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  1. added 2020-05-07
    A Theory of Evolution as a Process of Unfolding.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 16 (1):347-379.
    In this work I propose a theory of evolution as a process of unfolding. This theory is based on four logically concatenated principles. The principle of evolutionary order establishes that the more complex cannot be generated from the simpler. The principle of origin establishes that there must be a maximum complexity that originates the others by logical deduction. Finally, the principle of unfolding and the principle of actualization guarantee the development of the evolutionary process from the simplest to the most (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-10
    Motivational and Value Preferences of Townspeople in the Field of Fitness.Vitalii Shymko, Daria Vystavkina & Ievgeniia Ivanova - 2020 - TECHNOLOGIES OF INTELLECT DEVELOPMENT 4 (1(26)).
    The article presents the results of a survey of Odessa residents as part of a study of the motivational and value preferences of townsfolk in the field of fitness. It has been established that the determining motives for choosing a place for fitness are the individual trainer's approach to the client, personal comfort and convenient location of the fitness club. It was revealed that respondents have an interest in innovative training, but it has not yet acquired the character of a (...)
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  3. added 2020-04-03
    Block Fitness.Grant Ramsey - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (3):484-498.
    There are three related criteria that a concept of fitness should be able to meet: it should render the principle of natural selection non-tautologous and it should be explanatory and predictive. I argue that for fitness to be able to fulfill these criteria, it cannot be a property that changes over the course of an individual's life. Rather, I introduce a fitness concept--Block Fitness--and argue that an individual's genes and environment fix its fitness in such a way that each individual's (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-08
    The Ideological Matrix of Science: Natural Selection and Immunity as Case Studies.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 15 (1):182-213.
    The modern concept of ideology was established by the liberal politician and philosopher Destutt de Tracy, with the objective of creating an all-embracing and general science of ideas, which followed the sensualist and empiricist trend initiated by Locke that culminated in the positivism of Comte. Natural selection and immunity are two key concepts in the history of biology that were strongly based on the Malthusian concept of struggle for existence. This concept wrongly assumed that population grew faster than the means (...)
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  5. added 2020-02-25
    Life: the Center of our Existence.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Ludus Vitalis 26 (50):257-260.
    Life is the center of our existence. One would be tempted to say that first of all we live. However, our existence does not seem to pass in that modality. The exacerbated materialism in which our existence takes place, displaces life from the center of the scene. Our society is organized around production, consumerism, exploitation, efficiency, trade and propaganda. That is to say, our existence seems to have economy as the center of organization of our activities. The struggle of this (...)
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  6. added 2019-12-08
    El altruismo, Jesús y el fin del mundo: cómo la Fundación Templeton compró una Cátedra de Harvard y atacó la evolución, la racionalidad y la civilización. Una revisión de E.O. Wilson ' La Conquista Social de la Tierra ' (The Social Conquest of Earth) (2012) y Nowak y Highfield ' Supercooperadores ' (Supercooperators) (2012)(revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 357-370.
    El famoso hombre hormiga E.O. Wilson siempre ha sido uno de mis héroes-no sólo un biólogo sobresaliente, sino una de las pequeñas y desvanecida minoría de intelectuales que al menos se atreve a insinuar la verdad sobre nuestra naturaleza que otros no logran captar, o en la medida en que do comprender, evitar de manera estudiosa la conveniencia política. Tristemente, está terminando su larga carrera en una moda más sóla como parte de un ataque ignorante y arrogante a la ciencia (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-18
    Hypotheses That Attribute False Beliefs: A Two‐Part Epistemology.William Roche & Elliott Sober - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Is there some general reason to expect organisms that have beliefs to have false beliefs? And after you observe that an organism occasionally occupies a given neural state that you think encodes a perceptual belief, how do you evaluate hypotheses about the semantic content that that state has, where some of those hypotheses attribute beliefs that are sometimes false while others attribute beliefs that are always true? To address the first of these questions, we discuss evolution by natural selection and (...)
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  8. added 2019-09-23
    Are Kin and Group Selection Rivals or Friends?Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Current Biology 29 (11):R433-R438.
    Kin selection and group selection were once seen as competing explanatory hypotheses but now tend to be seen as equivalent ways of describing the same basic idea. Yet this ‘equivalence thesis’ seems not to have brought proponents of kin selection and group selection any closer together. This may be because the equivalence thesis merely shows the equivalence of two statistical formalisms without saying anything about causality. W.D. Hamilton was the first to derive an equivalence result of this type. Yet Hamilton (...)
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  9. added 2019-09-09
    Inclusive Fitness as a Criterion for Improvement.Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 76:101186.
    I distinguish two roles for a fitness concept in the context of explaining cumulative adaptive evolution: fitness as a predictor of gene frequency change, and fitness as a criterion for phenotypic improvement. Critics of inclusive fitness argue, correctly, that it is not an ideal fitness concept for the purpose of predicting gene-frequency change, since it relies on assumptions about the causal structure of social interaction that are unlikely to be exactly true in real populations, and that hold as approximations only (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    National Traditions in Science James C. Whorton, Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982. Pp. 359. ISBN 0-691-04694-8. $19.50. [REVIEW]Roger Cooter - 1984 - British Journal for the History of Science 17 (1):92-93.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Fact, Fiction, and Fitness: A Reply to Rosenberg.Elliott Sober - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (7):372-383.
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  12. added 2019-01-30
    Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018.Michael Starks - 2016 - Las Vegas, USA: Reality Press.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and edited to bring them up to date (2019). All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having a recent monkey ancestry (8 million years or much less depending on viewpoint) and manifest words and deeds within the framework of our innate psychology as presented in the table of intentionality. As famous evolutionist Richard Leakey says, it (...)
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  13. added 2018-12-17
    Kin Selection: A Philosophical Analysis.Jonathan Birch - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Cambridge
    This dissertation examines the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the most general and most widely used framework for understanding social evolution, W. D. Hamilton's theory of kin selection. While the core idea is intuitive enough (when organisms share genes, they sometimes have an evolutionary incentive to help one another), its apparent simplicity masks a host of conceptual subtleties, and the theory has proved a perennial source of controversy in evolutionary biology. To move towards a resolution of these controversies, we need (...)
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  14. added 2018-11-13
    Does "Fitness" Fit the Facts?: A Reply to Williams and Rosenberg's Rejoinder.Elliott Sober - 1987 - Journal of Philosophy 84 (4):220-223.
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  15. added 2018-06-27
    What is an Organism? An Immunological Answer.Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2-3):247-267.
    The question “What is an organism?”, formerly considered as essential in biology, has now been increasingly replaced by a larger question, “What is a biological individual?”. On the grounds that i) individuation is theory-dependent, and ii) physiology does not offer a theory, biologists and philosophers of biology have claimed that it is the theory of evolution by natural selection which tells us what counts as a biological individual. Here I show that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory, which makes (...)
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  16. added 2018-03-08
    A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.J. H. van Hateren - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (2):112-126.
    A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity (...)
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  17. added 2018-02-02
    Dos usos de los modelos de optimalidad en las explicaciones por selección natural.Santiago Ginnobili & Ariel Roffé - 2017 - Metatheoria 8 (1):43-55.
    Resumen -/- El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en analizar las relaciones entre los modelos de optimalidad y la selección natural. Defenderemos que esas relaciones pueden dividirse en dos tipos, en tanto hay dos tipos de explicaciones seleccionistas, que llamaremos “históricas” y “ahistóricas”. Las explicaciones históricas revelan como una población dada adquiere un rasgo que es adaptativo en ese ambiente e involucran muchas generaciones, variación, etc. Las explicaciones ahistóricas, explican por qué, en determinado momento, ciertos tipos de organismos tienen un (...)
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  18. added 2017-09-04
    Evolutionary Debunking: The Milvian Bridge Destabilized.Christos Kyriacou - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2695-2713.
    Recent literature has paid attention to a demarcation problem for evolutionary debunking arguments. This is the problem of asking in virtue of what regulative metaepistemic norm evolutionary considerations either render a belief justified, or debunk it as unjustified. I examine the so-called ‘Milvian Bridge principle’ A new science of religion, Routledge, New York, 2012; Sloan, McKenny, Eggelson Darwin in the 21st century: nature, humanity, and God, University Press, Notre Dame, 2015)), which offers exactly such a called for regulative metaepistemic norm. (...)
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  19. added 2017-08-31
    Fitness Maximization.Jonathan Birch - 2018 - In Richard Joyce (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 49-63.
    Is there any way to reconcile the adaptationist’s image of natural selection as an engine of optimality with the more complex image of its dynamics we get from population genetics? This has long been an important strand in the controversy surrounding adaptationism, yet debate has been hampered by a tendency to conflate various different ways of thinking about maximization. Here I distinguish four varieties of maximization principle. I then discuss the logical relations between these varieties, arguing that, although they may (...)
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  20. added 2017-02-14
    Interaction Order and Beyond: A Field Analysis of Body Culture Within Fitness Gyms.Roberta Sassatelli - 1999 - Body and Society 5 (2-3):227-248.
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  21. added 2017-02-08
    Review of Daniel W. McShea and Robert N. Brandon, Biology's First Law. [REVIEW]Mohan Matthen - 2011 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2011 (1).
    McShea and Brandon propose that in the absence of constraint, biological diversity increases spontaneously. While heuristically useful, the thesis is unclear and of dubious empirical validity. The authors have no natural way to distinguish entropic decrease of diversity from the kind of increase that they are interested in. They make unsupported claims about how to explain dramatic increases of diversity and increases of functional complexity.
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  22. added 2017-02-01
    Evolutionary Plasticity in Prokaryotes: A Panglossian View.Marcel Weber - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):67-88.
    Enzyme directed genetic mechanisms causing random DNA sequence alterations are ubiquitous in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A number of molecular geneticist have invoked adaptation through natural selection to account for this fact, however, alternative explanations have also flourished. The population geneticist G.C. Williams has dismissed the possibility of selection for mutator activity on a priori grounds. In this paper, I attempt a refutation of Williams' argument. In addition, I discuss some conceptual problems related to recent claims made by microbiologists on (...)
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  23. added 2017-01-29
    Fitness for Work.T. H. Pear - 1929 - Journal of Philosophical Studies 4 (13):144-145.
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  24. added 2017-01-29
    Lawrence J. Henderson, The Fitness of the Environment. [REVIEW]J. A. Thomson - 1913 - Hibbert Journal 12:220.
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  25. added 2017-01-28
    Dr. George Sheehan on Getting Fit & Feeling Great.George Sheehan - 1992
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  26. added 2017-01-28
    Fitness.Robert Pargetter - 1987 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 68 (1):44.
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  27. added 2017-01-28
    The Fitness of the Environment an Inquiry Into the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter. Introd. By George Wald. --. [REVIEW]Lawrence Joseph Henderson - 1970 - P. Smith.
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  28. added 2017-01-28
    Fitness for Work. [REVIEW]W. M. Kyle - 1929 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):154.
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  29. added 2017-01-28
    HENDERSON, L. J. -The Fitness of the Environment. [REVIEW]J. C. Irvine - 1914 - Mind 23:436.
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  30. added 2017-01-27
    ‘From Man to Bacteria’: W.D. Hamilton, the Theory of Inclusive Fitness, and the Post-War Social Order.Sarah A. Swenson - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 49:45-54.
  31. added 2017-01-27
    The Fitness of the Environment.J. Y. Simpson - 1914 - Philosophical Review 23:236.
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  32. added 2017-01-27
    Enderson's The Fitness of the Environment. [REVIEW]Arthur Mitchell - 1913 - Journal of Philosophy 10 (25):691.
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  33. added 2017-01-26
    On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Organism.Richard E. Michod - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.(Forthcoming).
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  34. added 2017-01-26
    What Is a Symbiotic Superindividual and How Do You Measure Its Fitness?Frédéric Bouchard - 2013 - In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press. pp. 243.
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  35. added 2017-01-26
    Analyzing and Comparing the Geometry of Individual Fitness.Stephen F. Chenoweth, John Hunt & Howard D. Rundle - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 126.
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  36. added 2017-01-26
    Analyzing and Comparing the Geometry of Individual Fitness Surfaces.S. F. Chenoweth, J. Hunt & H. D. Rundle - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 126--149.
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  37. added 2017-01-26
    Mimicry, Saltational Evolution, and the Crossing of Fitness Valleys.Olof Leimar, Birgitta S. Tullberg & James Mallet - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 259.
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  38. added 2017-01-26
    A Transdisciplinary Perspective Concerning the Origin of the Species: The Migratory Theory of Genetic Fitness.Da de MontoyaPeck, N. L. Montoya & C. P. Montoya - 2009 - World Futures 65 (3):166-175.
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  39. added 2017-01-26
    Fitness.Frédéric Bouchard - 2006 - In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. pp. 310--315.
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  40. added 2017-01-26
    Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality. By Richard E. Michod.P. S. Timiras - 2002 - The European Legacy 7 (4):532-532.
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  41. added 2017-01-26
    Natural Selection and Fitness.Theodosius Dobzhansky - 1963 - The Eugenics Review 55 (2):129.
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  42. added 2017-01-26
    Biological Fitness in Man.Charles B. Goodhart - 1960 - The Eugenics Review 52 (2):83.
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  43. added 2017-01-26
    Scapular Types and Human Fitness: A Study of an Outward Sign of Biological Efficiency.William Washington Graves - 1931 - The Eugenics Review 23 (3):215.
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  44. added 2017-01-25
    Trait Fitness is Not a Propensity, but Fitness Variation Is.Elliott Sober - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):336-341.
    The propensity interpretation of fitness draws on the propensity interpretation of probability, but advocates of the former have not attended sufficiently to problems with the latter. The causal power of C to bring about E is not well-represented by the conditional probability Pr. Since the viability fitness of trait T is the conditional probability Pr, the viability fitness of the trait does not represent the degree to which having the trait causally promotes surviving. The same point holds for fertility fitness. (...)
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  45. added 2017-01-25
    Fitness Landscapes of Complex Systems: Insights and Implications On Managing a Conflict Environment of Organizations.Sergey Samoilenko - 2008 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 10 (4).
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  46. added 2017-01-25
    The Effects of Nematode Infection and Mi-Mediated Resistance in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) on Plant Fitness.Brandon P. Corbett - 2007 - Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal 8.
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  47. added 2017-01-25
    Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality by Richard E. Michod.Jeffrey Ihara - 1999 - Complexity 5 (1):42-43.
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  48. added 2017-01-25
    Fitness of Professionals and Skilled Workers in Poland.Elzbieta Rogucka & Zygmunt Welon - 1996 - Journal of Biosocial Science 28 (2):161-176.
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  49. added 2017-01-25
    Anthropometric Measurements and Darwinian Fitness.William H. Mueller, Gabriel W. Lasker & F. Gaynor Evans - 1981 - Journal of Biosocial Science 13 (3):309-316.
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  50. added 2017-01-24
    Autism as the Low-Fitness Extreme of a Parentally Selected Fitness Indicator.Andrew Shaner, Geoffrey Miller & Jim Mintz - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (4):389-413.
    Siblings compete for parental care and feeding, while parents must allocate scarce resources to those offspring most likely to survive and reproduce. This could cause offspring to evolve traits that advertise health, and thereby attract parental resources. For example, experimental evidence suggests that bright orange filaments covering the heads of North American coot chicks may have evolved for this fitness-advertising purpose. Could any human mental disorders be the equivalent of dull filaments in coot chicks—low-fitness extremes of mental abilities that evolved (...)
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