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Summary Matters of reproduction have always been important to feminists, since reproduction is central to gender justice. This field is necessarily interdisciplinary, and covers a variety of substantive issues. These range from the role of reproduction in patriarchal oppression, to abortion and women's autonomy, to the transformational power of reproductive technologies and practices such as surrogacy, gamete donation, and IVF. 
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  1. Procreation, Power and Personal Autonomy: Feminist Reflections.Anne Donchin - manuscript
    Anne Donchin attended graduate school while raising four children, received her doctorate from the University of Texas in 1970, taught for 18 years in Texas and New York, then joined the philosophy department at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis in 1982. Here she developed a Women’s Studies program, specialized and in numerous ways pioneered in feminist bioethics, and won two prestigious grants. She co-edited two books, published some forty articles, and co-founded and co-ordinated The International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics. (...)
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  2. Feminism, Bioethics and Genetics.Adrienne Asch & Gail Geller - forthcoming - Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction.
  3. Undivided Rights: Women of Color Organize for Reproductive Justice, And: Policing the National Body: Race, Gender, and Criminalization, And: Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide (Review).Sarah Lucia Hoagland - forthcoming - Hypatia 22 (2):182-188.
    Review (2007) of three books fighting violence against women of color. Organizers and activists all, the theorists of these volumes provide comprehensive analyses as well as strategies exploring the struggle for reproductive justice for women of color, policing the national body and criminalization, and American Indian genocide as related to sexual violence and colonial relationships. The arguments highlight once again the inseparability of theory and practice. The focus hope is to bring mainstream feminism back to its struggle for social justice.
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  4. The Right to Reproduce.Carolyn McLeod - forthcoming - In Wendy A. Rogers, Catherine Mills & Jackie Leach Scully (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Feminist Bioethics. New York, NY, USA:
    The reproductive rights of women have been a central topic in feminist bioethics. The focus has been predominantly on the right not to reproduce, and so not to be subject to pronatalist social forces that make motherhood compulsory for women. That is the case despite many women and other members of marginalized groups experiencing anti-natalism, or in other words, social pressure to avoid biological reproduction. For these groups, the right to reproduce is as important, if not more important, than the (...)
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  5. Becoming Like a Woman in Advance.Charles Snyder - forthcoming - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy.
  6. Womb Rentals and Baby-Selling: Does Surrogacy Undermine the Human Dignity and Rights of the Surrogate Mother and Child?Clara Watson - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-17.
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  7. Reproductive Technologies and Surrogate Parenting Arrangements.W. B. Weil Jr & L. Walters - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
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  8. Review of Donna Drucker's "Contraception: A Concise History". [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2021 - Metapsychology Online Reviews.
    Drucker's contribution succeeds as a handbook of contraceptive history, but I criticize her definition of contraception as too broad, and I argue that a narrower definition undermines her reproductive justice claims.
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  9. The Rhetoric of Sexual Difference in French Reproductive Politics.Jill Drouillard - 2021 - Culture and Dialogue 2 (9):225-242.
    What kind of rhetoric frames French reproductive policy debate? Who does such policies exclude? Through an examination of the “American import” of gender studies, along with an analysis of France’s Catholic heritage and secular politics, I argue that an unwavering belief in sexual difference as the foundation of French society defines the productive reproductive citizen. Sylviane Agacinski is perhaps the most vocal public philosopher who has framed the terms of reproductive policy debate in France, building an oppositional platform to reproductive (...)
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  10. Abjection and mourning in the struggle over fetal remains.Brittany R. Leach - 2021 - Contemporary Political Theory 20 (1):141-164.
    Should the remains of aborted fetuses be treated as human corpses or medical waste? How can feminists defend abortion rights without erasing the experiences of women who mourn fetal death or lending support to pro-life constructions of fetal personhood? To answer these questions, I trace the role of abjection and mourning in debates over fetal remains disposal regulations. Critiquing pro-life views of fetal personhood while challenging feminists to develop richer and more compelling accounts of fetal remains, I argue that embracing (...)
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  11. Re/Pro/Ductions: Ça Déborde.Thomas Clément Mercier - 2021 - Poetics Today 42 (1):23-47.
    This article examines Jacques Derrida’s work of self-reflection on his own teaching practice by using as a guiding thread the problematics of reproduction in the seminars of the 1970s. The first part of the article examines the sequence of seminars taught by Derrida at École normale supérieure from 1971 to 1977 to show how the concept of reproduction is deconstructed by Derrida across several seminars. Derrida systematically demonstrates, across several themes and fields (sociology and economy, biology and sexuality, art, technique, (...)
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  12. La libertad reproductiva en disputa: gestación en venta como opresión.Miguel Angel Torres Quiroga - 2021 - Arbor: Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura 197 (802):a631.
    Understanding the ethical concerns of paid and altruistic surrogacy requires a knowledge of reproductive freedom and procreative autonomy. An accurate approach must be sensitive enough of the nature of sexual oppression, specifically in its influence in women’s choices, self-identity and personal relationships. The aim of this essay is to stand up for the prominence of radical feminism in questioning reproductive liberalism, which overfocus the interests of the so-called intended parents. Having in mind what egalitarian philosophers have put forward from a (...)
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  13. Quotas: Enabling Conscientious Objection to Coexist with Abortion Access.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 29 (2):154-169.
    The debate regarding the role of conscientious objection in healthcare has been protracted, with increasing demands for curbs on conscientious objection. There is a growing body of evidence that indicates that in some cases, high rates of conscientious objection can affect access to legal medical services such as abortion—a major concern of critics of conscientious objection. Moreover, few solutions have been put forward that aim to satisfy both this concern and that of defenders of conscientious objection—being expected to participate in (...)
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  14. Reproduction: Antiquity to the Present Day, Edited by Nick Hopwood, Rebecca Flemming, and Lauren Kassell, 2018.R. Allen Shotwell - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):73-75.
  15. Sex, Love, and Gender: A Kantian Theory.Helga Varden - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Sex, Love, and Gender is the first volume to present a comprehensive philosophical theory that brings together all of Kant's practical philosophy — found across his works on ethics, justice, anthropology, history, and religion — and provide a critique of emotionally healthy and morally permissible sexual, loving, gendered being. By rethinking Kant's work on human nature and making space for sex, love, and gender within his moral accounts of freedom, the book shows how, despite his austere and even anti-sex, cisist, (...)
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  16. Review of "Foucault's Futures: A Critique of Reproductive Reason" by Penelope Deutscher. [REVIEW]Anna Carastathis - 2019 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 18 (1):15-18.
    Penelope Deutscher’s book, "Foucault’s Futures: A Critique of Reproductive Reason" engages with the recent interest in reproduction, futurity, failure, and negativity in queer theory, but also the historical and ongoing investments in the concept of reproduction in feminist theory as well as (US) social movements. "Foucault’s Futures" troubles the forms of subjectivation presupposed by “reproductive rights” from a feminist perspective, exploring the “contiguity” between reproductive reason and biopolitics—specifically the proximity of reproduction to death, risk, fatality, and threat: its thanatopolitical underbelly.
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  17. Liminal Bodies, Reproductive Health, and Feminist Rhetoric: Searching the Negative Spaces in Histories of Rhetoric by Lydia M. McDermott. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (1):172-175.
    Liminal Bodies, Reproductive Health, and Feminist Rhetoric presents composition professor Lydia McDermott's "sonogram" methodology of rhetorical listening, an exercise that discloses feminine voices muted or unjustly disciplined within texts ostensibly written on women's behalf. The texts examined by McDermott range from eighteenth-century pregnancy manuals to speeches by Favorinus, the ancient sophist, who is described from antiquity as a hermaphrodite. Part of McDermott's purpose in sonogramming is to critique modern and contemporary feminists. She objects to the feminist trend of perpetuating and (...)
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  18. What a Child Can Teach Us.Maria Fannin - 2019 - In Luce Irigaray, Mahon O’Brien & Christos Hadjioannou (eds.), Towards a New Human Being. Springer Verlag. pp. 17-34.
    Luce Irigaray’s work explores the debt owed to the maternal body and the obscured or derelict figure of the maternal in the Western philosophical tradition. Her writing is deeply concerned with the status of the maternal and with the effort to revalue the maternal at a symbolic level in Western metaphysics and culture. One of the major contributions of her philosophy is its emphasis on the central, yet denigrated, unthought or disregarded bodily dimensions of maternity. Throughout her philosophical oeuvre, Irigaray (...)
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  19. The Ethics of Breastfeeding by Women Living with HIV/AIDS: A Concrete Proposal for Reforming Department of Health and Human Services Recommendations.Lawrence O. Gostin & Matthew M. Kavanagh - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):161-164.
  20. ‘Yes’ to Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques and Lesbian Motherhood: A Reply to Françoise Baylis.César Palacios-González & Giulia Cavaliere - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):280-281.
    In a recent paper – Lesbian motherhood and mitochondrial replacement techniques: reproductive freedom and genetic kinship – we argued that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. Françoise Baylis wrote a reply to our paper –‘No’ to lesbian motherhood using human nuclear genome transfer– where she challenges our arguments on the use of MRTs by lesbian couples, and on MRTs more generally. In this reply (...)
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  21. Understanding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: A Multidisciplinary Analysis.Erica Preston-Roedder, Hannah Fagen, Jessica Martucci & Anne Barnhill - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (2):117-147.
    In the United States, roughly 1 out of 4 births takes place at a hospital certified as Baby-Friendly. This paper offers a multi-disciplinary perspective on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including empirical, normative, and historical perspectives. Our analysis is novel in that we trace how medical practices of “quality improvement,” which initially appear to have little to do with breastfeeding, may have shaped the BFHI. Ultimately, we demonstrate that a rich understanding of the BFHI can be obtained by tracing how (...)
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  22. Lesbian Motherhood and Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Reproductive Freedom and Genetic Kinship.Giulia Cavaliere & César Palacios-González - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):835-842.
    In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. First, we provide a brief explanation of mitochondrial diseases and MRTs. We then present the reasons why MRTs are not, by nature, therapeutic. The upshot of the view that MRTs are non-therapeutic techniques is that their therapeutic potential cannot be invoked for restricting their use only to those cases where a mitochondrial (...)
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  23. Is ‘Assisted Reproduction’ Reproduction?Monika Piotrowska - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (270):138-157.
    With an increasing number of ways to ‘assist’ reproduction, some bioethicists have started to wonder what it takes to become a genetic parent. It is widely agreed that sharing genes is not enough to substantiate the parent–offspring relation, but what is? Without a better understanding of the concept of reproduction, our thinking about parent–offspring relations and the ethical issues surrounding them risk being unprincipled. Here, I address that problem by offering a principled account of reproduction—the Overlap, Development and Persistence account—which (...)
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  24. (Feminist) Abortion Ethics and Fetal Status.Amanda Roth - 2018 - In Pieranna Garavasco (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Analytic Feminism. pp. 394-422.
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  25. Kant's Moral Theory and Feminist Ethics: Women, Embodiment, Care Relations, and Systemic Injustice.Helga Varden - 2018 - In Pieranna Garavaso (ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Academic Feminism. pp. 459-482.
    By setting the focus on issues of dependence and embodiment, feminist work has and continues to radically improve our understanding of Kant’s practical philosophy as one that is not (as it typically has been taken to be) about disembodied abstract rational agents. This paper outlines this positive development in Kant scholarship in recent decades by taking us from Kant’s own comments on women through major developments in Kant scholarship with regard to the related feminist issues. The main aim is to (...)
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  26. Lévinas, Derrida and the Ethics and Politics of Reproduction.Mihail Evans - 2017 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 48 (1):44-62.
    ABSTRACTThis essay outlines a Lévinas- and Derrida-inspired politics of reproduction, via opening the ethics of reproduction, something previous work on the topic has omitted. It does so via a reassessment of two notable publications on Lévinas and feminism, Stella Sandford’s essay in the Cambridge Companion to Lévinas and Lisa Guenther’s volume The Gift of the Other: Lévinas and the Politics of Reproduction.11 Stella Sandford, ‘Lévinas, Feminism and the Feminine’. I particularly focus on this essay as its negative presentation of Lévinas’ (...)
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  27. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Who Are the Potential Users and Will They Benefit?Cathy Herbrand - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):46-54.
    In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques, which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the ‘eradication’ of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child. However, many questions (...)
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  28. Feminist Perspectives on Reproduction and the Family.Alice MacLachlan - 2017 - In Carol Hay (ed.), Philosophy: Feminism. pp. 317-343.
  29. A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.Jackie Leach Scully - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):37-45.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (...)
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  30. Our Bodies, Whose Property?Laura Brace - 2016 - Contemporary Political Theory 15 (2):e8-e10.
  31. “Surrogacy Has Been One of the Most Rewarding Experiences in My Life”: A Content Analysis of Blogs by U.S. Commercial Gestational Surrogates.Nicole F. Bromfield - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (1):192-217.
    With advances in assisted reproductive technologies, globalization, and the ease of contact via the internet, the use of gestational surrogates as a family building option has grown significantly over the past decade. In a gestational surrogacy arrangement, unlike a traditional surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate is not the genetic mother of the child she carries; the genetic mother is either an egg donor or the commissioning parent. There are only a handful of countries in which commercial surrogacy is permitted, with the (...)
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  32. Firestonian Futures and Trans‐Affirming Presents.Loren Cannon - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):229-244.
    Shulamith Firestone's Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution was, upon its original publication, both radicacmen would be freed from the burden of childbirth, in which the nuclear family, gender roles, typical constructions of marriage and parenting are all a thing of the past, still for many seems radical, even forty-five years after its debut in 1970. With Firestone's recent passing, it is a particularly suitable time to reconsider her work in light of the medical, technological, and social changes (...)
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  33. The Normative Importance of Pregnancy Challenges Surrogacy Contracts.Anca Gheaus - 2016 - Analize. Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies 6 (20):20-31.
    Birth mothers usually have a moral right to parent their newborns in virtue of a mutual attachment formed, during gestation, between the gestational mother and the fetus. The attachment is formed, in part, thanks to the burdens of pregnancy, and it serves the interest of the newborn; the gestational mother, too, has a powerful interest in the protection of this attachment. Given its justification, the right to parent one's gestated baby cannot be transferred at will to other people who would (...)
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  34. Feeding the Hungry Other: Levinas, Breastfeeding, and the Politics of Hunger.Robyn Lee - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):259-274.
    Breastfeeding has become a subject of moral concern as its benefits have become well known. Encouraging mothers to breastfeed has been the goal of extensive public health promotion efforts. Emmanuel Levinas makes absolute responsibility to the Other central to his ethics, with giving food to the Other the paradigmatic ethical act. However, Levinas also provides an important critique of the autonomous individual who is taken for granted by breastfeeding promotion efforts. I argue that the ethical obligation to feed the hungry (...)
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  35. Doctor's Orders: Menopause, Weight Change, and Feminism.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (2):190-197.
    “I am still in despair over losing my identity,” said a blog comment in a discussion about post-menopause weight gain. Instead of recovering an identity, for some of us, as women age, our attitudes toward fitness may require forging new identities. But the challenge in coming to desire fitness, post-menopause, is a project of actually changing my desires. Habituating a good practice can lead to a change in our appetites, so that instead of losing our identities, we may become the (...)
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  36. What Does Queer Family Equality Have to Do with Reproductive Ethics?Amanda Roth - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (1):27-67.
    In this paper, I attempt to bring together two topics that are rarely put into conversation in the philosophical bioethics literature: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer family equality on one hand, and, on the other, the morality of such alternative reproductive practices as artificial insemination by donor, egg donation, and surrogacy.2 In contrast to most of the philosophical bioethics literature on ARP, which has little to say about queer families, I will suggest that the ethics of ARP and the respect (...)
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  37. Frontiers in Parenthood: Queer Mothering, Maternal Ambivalence, Adoption, and Reproductive Technology.Maureen Sander‐Staudt - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):460-465.
  38. Feminist Phenomenology, Pregnancy, and Transcendental Subjectivity.Stella Sandford - 2016 - In Jonna Bornemark & Nicholas Smith (eds.), Phenomenology of Pregnancy. Stockholm: Södertörn University. pp. 51–69.
    In 1930 Husserl wrote that phenomenology is ‘a transcendental idealism that is nothing more than a consequentially executed self-explication in the form of an egological science, an explication of my ego as subject of every possible cognition, and indeed with respect to every sense of what exists, wherewith the latter might be able to have a sense for me, the ego.’ In transcendental-phenomenological theory, according to Husserl, ‘every sort of existent itself, real or ideal, becomes understandable as a “product” of (...)
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  39. What Do Gestational Mothers Deserve?Joshua Shaw - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (4):1031-1045.
    This paper analyzes the following question: What do women deserve, ethically speaking, when they agree to gestate a fetus on behalf of third parties? I argue for several claims. First, I argue that gestational motherhood’s moral significance has been misunderstood, an oversight I attribute to the focus in family ethics on the conditions of parenthood. Second, I use a less controversial version of James Rachels’s account of desert to argue that gestational mothers deserve a parent-like voice as well as significant (...)
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  40. Muslim Midwives: The Craft of Birthing in the Premodern Middle East, Written by Avner Giladi, 2015. [REVIEW]Miri Shefer-Mossensohn - 2016 - Early Science and Medicine 21 (1):75-77.
  41. Is There a Right to Surrogacy?Christine Straehle - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):146-159.
    Access to surrogacy is often cast in the language of rights. Here, I examine what form such a right could take. I distinguish between surrogacy as a right to assisted procreation, and surrogacy as a contractual right. I find the first interpretation implausible: it would give rise to claims against the state that no state can fulfil, namely the provision of sufficient surrogates to satisfy the need. Instead, I argue that the right to surrogacy can only be plausibly understood as (...)
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  42. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is (...)
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  43. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.Paula Abrams - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):179-191.
    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.
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  44. ART and Age − Gender Stereotypes in Medical Students’ Views.Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michałowska - 2015 - Diametros 45:71-81.
    It seems interesting to find out how the situation of the Polish ART practice is reflected in the medical students’ opinions. To answer this question we carried out a two-stage research adopting a data-driven methodology based upon the grounded theory, in which we collected a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data. Our study has revealed students’ high acceptance of IVF and most of the additional procedures, except for IVF in the case of women over 40 and postmenopausal ones. The students’ (...)
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  45. Latch On or Back Off? Public Health, Choice, and the Ethics of Breast-Feeding Promotion Campaigns.Anne Barnhill & Stephanie R. Morain - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (2):139-171.
    Breastfeeding and human milk are the normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Given the documented short- and long-term medical and neurodevelopment advantages of breastfeeding, infant nutrition should be considered a public health issue and not only a lifestyle choice.In a letter sent out to 2600 hospitals across the country they [Public Citizen] demand that healthcare facilities “immediately discontinue the distribution of commercial infant formula manufacturer discharge bags,” claiming it undermines women’s success at breastfeeding. What they failed to explain is (...)
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  46. Editors' Introduction.Ann J. Cahill, Kathryn J. Norlock & Byron J. Stoyles - 2015 - Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):1-8.
    Existing accounts of meaning in reproductive contexts, especially those put forward in debates concerning abortion, tend to focus on the (moral) status of the fetus. This issue on miscarriage, pregnancy loss, and fetal death accomplishes a shift this conversation, in the direction of pushing past embryo-centric value judgments. To put it bluntly, the miscarried embryo is not the one who has to live with the experience. The essays in this special issue are a significant addition to the scarce literature on (...)
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  47. Who is the Mother? Negotiating Identity in an Irish Surrogacy Case.Karin Christiansen - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):317-327.
    An Irish surrogacy case from 2013 illustrates how negotiations of the mother’s identity in a given national and legal context are drawing on novel scientific perspectives, at a time when the use of new biotechnological possibilities is becoming more widespread and commonplace. The Roman dictum, ‘Mater Semper Certa Est’ is contested by the finding of this Irish court, in which the judge made a declaration of parentage stating that the genetic parents of twins born using a surrogate were the parents. (...)
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  48. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes.Daniela Cutas & Anna Smajdor - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (2):386-402.
    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that (...)
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  49. Considering Pregnancy in Commercial Surrogacy: A Response to Bronwyn Parry.Luna Dolezal - 2015 - Medical Humanities 41 (1):38-39.
  50. Balancing Risks: The Core of Women's Decisions About Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.Ruth M. Farrell, Patricia K. Agatisa, Mary Beth Mercer, Marissa B. Smith & Elliot Philipson - 2015 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):42-53.
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