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Summary Matters of reproduction have always been important to feminists, since reproduction is central to gender justice. This field is necessarily interdisciplinary, and covers a variety of substantive issues. These range from the role of reproduction in patriarchal oppression, to abortion and women's autonomy, to the transformational power of reproductive technologies and practices such as surrogacy, gamete donation, and IVF. 
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  1. Procreation, Power and Personal Autonomy: Feminist Reflections.Anne Donchin - manuscript
    Anne Donchin attended graduate school while raising four children, received her doctorate from the University of Texas in 1970, taught for 18 years in Texas and New York, then joined the philosophy department at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis in 1982. Here she developed a Women’s Studies program, specialized and in numerous ways pioneered in feminist bioethics, and won two prestigious grants. She co-edited two books, published some forty articles, and co-founded and co-ordinated The International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics. (...)
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  2. Feminism, Bioethics and Genetics.Adrienne Asch & Gail Geller - forthcoming - Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction.
  3. Undivided Rights: Women of Color Organize for Reproductive Justice, And: Policing the National Body: Race, Gender, and Criminalization, And: Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide (Review).Sarah Lucia Hoagland - forthcoming - Hypatia 22 (2):182-188.
    Review (2007) of three books fighting violence against women of color. Organizers and activists all, the theorists of these volumes provide comprehensive analyses as well as strategies exploring the struggle for reproductive justice for women of color, policing the national body and criminalization, and American Indian genocide as related to sexual violence and colonial relationships. The arguments highlight once again the inseparability of theory and practice. The focus hope is to bring mainstream feminism back to its struggle for social justice.
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  4. Kantian Care.Helga Varden - forthcoming - In Amy Baehr & Asha Bhandary (eds.), Caring for Liberalism: Dependency and Political Theory. pp. 50-74.
    How do we care well for a human being: ourselves or another? Non-Kantian scholars rarely identify the philosophy of Kant as a particularly useful resource with which to understand the full complexity of human care. Kant’s philosophy is often taken to presuppose that a philosophical analysis of good human life needs to attend only to how autonomous, rational agents—sprung up like mushrooms out of nowhere, without a childhood, never sick, always independent—ought to act respectfully, and how they can be forced (...)
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  5. Womb Rentals and Baby-Selling: Does Surrogacy Undermine the Human Dignity and Rights of the Surrogate Mother and Child?Clara Watson - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-17.
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  6. Reproductive Technologies and Surrogate Parenting Arrangements.W. B. Weil Jr & L. Walters - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
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  7. Abjection and mourning in the struggle over fetal remains.Brittany R. Leach - 2021 - Contemporary Political Theory 20 (1):141-164.
    Should the remains of aborted fetuses be treated as human corpses or medical waste? How can feminists defend abortion rights without erasing the experiences of women who mourn fetal death or lending support to pro-life constructions of fetal personhood? To answer these questions, I trace the role of abjection and mourning in debates over fetal remains disposal regulations. Critiquing pro-life views of fetal personhood while challenging feminists to develop richer and more compelling accounts of fetal remains, I argue that embracing (...)
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  8. Quotas: Enabling Conscientious Objection to Coexist with Abortion Access.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 29 (2):154-169.
    The debate regarding the role of conscientious objection in healthcare has been protracted, with increasing demands for curbs on conscientious objection. There is a growing body of evidence that indicates that in some cases, high rates of conscientious objection can affect access to legal medical services such as abortion—a major concern of critics of conscientious objection. Moreover, few solutions have been put forward that aim to satisfy both this concern and that of defenders of conscientious objection—being expected to participate in (...)
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  9. Sex, Love, and Gender: A Kantian Theory.Helga Varden - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Sex, Love, and Gender is the first volume to present a comprehensive philosophical theory that brings together all of Kant's practical philosophy — found across his works on ethics, justice, anthropology, history, and religion — and provide a critique of emotionally healthy and morally permissible sexual, loving, gendered being. By rethinking Kant's work on human nature and making space for sex, love, and gender within his moral accounts of freedom, the book shows how, despite his austere and even anti-sex, cisist, (...)
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  10. Review of "Foucault's Futures: A Critique of Reproductive Reason" by Penelope Deutscher. [REVIEW]Anna Carastathis - 2019 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 18 (1):15-18.
    Penelope Deutscher’s book, "Foucault’s Futures: A Critique of Reproductive Reason" engages with the recent interest in reproduction, futurity, failure, and negativity in queer theory, but also the historical and ongoing investments in the concept of reproduction in feminist theory as well as (US) social movements. "Foucault’s Futures" troubles the forms of subjectivation presupposed by “reproductive rights” from a feminist perspective, exploring the “contiguity” between reproductive reason and biopolitics—specifically the proximity of reproduction to death, risk, fatality, and threat: its thanatopolitical underbelly.
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  11. Liminal Bodies, Reproductive Health, and Feminist Rhetoric: Searching the Negative Spaces in Histories of Rhetoric by Lydia M. McDermott. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (1):172-175.
    Liminal Bodies, Reproductive Health, and Feminist Rhetoric presents composition professor Lydia McDermott's "sonogram" methodology of rhetorical listening, an exercise that discloses feminine voices muted or unjustly disciplined within texts ostensibly written on women's behalf. The texts examined by McDermott range from eighteenth-century pregnancy manuals to speeches by Favorinus, the ancient sophist, who is described from antiquity as a hermaphrodite. Part of McDermott's purpose in sonogramming is to critique modern and contemporary feminists. She objects to the feminist trend of perpetuating and (...)
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  12. What a Child Can Teach Us.Maria Fannin - 2019 - In Luce Irigaray, Mahon O’Brien & Christos Hadjioannou (eds.), Towards a New Human Being. Springer Verlag. pp. 17-34.
    Luce Irigaray’s work explores the debt owed to the maternal body and the obscured or derelict figure of the maternal in the Western philosophical tradition. Her writing is deeply concerned with the status of the maternal and with the effort to revalue the maternal at a symbolic level in Western metaphysics and culture. One of the major contributions of her philosophy is its emphasis on the central, yet denigrated, unthought or disregarded bodily dimensions of maternity. Throughout her philosophical oeuvre, Irigaray (...)
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  13. ‘Yes’ to Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques and Lesbian Motherhood: A Reply to Françoise Baylis.César Palacios-González & Giulia Cavaliere - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):280-281.
    In a recent paper – Lesbian motherhood and mitochondrial replacement techniques: reproductive freedom and genetic kinship – we argued that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. Françoise Baylis wrote a reply to our paper –‘No’ to lesbian motherhood using human nuclear genome transfer– where she challenges our arguments on the use of MRTs by lesbian couples, and on MRTs more generally. In this reply (...)
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  14. Understanding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: A Multidisciplinary Analysis.Erica Preston-Roedder, Hannah Fagen, Jessica Martucci & Anne Barnhill - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (2):117-147.
    In the United States, roughly 1 out of 4 births takes place at a hospital certified as Baby-Friendly. This paper offers a multi-disciplinary perspective on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including empirical, normative, and historical perspectives. Our analysis is novel in that we trace how medical practices of “quality improvement,” which initially appear to have little to do with breastfeeding, may have shaped the BFHI. Ultimately, we demonstrate that a rich understanding of the BFHI can be obtained by tracing how (...)
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  15. Lesbian Motherhood and Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Reproductive Freedom and Genetic Kinship.Giulia Cavaliere & César Palacios-González - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):835-842.
    In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. First, we provide a brief explanation of mitochondrial diseases and MRTs. We then present the reasons why MRTs are not, by nature, therapeutic. The upshot of the view that MRTs are non-therapeutic techniques is that their therapeutic potential cannot be invoked for restricting their use only to those cases where a mitochondrial (...)
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  16. Is ‘Assisted Reproduction’ Reproduction?Monika Piotrowska - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (270):138-157.
    With an increasing number of ways to ‘assist’ reproduction, some bioethicists have started to wonder what it takes to become a genetic parent. It is widely agreed that sharing genes is not enough to substantiate the parent–offspring relation, but what is? Without a better understanding of the concept of reproduction, our thinking about parent–offspring relations and the ethical issues surrounding them risk being unprincipled. Here, I address that problem by offering a principled account of reproduction—the Overlap, Development and Persistence account—which (...)
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  17. Gender-Based Administrative Violence as Colonial Strategy.Elena Ruíz & Nora Berenstain - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):209-227.
    There is a growing trend across North America of women being criminalized for their pregnancy outcomes. Rather than being a series of aberrations resulting from institutional failures, we argue that this trend is part of a colonial strategy of administrative violence aimed at women of color and Native women across Turtle Island. We consider a range of medical and legal practices constituting gender-based administrative violence, and we argue that they are the result of non-accidental and systematic production of population-level harms (...)
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  18. Kant's Moral Theory and Feminist Ethics: Women, Embodiment, Care Relations, and Systemic Injustice.Helga Varden - 2018 - In Pieranna Garavaso (ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Academic Feminism. pp. 459-482.
    By setting the focus on issues of dependence and embodiment, feminist work has and continues to radically improve our understanding of Kant’s practical philosophy as one that is not (as it typically has been taken to be) about disembodied abstract rational agents. This paper outlines this positive development in Kant scholarship in recent decades by taking us from Kant’s own comments on women through major developments in Kant scholarship with regard to the related feminist issues. The main aim is to (...)
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  19. Mary Shelley and the Rights of the Child: Political Philosophy in Frankenstein.Eileen Hunt Botting - 2017 - Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania.
    From her youth, Mary Shelley immersed herself in the social contract tradition, particularly the educational and political theories of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as well as the radical philosophies of her parents, the feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and the anarchist William Godwin. Against this background, Shelley wrote Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus, first published in 1818. In the two centuries since, her masterpiece has been celebrated as a Gothic classic and its symbolic resonance has driven the global success of its (...)
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  20. Lévinas, Derrida and the Ethics and Politics of Reproduction.Mihail Evans - 2017 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 48 (1):44-62.
    ABSTRACTThis essay outlines a Lévinas- and Derrida-inspired politics of reproduction, via opening the ethics of reproduction, something previous work on the topic has omitted. It does so via a reassessment of two notable publications on Lévinas and feminism, Stella Sandford’s essay in the Cambridge Companion to Lévinas and Lisa Guenther’s volume The Gift of the Other: Lévinas and the Politics of Reproduction.11 Stella Sandford, ‘Lévinas, Feminism and the Feminine’. I particularly focus on this essay as its negative presentation of Lévinas’ (...)
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  21. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Who Are the Potential Users and Will They Benefit?Cathy Herbrand - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):46-54.
    In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques, which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the ‘eradication’ of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child. However, many questions (...)
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  22. Feminist Perspectives on Reproduction and the Family.Alice MacLachlan - 2017 - In Carol Hay (ed.), Philosophy: Feminism. pp. 317-343.
  23. A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.Jackie Leach Scully - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):37-45.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (...)
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  24. “Surrogacy Has Been One of the Most Rewarding Experiences in My Life”: A Content Analysis of Blogs by U.S. Commercial Gestational Surrogates.Nicole F. Bromfield - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (1):192-217.
    With advances in assisted reproductive technologies, globalization, and the ease of contact via the internet, the use of gestational surrogates as a family building option has grown significantly over the past decade. In a gestational surrogacy arrangement, unlike a traditional surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate is not the genetic mother of the child she carries; the genetic mother is either an egg donor or the commissioning parent. There are only a handful of countries in which commercial surrogacy is permitted, with the (...)
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  25. Firestonian Futures and Trans‐Affirming Presents.Loren Cannon - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):229-244.
    Shulamith Firestone's Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution was, upon its original publication, both radicacmen would be freed from the burden of childbirth, in which the nuclear family, gender roles, typical constructions of marriage and parenting are all a thing of the past, still for many seems radical, even forty-five years after its debut in 1970. With Firestone's recent passing, it is a particularly suitable time to reconsider her work in light of the medical, technological, and social changes (...)
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  26. The Normative Importance of Pregnancy Challenges Surrogacy Contracts.Anca Gheaus - 2016 - Analize. Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies 6 (20):20-31.
    Birth mothers usually have a moral right to parent their newborns in virtue of a mutual attachment formed, during gestation, between the gestational mother and the fetus. The attachment is formed, in part, thanks to the burdens of pregnancy, and it serves the interest of the newborn; the gestational mother, too, has a powerful interest in the protection of this attachment. Given its justification, the right to parent one's gestated baby cannot be transferred at will to other people who would (...)
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  27. Doctor's Orders: Menopause, Weight Change, and Feminism.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (2):190-197.
    “I am still in despair over losing my identity,” said a blog comment in a discussion about post-menopause weight gain. Instead of recovering an identity, for some of us, as women age, our attitudes toward fitness may require forging new identities. But the challenge in coming to desire fitness, post-menopause, is a project of actually changing my desires. Habituating a good practice can lead to a change in our appetites, so that instead of losing our identities, we may become the (...)
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  28. What Does Queer Family Equality Have to Do with Reproductive Ethics?Amanda Roth - 2016 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 9 (1):27-67.
    In this paper, I attempt to bring together two topics that are rarely put into conversation in the philosophical bioethics literature: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer family equality on one hand, and, on the other, the morality of such alternative reproductive practices as artificial insemination by donor, egg donation, and surrogacy.2 In contrast to most of the philosophical bioethics literature on ARP, which has little to say about queer families, I will suggest that the ethics of ARP and the respect (...)
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  29. What Do Gestational Mothers Deserve?Joshua Shaw - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (4):1031-1045.
    This paper analyzes the following question: What do women deserve, ethically speaking, when they agree to gestate a fetus on behalf of third parties? I argue for several claims. First, I argue that gestational motherhood’s moral significance has been misunderstood, an oversight I attribute to the focus in family ethics on the conditions of parenthood. Second, I use a less controversial version of James Rachels’s account of desert to argue that gestational mothers deserve a parent-like voice as well as significant (...)
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  30. Is There a Right to Surrogacy?Christine Straehle - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):146-159.
    Access to surrogacy is often cast in the language of rights. Here, I examine what form such a right could take. I distinguish between surrogacy as a right to assisted procreation, and surrogacy as a contractual right. I find the first interpretation implausible: it would give rise to claims against the state that no state can fulfil, namely the provision of sufficient surrogates to satisfy the need. Instead, I argue that the right to surrogacy can only be plausibly understood as (...)
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  31. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is (...)
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  32. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.Paula Abrams - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):179-191.
    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.
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  33. ART and Age − Gender Stereotypes in Medical Students’ Views.Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michałowska - 2015 - Diametros 45:71-81.
    It seems interesting to find out how the situation of the Polish ART practice is reflected in the medical students’ opinions. To answer this question we carried out a two-stage research adopting a data-driven methodology based upon the grounded theory, in which we collected a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data. Our study has revealed students’ high acceptance of IVF and most of the additional procedures, except for IVF in the case of women over 40 and postmenopausal ones. The students’ (...)
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  34. Editors' Introduction.Ann J. Cahill, Kathryn J. Norlock & Byron J. Stoyles - 2015 - Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):1-8.
    Existing accounts of meaning in reproductive contexts, especially those put forward in debates concerning abortion, tend to focus on the (moral) status of the fetus. This issue on miscarriage, pregnancy loss, and fetal death accomplishes a shift this conversation, in the direction of pushing past embryo-centric value judgments. To put it bluntly, the miscarried embryo is not the one who has to live with the experience. The essays in this special issue are a significant addition to the scarce literature on (...)
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  35. Who is the Mother? Negotiating Identity in an Irish Surrogacy Case.Karin Christiansen - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):317-327.
    An Irish surrogacy case from 2013 illustrates how negotiations of the mother’s identity in a given national and legal context are drawing on novel scientific perspectives, at a time when the use of new biotechnological possibilities is becoming more widespread and commonplace. The Roman dictum, ‘Mater Semper Certa Est’ is contested by the finding of this Irish court, in which the judge made a declaration of parentage stating that the genetic parents of twins born using a surrogate were the parents. (...)
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  36. Considering Pregnancy in Commercial Surrogacy: A Response to Bronwyn Parry.Luna Dolezal - 2015 - Medical Humanities 41 (1):38-39.
  37. Torture Born: Representing Pregnancy and Abortion in Contemporary Survival-Horror.Steve Jones - 2015 - Sexuality and Culture 19 (3):426-443.
    In proportion to the increased emphasis placed on abortion in partisan political debate since the early 2000s, there has been a noticeable upsurge in cultural representations of abortion. This article charts ways in which that increase manifests in contemporary survival-horror. This article contends that numerous contemporary survival-horror films foreground pregnancy. These representations of pregnancy reify the pressures that moralistic, partisan political campaigning places on individuals who consider terminating a pregnancy. These films contribute to public discourse by engaging with abortion as (...)
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  38. Rethinking “Commercial” Surrogacy in Australia.Jenni Millbank - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):477-490.
    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate “good” surrogacy arrangements from “bad” ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.
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  39. Autonomy, Choices and Consent in Commercial Surrogacy: Viewing Through the Indian Lens.Diksha Munjal-Shankar - 2015 - Asian Bioethics Review 7 (4):380-393.
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  40. Reproductive ‘Surrogacy’ and Parental Licensing.Christine Overall - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (5):353-361.
    A serious moral weakness of reproductive ‘surrogacy’ is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial ‘surrogacy’ operates only in the interests of the adults involved , not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether ‘surrogacy’ is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same (...)
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  41. “The Event That Was Nothing”: Miscarriage as a Liminal Event.Alison Reiheld - 2015 - Journal of Social Philosophy 46 (1):9-26.
    I argue that miscarriage, referred to by poet Susan Stewart as “the event that was nothing,” is a liminal event along four distinct and inter-related dimensions: parenthood, procreation, death, and induced abortion. It is because of this liminality that miscarriage has been both poorly addressed in our society, and enrolled in larger debates over women's reproduction and responsibility for reproduction, both conceptually and legally. If miscarriage’s liminality were better understood, if miscarriage itself were better theorized, perhaps it would not so (...)
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  42. Global Justice, Capabilities Approach and Commercial Surrogacy in India.Sheela Saravanan - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):295-307.
    Inequalities, ineffective governance, unclear surrogacy regulations and unethical practices make India an ideal environment for global injustice in the process of commercial surrogacy. This article aims to apply the ‘capabilities approach’ to find possibilities of global justice through human fellowship in the context of commercial surrogacy. I draw primarily on my research findings supplemented by other relevant empirical research and documentary films on surrogacy. The paper reveals inequalities and inadequate basic entitlements among surrogate mothers as a consequence of which they (...)
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  43. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India.Malene Tanderup, Sunita Reddy, Tulsi Patel & Birgitte Bruun Nielsen - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):491-501.
    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in (...)
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  44. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.Ruth Walker & Liezl van Zyl - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (8):529-535.
    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult – even tragic – moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide – the pregnant woman – does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should (...)
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  45. “The Angel of the House” in the Realm of ART: Feminist Approach to Oocyte and Spare Embryo Donation for Research. [REVIEW]Anna Alichniewicz & Monika Michalowska - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):123-129.
    The spectacular progress in assisted reproduction technology that has been witnessed for the past thirty years resulted in emerging new ethical dilemmas as well as the revision of some perennial ones. The paper aims at a feminist approach to oocyte and spare embryo donation for research. First, referring to different concepts of autonomy and informed consent, we discuss whether the decision to donate oocyte/embryo can truly be an autonomous choice of a female patient. Secondly, we argue the commonly adopted language (...)
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  46. Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy.Amrita Banerjee - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  47. Achieving National Altruistic Self-Sufficiency in Human Eggs for Third-Party Reproduction in Canada.Françoise Baylis & Jocelyn Downie - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):164-184.
    In Canada, the use of reproductive technologies is largely governed by the Assisted Human Reproduction Act . One of the founding principles of the AHR Act is that “trade in the reproductive capabilities of women and men, and the exploitation of children, women and men for commercial ends raise health and ethical concerns that justify their prohibition” ). This principle is instantiated in several sections of the AHR Act, including s. 7, which prohibits the purchase of gametes. It follows that, (...)
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  48. Introduction.Françoise Baylis & Jocelyn Downie - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):1-9.
    Transnational reproductive travel is a largely unfettered multibillion-dollar global industry that flourishes, in part, by capitalizing on differences in legal regimes, wages and standards of living, and cultural and ethical norms. Indeed, as Scott Carney explains with respect to the commercialization of human eggs for third-party reproduction, “internationalization has made oversight laughable. … [R]egulators are dogs with no teeth” . While professional organizations can introduce guidelines and nation-states can introduce laws, the fact is that patients can travel to places where (...)
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  49. At the Intersections of Emotional and Biological Labor: Understanding Transnational Commercial Surrogacy as Social Reproduction.G. K. D. Crozier, Jennifer L. Johnson & Christopher Hajzler - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):45-74.
    This paper focuses on how surrogacy is to be valued in the transnational context, and what it means for surrogacy to be considered a form of paid, social reproductive labor. By social reproduction, we refer to the social processes and activities, such as child rearing and caring for dependents, that are necessary to uphold a productive society. Since these are complex and nuanced questions, and ones that are likely to need different answers in different countries and social contexts, this paper (...)
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  50. Infertility and Assisted Reproduction Technologies Through a Gender Lens.Karolína Davidová & Olga Pechová - 2014 - Human Affairs 24 (3):363-375.
    We live in an era when increasing numbers of babies are conceived through assisted reproduction technologies . Using a comprehensive approach, the present research seeks to contribute to the understanding of gender differences in experiencing and coping with infertility, and in dealing with ART treatment. Our sample consisted of 10 heterosexual couples aged 24 to 43 and the data were collected through semi-structured interviews. In the studied sample, gender differences existed not only in experiences of infertility, but also in understanding (...)
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