About this topic
Summary Arising at the intersection of the sub-disciplines of bioethics and feminist philosophy, feminist bioethics was largely dominated by questions of reproduction in its early years. More recently, the concerns of this field have diversified, to include topics such as ageing, end-of-life decision-making, consent and substituted decision-making, mental health ethics and care relations, to name but a few. Feminist approaches to bioethical issues have tended to emphasise the theoretical and ethical importance of embodiment, care, vulnerability and dependence rather than ideas of rationality and autonomy. That said, feminists involved in this area have also generated important new ways of thinking about moral agency, such as in relational autonomy, for instance. 
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  1. added 2020-02-12
    One of Us: Conjoined Twins and the Future of Normal.Shelley Tremain - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (1):181-184.
  2. added 2020-02-12
    Mass Hysteria: Medicine, Culture, and Mothers’ Bodies. Rebecca Kukla. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.Mary Briody Mahowald - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):216-218.
  3. added 2020-02-12
    Reconceiving Pregnancy and Childcare: Ethics, Experience, and Reproductive Labor. Amy Mullin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.Patrice DiQuinzio - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):204-209.
  4. added 2020-02-12
    Globalizing Feminist Bioethics: Crosscultural Perspectives.Julie M. Zilberberg - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):208-210.
  5. added 2020-02-12
    Diagnosis: Difference: The Moral Authority of Medicine.Susan Sherwin - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (3):172-176.
  6. added 2020-02-11
    Women and Children in Health Care: An Unequal Majority.Joan C. Callahan - 1995 - Ethics 105 (4):950-951.
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  7. added 2019-12-12
    Clinical Research Involving Pregnant Women Ed. By Françoise Baylis and Angela Ballantyne. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Victor - 2019 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 12 (1):175-179.
    As a feminist bioethicist, I have frequently wondered why the exclusion of pregnant women has been the default position for most clinical research and how social values have influenced this decision. Relatedly, I wonder what responsible research involving pregnant women would look like. As a theorist who conducts research on the concept of vulnerability, I have often wanted to know why there has been so little research into the harmful effects of the routine exclusion of pregnant women, including questions such (...)
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  8. added 2019-12-12
    Relational Autonomy in Action: Rethinking Dementia and Sexuality in Care Facilities.Elizabeth Victor & Laura Guidry-Grimes - 2019 - Nursing Ethics 26 (6):1654-1664.
    Background: Caregivers and administrators in long-term facilities have fragile moral work in caring for residents with dementia. Residents are susceptible to barriers and vulnerabilities associated with the most intimate aspects of their lives, including how they express themselves sexually. The conditions for sexual agency are directly affected by caregivers’ perceptions and attitudes, as well as facility policies. Objective: This article aims to clarify how to approach capacity determinations as it relates to sexual activity, propose how to theorize about patient autonomy (...)
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  9. added 2019-12-05
    What Can Feminist Epistemology Do for Surgery?Mary Jean Walker & Wendy Rogers - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):404-421.
    Surgery is an important part of contemporary health care, but currently much of surgery lacks a strong evidence base. Uptake of evidence-based medicine (EBM) methods within surgical research and among practitioners has been slow compared with other areas of medicine. Although this is often viewed as arising from practical and cultural barriers, it also reflects a lack of epistemic fit between EBM research methods and surgical practice. In this paper we discuss some epistemic challenges in surgery relating to this lack (...)
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  10. added 2019-10-31
    Transitional States.Trevor Stammers - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (1):1-2.
    Volume 25, Issue 1, March 2019, Page 1-2.
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  11. added 2019-09-04
    Monterrey, C-Section Capital of Mexico: Examining the Ethical Dimensions.Martha Sañudo & Inmaculada De Melo-Martín - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (1):148-164.
    Cesarean sections are one of the most commonly performed surgical operations worldwide. Though evidence suggests that non-medically indicated cesarean sections raise the health risks for mothers and their babies and result in increased costs of health care compared with vaginal deliveries, reports are common that the frequency of performance of this surgical procedure is far above WHO recommendations. Of special concern has been the current increase of cesarean delivery rates in some Latin American countries. Here we focus on Monterrey, Mexico, (...)
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  12. added 2019-08-01
    Bioethics and Women Across the Life Span, by Mary Briody Mahowald.Véronique Bergeron - 2008 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2):179-182.
  13. added 2019-06-24
    Getting Obligations Right: Autonomy and Shared Decision Making.Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (1):118-140.
    Shared Decision Making (‘SDM’) is one of the most significant developments in Western health care practices in recent years. Whereas traditional models of care operate on the basis of the physician as the primary medical decision maker, SDM requires patients to be supported to consider options in order to achieve informed preferences by mutually sharing the best available evidence. According to its proponents, SDM is the right way to interpret the clinician-patient relationship because it fulfils the ethical imperative of respecting (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-24
    Property, Women and Politics: Subjects or Objects?Donna Dickenson - 1997 - Cambridge: Polity.
    This book contributes to the feminist reconstruction of political theory. Although many feminist authors have pointed out the ways in which women have been property, they have been less successful in suggesting how women might become the subjects rather than the objects of property-holding. This book synthesises political theory from liberal, Marxist, Kantian and Hegelian traditions, applying these ideas to history and social policy.
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  15. added 2019-06-18
    On Bioethics and the Commodified Body: An Interview with Donna Dickenson.Donna Dickenson & Alana Cattapan - 2016 - Studies in Social Justice 10 (2):342-351.
  16. added 2019-06-18
    Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives.Donna Dickenson - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    New developments in biotechnology radically alter our relationship with our bodies. Body tissues can now be used for commercial purposes, while external objects, such as pacemakers, can become part of the body. Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives transcends the everyday responses to such developments, suggesting that what we most fear is the feminisation of the body. We fear our bodies are becoming objects of property, turning us into things rather than persons. This book evaluates how well-grounded this fear is, (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-18
    Ownership, Property and Women's Bodies.Donna Dickenson - 2006 - In Heather Widdows, Aitsiber Emaldi Cirion & Itziar Alkorta Idiakez (eds.), Women's Reproductive Rights. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 188-198.
    Does advocating women's reproductive rights require us to believe that women own property in their bodies? In this chapter I conclude that it does not. Although the concept of owning our own bodies — ‘whose body is it anyway?’ — has polemical and political utility, it is incoherent in philosophy and law. Rather than conflate the entirely plausible concept of women’s reproductive rights and the implausible notion of property in the body, we should keep them separate, so that the weakness (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-18
    The Lady Vanishes: What’s Missing From the Stem Cell Debate.Donna L. Dickenson - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1):43-54.
    Most opponents of somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell technologies base their arguments on the twin assertions that the embryo is either a human being or a potential human being, and that it is wrong to destroy a human being or potential human being in order to produce stem cell lines. Proponents’ justifications of stem cell research are more varied, but not enough to escape the charge of obsession with the status of the embryo. What unites the two (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-14
    Interview with Donna Dickenson About Gender and Bioethics.Donna Dickenson - 2013 - In Klasien Horstman & Marli Huijer (eds.), Gender and Genes: Yearbook of Women's History. Hilversum.
    Interview by Klasien Horstman on gender and genetics. 'Unlike many gender theorists, I do not view the body as socially constructed; nor do I share postmodern and deconstructionist disquiet at the notion of a unified subject. Frankly, I think these constructions get in the way of political action and are bad for women’s rights.' -/- .
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  20. added 2019-06-07
    No More Mothers?: How Attenuating Factors Are Changing the Identity.Naomi Zack - 2009 - Social Philosophy Today 25:17-30.
    The role of motherhood was attenuated over the second half of the twentieth century, by literal and metaphorical factors: Privileged women gained control over their reproduction and developed non-mothering life priorities; government and society became less nurturing in public ideals; projects of spontaneous speciation began in biology; the environment became unsustaining. In addition, feminist criticism resulted in greater individuation between the persons of mothers and their children. With these changes, the role of motherhood lacks a positive identity, culturally and psychically. (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Widows, Women, and the Bioethics of Care.C. T. Partridge & J. Turiaso - 2005 - Christian Bioethics 11 (1):77-92.
    Widows, women, and the bioethics of care must be understood within an authentic Christian ontology of gender. Men are men and women are women, and their being is ontologically marked in difference. There is an ontology of gender with important implications for the role of women in the family and the Church. The Christian Church has traditionally recognized a role for widows, deaconesses, and female monastics, which is not that of the liturgical priesthood, but one with a special relationship to (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Towards an Understanding of Nursing as a Response to Human Vulnerability.Derek Sellman - 2005 - Nursing Philosophy 6 (1):2-10.
    It is not unusual for the adjective ‘vulnerable’ to be applied to those in receipt of nursing practice without making clear what it is that persons thus described are actually vulnerable to. In this paper I argue that the way nursing has adopted the idea of vulnerability tends to imply that some people are in some way invulnerable. This is conceptually unsustainable and renders the idea of the vulnerable patient meaningless. The paper explores the meaning of vulnerability both in general (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction. [REVIEW]Norah Martin - 2001 - Teaching Philosophy 24 (3):300-304.
  24. added 2019-06-05
    Eggs and Euros: A Feminist Perspective on Reproductive Travel From Denmark to Spain.Charlotte Kroløkke - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):144-163.
    Fertility travel is a global and emergent topic. Italians, Swedes, and Norwegians travel to Denmark for anonymous sperm donation, while Danes, Norwegians, and Germans travel to Spain, Greece, the Ukraine, or the Czech Republic for anonymous egg donation.1 Legal differences in European countries on the availability of reproductive procedures, cryopreservation technology, accessibility, and donor compensation, together with transnational clinical exchanges in expertise and technology, have made assisted reproduction an increasingly transnational affair .This article discusses how Danish infertile couples negotiate traveling (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-05
    Introduction.Françoise Baylis & Jocelyn Downie - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):1-9.
    Transnational reproductive travel is a largely unfettered multibillion-dollar global industry that flourishes, in part, by capitalizing on differences in legal regimes, wages and standards of living, and cultural and ethical norms. Indeed, as Scott Carney explains with respect to the commercialization of human eggs for third-party reproduction, “internationalization has made oversight laughable. … [R]egulators are dogs with no teeth” . While professional organizations can introduce guidelines and nation-states can introduce laws, the fact is that patients can travel to places where (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-05
    The Time of the Change: Menopause's Medicalization and the Gender Politics of Aging. van de Wiel - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (1):74.
    As a nexus of fertility’s finitude and female midlife, menopause is a physical and cultural phenomenon through which the relation between the medicalization of the female reproductive cycle and normative attitudes toward aging become expressed. Age, like other systems of separation, can function as an “instrument of regulatory regimes” and shows similarities to gender in its body-bound, surface-focused, and morally coded position in the sociomedical sphere. However, although age is an influential social category, its reliance on historical and epistemic constructions (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-05
    Introduction.Jackie Leach Scully - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (1):1.
    This issue of IJFAB is based on papers from the Eighth International Congress of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics (FAB), held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in June 2012. The biennial congress is now solidly established as a key feature of the bioethics landscape, and is an important factor in the continuing growth of feminist bioethics. From the first gathering in San Francisco in 1996, FAB congresses have developed a reputation as lively, welcoming, challenging, and intellectually vibrant events that make a particular (...)
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  28. added 2019-06-05
    International Migrant Eldercare Workers in Italy, Germany, and Sweden: A Feminist Critique of Eldercare Policy in the United States.Rosemarie Tong - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):41-59.
    We live in a world where people travel far from home to find work and income (Segal, Elliott, and Mayadas 2010). Professionally trained individuals fly first class to countries where they find lucrative salaries as scientists, bankers, information technologists, physicians, professors, artists, and musicians (Jones 1999). Other people are not so lucky. They travel by foot, train, or boat to countries where people speak languages that are utterly foreign to them. Or they fly economy class to countries where they will (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-05
    Conditions of Care: Migration, Vulnerability, and Individual Autonomy.Christine Straehle - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):122.
    International migration has a female face in the beginning of the twenty-first century; since at least 1990, a total of 49 percent of international migrants have been women (UN 2008).1 Many women relocate in pursuit of goals that they can’t realize in their countries of origin, and many women move on their own to developed countries as caregivers to the very old or the very young, as nurses to attend to the sick in hospitals, and as domestic workers.2 How should (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-05
    The Other Side of Care: Some Thoughts on Caregiving and Grief.Anna Gotlib - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):179.
  31. added 2019-06-05
    A Looming Dystopia: Feminism, Aging, and Community-Based Long-Term Care.Martha Holstein - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):6-35.
    Any real society is a caregiving and a care receiving society and we must therefore discover ways of coping with these facts of human neediness and dependency that are compatible with the self-respect of the recipients and do not exploit the caregivers. Remember the old Beatles’ refrain—will you still need me, will you still feed me when I’m 64? But what if I need you when I’m 84? What if I have congestive heart failure and arthritis and can no longer (...)
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  32. added 2019-06-05
    Mapping Another Dimension of a Feminist Ethics of Care: Family-Based Transnational Care.Sheila M. Neysmith & Yanqiu Rachel Zhou - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):141-159.
  33. added 2019-06-05
    A Relational Analysis of Pandemic Critical Care Triage Protocols.Chris Kaposy & Sarah Khraishi - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):70-90.
    In a severe influenza pandemic, a surge of illness in a community would be felt especially in hospital critical care units, where intensive resources are devoted to sustaining the lives of the most ill. The lead-up to the anticipated second wave of H1N1 influenza in the fall of 2009 and the memory of the SARS outbreak earlier in the decade have caused health care organizations in North America to develop critical care triage protocols for dealing with a deadly pandemic. These (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-05
    Why Bioethics Needs a Concept of Vulnerability.Wendy Rogers, Catriona Mackenzie & Susan Dodds - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):11-38.
  35. added 2019-06-05
    How Are Pregnant Women Vulnerable Research Participants?Verina Wild - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):82-104.
    Despite the attempts to promote the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research, this group is still widely excluded and thus hindered in benefiting from medical progress (Lyerly, Little, and Faden 2009). There are two interconnected reasons why pregnant women continue to be excluded from clinical trials. First, the traditional background assumptions associated with pregnancy, pregnant women, and the fetus still involve a harmful separation of woman and fetus that in some cases leads to an unbalanced prioritization of fetal needs. (...)
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  36. added 2019-06-05
    A Global Ethics Approach to Vulnerability.Ruth Macklin - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):64-81.
    In exploring the concept of vulnerability, we do not begin with a blank slate. In research involving human subjects, ethics guidelines typically provide a rough definition of the concept. For example, the commentary on Guideline 13 in the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), says that "vulnerable persons are those who are relatively (or absolutely) incapable of protecting their own interests. More formally, they may have insufficient (...)
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  37. added 2019-06-05
    Care Ethics and Corporeal Inquiry in Patient Relations.Maurice Hamington - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):52.
    Practically every development in medicine in the post–World War II period distanced the physician and the hospital from the patient and the community, disrupting personal connections and severing bonds of trust. We need an ethics that include bodily mediated knowledge as a complement to intellectual knowledge. Care is a challenging concept to explore, in part because it is employed widely and often without thoughtful parsing. Moreover, it has gained increasing significance in ethical discourse.1 Since the 1980s, feminist theorists have used (...)
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  38. added 2019-06-05
    Feminist Bioethics Meets Experimental Philosophy: Embracing the Qualitative and Experiential.Catherine Womack & Norah Mulvaney-Day - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):113-132.
    Experimental philosophy (henceforth called X-Phi) represents a departure in methodology from standard twentieth-century philosophy; instead of privileging intuitions of professional philosophers to analyze philosophical concepts such as moral responsibility, knowledge, or intentional action, X-Phi catalogs and analyzes the intuitions of ordinary folk1 about scenarios designed to uncover the content of those concepts as found in standard usage. It formulates explanations of those intuitions that may reveal more complex and nuanced accounts of those same philosophical concepts. X-philosophers work to understand the (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-05
    Terri Schiavo and the Language of Biopolitics.Sarah K. Hansen - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):91-112.
    On March 18, 2005, the U.S. House of Representative’s Committee on Government Reform issued subpoenas to Florida residents Michael and Terri Schiavo. The subpoenas summoned the Schiavos to “testify” before the committee regarding its investigation into “treatment options provided to incapacitated patients to advance the[ir] quality of life” (U.S. H.R. 1332, 2005). In light of Terri Schiavo’s long and well-known traumas, many observers questioned the sensitivity of the order for testimony. Having suffered severe anoxic brain damage as a result of (...)
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  40. added 2019-06-05
    Respect for People in Situations of Vulnerability: A New Principle for Health-Care Professionals and Health-Care Organizations.Carolyn Ells - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):180-185.
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  41. added 2019-06-05
    Responding to Vulnerability: The Case of Injection Drug Use.Elizabeth Ben-Ishai - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):39-63.
    "Before they were 'junkies,' they were kids." The words appear on a poster, beneath a montage of photographs of children and the text: "Save Insite." Insite, located in Vancouver, Canada, is North America's first and only supervised injection facility (SIF). At Insite, people who use injection drugs can inject previously obtained drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, under medical supervision, using sterile equipment provided by this government-run facility. Opened under the auspices of a three-year exemption from federal drug laws in (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-05
    Women on the Move: Long-Term Care, Migrant Women, and Global Justice.Lisa Eckenwiler - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):1-31.
    Population aging is affecting all regions and most countries (WHO 2006a; Weinberger 2007). From 2000 to 2050, the world population aged sixty and above will more than triple from 600 million to 2 billion, moving from 9 percent to as much as 22 percent of the world’s population. Projections further suggest that elderly populations in many developing countries are growing more rapidly than those in affluent ones. Compared to wealthier countries, low- and middle-income countries will undergo this demographic shift quite (...)
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  43. added 2019-06-05
    Affordability of Health Care: A Gender-Related Problem and a Gender-Responsive Solution.Carla Saenz - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):144-153.
    The cost of health care imposes an extremely difficult, and often impossible, burden for many people to bear. It is also a burden that men and women do not experience in the same way. Evidence shows that “women have greater difficulty affording health care” (Patchias and Waxman 2007, 6). In the United States, 62 percent of working-age women in 2007—compared to 48 percent of working-age men—reported problems in affording health care, including not being able to pay medical bills, foregoing or (...)
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  44. added 2019-06-05
    Reproductive Choice and the Ideals of Parenting.Elisabeth Gedge - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):32.
    In “Where Is the Sin in Synecdoche?” (2005) Adrienne Asch and David Wasserman criticize the choice to use prenatal testing (PNT) to determine disability. Notwithstanding the multiple meanings, motives, and circumstances behind people’s reproductive choices, Asch and Wasserman argue that individual choices to reject impaired potential offspring should be the subject of moral scrutiny, since they are likely to be the result of synecdoche—“the uncritical reliance on a stigma-driven inference from a single feature to a whole future life” (181). Such (...)
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  45. added 2019-06-05
    Relational Autonomy as an Essential Component of Patient-Centered Care.Carolyn Ells, Matthew R. Hunt & Jane Chambers-Evans - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):79-101.
    Over the past decade, patient-centered care has become increasingly prominent in discussions of health-care practice, policy, and organization. Patient-centered care is a holistic concept whereby health professionals individualize their encounters with each patient (Stewart 2001). Decision-making strategies, recommendations, and plans of care are all devised and acted upon in relation to the particular patient. The patient is assumed to have a unique configuration of elements comprising her identity, illness experience, and physical, social, and environmental context. While partnership is understood as (...)
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  46. added 2019-06-05
    Gender Differences in Depression: Explanations From Feminist Ethics.Robyn Bluhm - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (1):69.
    Feminist bioethics is committed to recognizing the way that power differentials arising from differences in social location shape health and health care, and also to ensuring that women's experiences inform bioethical analyses (Sherwin 1992, 1998; Scully et al. 2010). Yet there may be a tension between these two points of emphasis, not because they are incompatible but because they require very different perspectives. In this article, I argue that feminist analyses of the relationship between gender and mental disorder have tended (...)
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  47. added 2019-06-05
    Trusting Experts and Epistemic Humility in Disability.Anita Ho - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):102-123.
    It is often taken for granted that the professional–patient relationship is one of trust, particularly given that these clinicians are “experts” in their clinical domain. Nonetheless, trusting grants discretionary powers to the trustee, making the truster vulnerable to the trustee (Rogers and Ballantyne 2008). In particular, some patient groups carry certain social vulnerabilities that can be exacerbated when they extend trust to health-care providers (HCPs). Informed by the feminist literature on epistemic hierarchy and oppression, this paper examines how calls to (...)
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  48. added 2019-06-05
    Triangulating Care.Monique Lanoix - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (1):138-157.
    It is through the writings of feminists that the concept of care and the practices of care have been given some attention. If it were not for these, care would still be considered a negligible practice of little or no theoretical interest. This paper intends to build upon the advances in feminist analyses of social policy, nursing, and philosophy that have engaged the topic and practices of care. Understanding that these practices are multiple, my analysis in this paper centers on (...)
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  49. added 2019-06-05
    Docile Bodies, Supercrips, and the Plays of Prosthetics.Amanda K. Booher - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (2):63-89.
    In 2007, Oscar Pistorius, a South African sprinter, was training and competing in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic trials. Having had double transtibial amputations when he was eleven months old, Pistorius runs on technologically advanced prosthetics known as "Cheetah" legs. In January 2008, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) ruled him ineligible for IAAF competitions (including the Olympics) on the grounds that these carbon-fiber blade prosthetics were technical devices that gave him an advantage over other able-bodied sprinters. Pistorius (...)
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  50. added 2019-06-05
    Infertility in the Developing World: The Combined Role for Feminists and Disability Rights Proponents.Kavita Shah & Frances Batzer - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (2):109-125.
    Many of the millions of women in the developed world who experience infertility have difficulty coping with its psychological and social consequences, as well as attaining a resolution to these potentially devastating effects. Nevertheless, these women enjoy a relative benefit vis-à-vis infertile women in the developing world insofar as they live in a society that does not force them out of their own houses, curse at them in the streets, or condemn them to a life of poverty and destitution due (...)
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