship through the complementary lenses of Shelley M. Park’s project of “queering motherhood” and the ecofeminist concept of “earth mothering.” What comes of this theoretical mix is a procreative outlook I define as queer earth mothering : an interrogative attitude (...)
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  23. Inequity Issues and Mothers' Pregnancy, Delivery and Early-Age Survival Experiences in Ende District, Indonesia.Jerico Franciscus Pardosi, Nick Parr & Salut Muhidin - 2015 - Journal of Biosocial Science 47 (6):780-802.
    SummaryIndonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18–45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge (...)
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  24. “The Event That Was Nothing”: Miscarriage as a Liminal Event.Alison Reiheld - 2015 - Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):9-26.
    I argue that miscarriage, referred to by poet Susan Stewart as “the event that was nothing,” is a liminal event along four distinct and inter-related dimensions: parenthood, procreation, death, and induced abortion. It is because of this liminality that miscarriage has been both poorly addressed in our society, and enrolled in larger debates over women's reproduction and responsibility for reproduction, both conceptually and legally. If miscarriage’s liminality were better understood, if miscarriage itself were better theorized, perhaps it would not so (...)
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  25. Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking as Weaving Epistemology for Justpeace.Catia C. Confortini & Abigail E. Ruane - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1):70-93.
    How is it possible to create more just forms of peace in our world? This article responds to calls for a feminist theory/peace studies collaboration by integrating work on feminist care ethics and conflict transformation. We propose that justpeace is possible by strengthening ways of knowing which sustainably weave together understandings of “self” and “other” to support relationships of care over dehumanization and violence. Building on Sara Ruddick’s work, we argue that her “maternal thinking” can be understood as a feminist (...)
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  26. Mothering the Fatherland: A Protestant Sisterhood Repents for the Holocaust.George Faithful - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    George Faithful tells the story of a group of young Lutheran women who formed the Ecumenical Sisterhood of Mary in 1947 in order to advocate collective national guilt for the sins of the German people (Volk) against God and against the Jews.
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  27. Maternal Megalomania: Julia Domna and the Imperial Politics of Motherhood by Julie Langford.Lien Foubert - 2014 - American Journal of Philology 135 (4):678-682.
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  28. What is the Cause of the Decline in Maternal Mortality in India? Evidence From Time Series and Cross-Sectional Analyses.Srinivas Goli & Abdul C. P. Jaleel - 2014 - Journal of Biosocial Science 46 (3):351-365.
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  29. The Risk of Mothers Losing an Only Child in China.Quanbao Jiang, Ying Li & Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte - 2014 - Journal of Biosocial Science 46 (4):531-545.
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  30. Mad Mothers, Bad Mothers, and What a "Good" Mother Would Do: The Ethics of Ambivalence.Sarah LaChance Adams - 2014 - Columbia University Press.
    When a mother kills her child, we call her a bad mother, but, as this book shows, even mothers who intend to do their children harm are not easily categorized as "mad" or "bad." Maternal love is a complex emotion rich with contradictory impulses and desires, and motherhood is a conflicted state in which women constantly renegotiate the needs mother and child, the self and the other. Applying care ethics philosophy and the work of Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Simone (...)
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  31. Mammonymy, Maternal-Line Names, and Cultural Identification: Clues From the Onomasticon of Hellenistic Uruk. Langin-Hooper & Pearce - 2014 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 134 (2):185.
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  32. Reading with Love: Reading of Life Narrative of a Mother of a Child with Cerebral Palsy.Daniela Mercieca & Duncan P. Mercieca - 2014 - Ethics and Education 9 (3):264-275.
    This paper draws upon Deleuze and Guattari's ideas to suggest a different kind of reading of a narrative of a mother of a child with severe disability, and thus a different kind of ethical response to them. This reading gives readers the possibility of opening up experiences of parents and children with disability, rather than compartmentalising such stories. The reader becomes, is transformed, through reading these narratives and through engaging with the intensities which are recognised in the text, asking the (...)
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  33. Discourses of Motherhood and Women’s Health: Maternal Thinking as Feminist Politics.Fiona Robinson - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1):94-108.
    Using the debate surrounding the Canadian government’s 2008 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health as a central example, this article considers the construction of women and women’s health in global health policy. Specifically, it considers the contributions of Sara Ruddick’s philosophy to the task of unravelling the ethical and political meanings of ‘motherhood’, and the relationship between maternal thinking and feminist politics in global social policy. This article argues that while Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking has often been read as (...)
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  34. Symposium: Maternal Thinking for International Relations? Papers in Honor of Sara Ruddick.Fiona Robinson & Catia C. Confortini - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1):38-45.
    Using the debate surrounding the Canadian government’s 2008 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health as a central example, this article considers the construction of women and women’s health in global health policy. Specifically, it considers the contributions of Sara Ruddick’s philosophy to the task of unravelling the ethical and political meanings of ‘motherhood’, and the relationship between maternal thinking and feminist politics in global social policy. This article argues that while Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking has often been read as (...)
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  35. Randomized Controlled Trials of Maternal‐Fetal Surgery: A Challenge to Clinical Equipoise.H. C. M. L. Rodrigues & P. P. van den Berg - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (8):405-413.
    This article focuses on maternal-fetal surgery (MFS) and on the concept of clinical equipoise that is a widely accepted requirement for conducting randomized controlled trials (RCT). There are at least three reasons why equipoise is unsuitable for MFS. First, the concept is based on a misconception about the nature of clinical research and the status of research subjects. Second, given that it is not clear who the research subject/s in MFS is/are, if clinical equipoise is to be used as a (...)
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  36. Mothers and Independent Citizens: Making Sense of Wollstonecraft's Supposed Essentialism.Sandrine Berges - 2013 - Philosophical Papers 42 (3):259 - 284.
    Mary Wollstonecraft argues that women must be independent citizens, but that they cannot be that unless they fulfill certain duties as mothers. This is problematic in a number of ways, as argued by Laura Brace in a 2000 article. However, I argue that if we understand Wollstonecraft's concept of independence in a republican, rather than a liberal context, and at the same time pay close attention to her discussion of motherhood, a feminist reading of Wollstonecraft is not only possible but (...)
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  37. “Alien” Sexuality: Race, Maternity, and Citizenship.Natalie Cisneros - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (2):290-306.
    In this paper, I provide an analysis of the emergence of “problematic of alien sexuality.” I first locate discourses about “alien sexuality,” and the so-called anchor baby in particular, within other national discourses surrounding maternity, the fetus, and citizenship. I analyze the ways that national political discourses surrounding “anchor babies” and “alien maternity” construct the “problematic of alien sexuality,” thus constituting the “alien” subject as always-already perverse. I suggest that this production of a sexually deviant and threatening “alien” subject functions (...)
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  38. Human Rights and Maternal Health: Exploring the Effectiveness of the Alyne Decision.Rebecca J. Cook - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):103-123.
    This article explores the effectiveness of the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the case of Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v. Brazil, concerning a poor, Afro-Brazilian woman. This is the first decision of an international human rights treaty body to hold a state accountable for its failure to prevent an avoidable death in childbirth. Assessing the future effectiveness of this decision might be undertaken concretely by determining the degree of Brazil's actual compliance (...)
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  39. What is the Cause of the Decline in Maternal Mortality in India? Evidence From Time Series and Cross-Sectional Analyses.Srinivas Goli & Abdul C. P. Jaleel - 2013 - Journal of Biosocial Science 46 (3):1-15.
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  40. Between Races and Generations: Materializing Race and Kinship in Moraga and Irigaray.Sabrina L. Hom - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (3):419-435.
    Juxtaposing Cherríe Moraga's Loving in the War Years and Luce Irigaray's Speculum of the Other Woman, I explore the ways that sex and race intersect to complicate an Irigarayan account of the relations between mother and daughter. Irigaray's work is an effective tool for understanding the disruptive and potentially healing desire between mothers and daughters, but her insistence on sex as primary difference must be challenged in order to acknowledge the intersectionality of sex and race. Working from recent work on (...)
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  41. Two Mothers in Law and Fact.Robert Leckey - 2013 - Feminist Legal Studies 21 (1):1-19.
    What is the proper balance between legislative and judicial innovation and between formal and functional family recognition once legislatures have addressed gay men’s and lesbians’ families? In the civil-law jurisdiction of Quebec, legislative reforms allow two women to register as a child’s mothers. But judges have recognized a second mother ‘in fact’ by orders sharing custody where the parties had not used the new legislative channels. Such judicial creativity is reconcilable with the civil law and comparative scholars should flag it (...)
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  42. Zhu Xi on Family and Women: Challenges and Potentials.Ann A. Pang-White - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (3-4):436-455.
    This article reappraises Zhu Xi's philosophy of women. First, it examines Zhu's descriptive texts. Second, it analyzes Zhu's didactic texts on li, qi, yin, yang, and gender. It finds that (i) surprisingly Zhu exhibited a level of flexibility toward women on subjects of education, property rights, and household management; (ii) his view on the male/yang and female/yin relationship was inconsistent; and (iii) improvement on Zhu's social-political teaching on women's role could result from a more consistent development of his metaphysics. When (...)
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  43. Mothering Queerly, Queering Motherhood: Resisting Monomaternalism in Adoptive, Lesbian, Blended and Polygamous Families.Shelley M. Park - 2013 - New York: SUNY.
    Bridging the gap between feminist studies of motherhood and queer theory, Mothering Queerly, Queering Motherhood articulates a provocative philosophy of queer kinship that need not be rooted in lesbian or gay sexual identities. Working from an interdisciplinary framework that incorporates feminist philosophy and queer, psychoanalytic, poststructuralist, and postcolonial theories, Shelley M. Park offers a powerful critique of an ideology she terms monomaternalism. Despite widespread cultural insistence that every child should have one—and only one—“real” mother, many contemporary family constellations do not (...)
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  44. Breastfeeding Mothers’ Experiences: The Ghost in the Machine.Paul Regan & Elaine Ball - 2013 - Qualitative Health Research 23 (5):679-688.
    We critically review qualitative research studies conducted from 2000 to 2012 exploring Western mothers’ breastfeeding experiences. We used the search criteria “breastfeeding,” “qualitative,” and “experiences” to retrieve 74 qualitative research studies, which were reduced to 28 when the terms “existential’’ and “research’’ were applied. We found that the impact of technology and the pervasive worldwide marketing of infant formula devalued breastfeeding mothers’ narratives in a number of ways. Women’s bodies were viewed as machine-like objects and the breast was seen as (...)
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  45. Dotting the I's and Crossing the T's: Autonomy and/or Beneficence? The 'Fetus as a Patient' in Maternal–Fetal Surgery.H. Catarina M. L. Rodrigues, Paul P. van den Berg & Marcus Düwell - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):219-223.
    Chervenak and McCullough, authors of the most acknowledged ethical framework for maternal–fetal surgery, rely on the ‘ethical–obstetrical’ concept of the fetus as a patient in order to determine what is morally owed to fetuses by both physicians and the women who gestate them in the context of prenatal surgery. In this article, we reconstruct the argumentative structure of their framework and present an internal criticism. First, we analyse the justificatory arguments put forward by the authors regarding the moral status of (...)
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  46. Mothers and the Phenomenology of the Memorable Photograph.Jonathan Yahalom - 2013 - Phenomenology and Practice 7 (1):126-138.
    This article explores the phenomenology of mothers as they return to memorable photographs.[i] It reviews research on three mothers who articulate the lived experience of photographs, and how such experience might reveal basic ontological aspects of motherhood. The phenomenology of a mother’s memorable photographs discloses an aporia of human relationships that involves the connectedness she has with her children, and the awareness that her children have become separate individuals. These two themes – separateness and coexistence – are indissolubly at odds. (...)
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  47. Cluster: The Myths of Maternity – Editor's Introduction.Linda Martín Alcoff - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (1):73-75.
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  48. Hospitality and the Maternal.Irina Aristarkhova - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (1):163-181.
    This article engages the concept of hospitality as it relates to the maternal. I critically evaluate the current conceptions of hospitality by Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida, focusing on their dematerialized definition of the feminine found at the heart of hospitality, and Derrida's aporia of hospitality that deals with ownership. The foundation of hospitality, I show, is the maternal relation and its specific acts of hospitality that encompass the notions of gift and generosity. While remaining unthought in philosophy, however, maternal (...)
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  49. Maternidade E Carreira: Desafios Frente À Conciliação de Papéis.Greyce Rocha Beltrame & Tagma Marina Schneider Donelli - 2012 - Revista Aletheia 38:206-217.
    Este artigo apresenta uma revisão de literatura a respeito de dois temas vivenciados por muitas mulheres, a maternidade e a carreira. Reflete-se o que a entrada e consolidação da mulher no mercado do trabalho trouxe de implicações à maternidade. Aprofunda-se o tema com discussão de pesquisas que abo..
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  50. Men in Maternal Care: Evidence From India.Aparajita Chattopadhyay - 2012 - Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (2):129.
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