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  1. King, Fuller and Dworkin Natural Law and Hard Cases.Muhammad Mustafa Rashid - 2020 - Economic and Social Thought.
    The debate between natural law and positivist law has been received much attention. Ronald Dworkin exposes the limitation of positivist law through the argument of hard cases. This argument is furthered strengthened when we apply the interpretation of Martin Luther King Jr and the voluntarist natural law tradition, and Lon Fuller’s ‘procedural view’ and the application of the ‘principles of legality’.
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  2. Methodenfrage der Rechtswissenschaft in China: Rückblick und Ausblick.Wei Feng - 2016 - In Yuanshi Bu (ed.), Juristische Methodenlehre in China und Ostasien. pp. 45-75.
    Die Disziplin, die als „Juristische Methodenlehre“ bezeichnet wird, ist gegenwärtig chinesischen Juristen nicht fremd, sie stammt aber ursprünglich aus dem deutschen Sprachraum. In der Literatur finden sich auch verwandte Ausdrücke wie „Juristische Methodologie“, „Juristische Methodik“ bzw.„Methodenlehre der Rechtswissenschaft“. Seit Anfang des 21. Jahrhunderts wurde ihre Rezeption in China durch zwei Übersetzungen gekennzeichnet, nämlich die „rechtswissenschaftliche Methodenlehre“ (faxue fangfalun) und die „rechtliche Methodenlehre“ (falü fangfalun). Neben der herkömmlichen Methodenlehre entwickelte sich auch eine jüngere Theorie der juristischen Argumentation, die die weltweite Aufmerksamkeit (...)
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  3. Book Review: Pamela N. Gray Artificial Legal Intelligence, Darmouth, Aldershot, England, 1997. [REVIEW]Arno R. Lodder - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (3):231-238.
  4. Legal Reasoning: Arguments From Comparison.Thomas Coendet - 2016 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosphie 102 (4):476-507.
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  5. The Forward-Looking Requirement of Formal Justice: Neil MacCormick on Consequential Reasoning.Maksymilian Del Mar - 2015 - Jurisprudence 6 (3):429-450.
    This paper discusses a much-neglected aspect of Neil MacCormick's theory of legal reasoning, namely what he calls ‘consequential reasoning’. For MacCormick, consequential reasoning is both an omnipresent feature of legal reasoning in England and Scotland, as well as being a valuable one. MacCormick articulates the value of consequential reasoning by seeing it as contributing to the forward-looking requirement of formal justice, ie, of deciding the instant case on grounds that one is willing to adopt when deciding future similar cases. This (...)
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  6. Legal Formalism and Instrumentalism - a Pathological Study.David Lyons - 1993 - In . Cambridge University Press.
    Compares formalism and instrumentalism and evaluates their general claims. “Part of what is meant by formalism is this: The law provides sufficient basis for deciding any case that arises. There are no “gaps” within the law, and there is but one sound legal decision for each case.” The formalist also holds that law is traceable to an authoritative source. “…sound legal decisions can be justified as the conclusions of valid deductive syllogisms. Because law is believed to be complete and univocal, (...)
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  7. Logic for Lawyers a Guide to Clear Legal Thinking.Ruggero J. Aldisert - 1989
  8. The Use of Logical Models in Legal Problem Solving.Marek Sergot Robert Kowalski - 1990 - Ratio Juris 3 (2):201-218.
    . The authors describe a logic programming approach to the representation of legislative texts. They consider the potential uses of simple systems which incorporate a single, fixed interpretation of a text. These include assisting in the routine administration of complex areas of the law. The authors also consider the possibility of constructing more complex systems which incorporate several, possibly conflicting interpretations. Such systems are needed for dealing with ambiguity and vagueness in the law. Moreover, they are more suitable than single (...)
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  9. Formal Approaches to Legal Evidence.Antonio A. Martino & Ephraim Nissan - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 9 (2/3):85-224.
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  10. Formal Aspects of Legal Reasoning.A. Soeteman - 1995 - Argumentation 9 (5):731-746.
    This paper discusses the functions of deductive justification in ideal reconstructions of judicial reasoning. It departs from the point of judicial reasoning: explaining and justifying the judicial decision. It argues that deductive validity is not enough for good judicial argument. On the other hand, deductive justification is necessary, not only for easy cases but for hard cases as well. It draws some consequences for the concept of ‘jumps’ in legal reasoning and for the traditional distinction between internal and external justification.
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  11. A Framework for the Extraction and Modeling of Fact-Finding Reasoning From Legal Decisions: Lessons From the Vaccine/Injury Project Corpus. [REVIEW]Vern R. Walker, Nathaniel Carie, Courtney C. DeWitt & Eric Lesh - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (4):291-331.
    This article describes the Vaccine/Injury Project Corpus, a collection of legal decisions awarding or denying compensation for health injuries allegedly due to vaccinations, together with models of the logical structure of the reasoning of the factfinders in those cases. This unique corpus provides useful data for formal and informal logic theory, for natural-language research in linguistics, and for artificial intelligence research. More importantly, the article discusses lessons learned from developing protocols for manually extracting the logical structure and generating the logic (...)
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  12. A Model of Juridical Acts: Part 1: The World of Law. [REVIEW]Jaap Hage - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (1):23-48.
    This paper aims at providing an account of juridical acts that forms a suitable starting point for the creation of computational systems that deal with juridical acts. The paper is divided into two parts. Because juridical acts will be analyzed as intentional changes in the world of law, the ‘furniture’ of this world, that consists broadly speaking of entities, facts and rules, plays a central role in the analysis. This first part of the paper deals with this furniture and its (...)
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  13. Relating Carneades with Abstract Argumentation Via the ASPIC+ Framework for Structured Argumentation.Bas van Gijzel & Henry Prakken - 2012 - Argument and Computation 3 (1):21 - 47.
    Carneades is a recently proposed formalism for structured argumentation with varying proof standards, inspired by legal reasoning, but more generally applicable. Its distinctive feature is that each statement can be given its own proof standard, which is claimed to allow a more natural account of reasoning under burden of proof than existing formalisms for structured argumentation, in which proof standards are defined globally. In this article, the two formalisms are formally related by translating Carneades into the ASPIC+ framework for structured (...)
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  14. An Argument Game.Ronald Loui - unknown
    This game3 was designed to investigate protocols and strategies for resourcebounded disputation. The rules presented here correspond very closely to the problem of controlling search in an actual program. The computer program on which the game is based is LMNOP. It is a LISP system designed to produce arguments and counterarguments from a set of statutory rules and a corpus of precedents, and applied to legal and quasi-legal reasoning. LMNOP was co-designed by a researcher in AI knowledge representation and by (...)
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  15. Modeling the Evolution of Legal Discretion. An Artificial Intelligence Approach.Ruth Kannai, Uri Schild & John Zeleznikow - 2007 - Ratio Juris 20 (4):530-558.
    Much legal research focuses on understanding how judicial decision-makers exercise their discretion. In this paper we examine the notion of legal or judicial discretion, and weaker and stronger forms of discretion. At all times our goal is to build cognitive models of the exercise of discretion, with a view to building computer software to model and primarily support decision-making. We observe that discretionary decision-making can best be modeled using three independent axes: bounded and unbounded, defined and undefined, and binary and (...)
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  16. Rules, Principles, Algorithms and the Description of Legal Systems.Stephen Utz - 1992 - Ratio Juris 5 (1):23-45.
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  17. The Juristic Study of Law's Formal Character.Robert S. Summers - 1995 - Ratio Juris 8 (3):237-247.
    .The author summarizes the essential elements of a general theory he is developing which he calls “The Formal Character of Law.” He explains that law's formal character is a potentially major branch of legal theory that is still relatively unexplored. In his view, it is possible to identify formal attributes in legal rules, other basic legal constructs such as interpretive method, the principles of stare decisis, legal reasons, and legislative and adjudicative processes, and a legal system viewed as a whole. (...)
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  18. An Automated System for Argument Invention in Law Using Argumentation and Heuristic Search Procedures.Douglas Walton - 2005 - Ratio Juris 18 (4):434-463.
    . A heuristic search procedure for inventing legal arguments is built on two tools already widely in use in argumentation. Argumentation schemes are forms of argument representing premise‐conclusion and inference structures of common types of arguments. Schemes especially useful in law represent defeasible arguments, like argument from expert opinion. Argument diagramming is a visualization tool used to display a chain of connected arguments linked together. One such tool, Araucaria, available free at , helps a user display an argument on the (...)
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  19. The Formal Bases of Law.Giorgio Del Vecchio - 1914 - New York: A. M. Kelley.
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  20. Automatically Classifying Case Texts and Predicting Outcomes.Kevin D. Ashley & Stefanie Brüninghaus - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (2):125-165.
    Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information to predict the outcomes of new cases. The program attempts to automatically classify textual descriptions of the facts of legal problems in terms of Factors, a (...)
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  21. Formal Models of Coherence and Legal Epistemology.Amalia Amaya - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):429-447.
    This paper argues that formal models of coherence are useful for constructing a legal epistemology. Two main formal approaches to coherence are examined: coherence-based models of belief revision and the theory of coherence as constraint satisfaction. It is shown that these approaches shed light on central aspects of a coherentist legal epistemology, such as the concept of coherence, the dynamics of coherentist justification in law, and the mechanisms whereby coherence may be built in the course of legal decision-making.
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  22. Uncertain Reasoning About Agents' Beliefs and Reasoning.John A. Barnden - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 9 (2-3):115-152.
    Reasoning about mental states and processes is important in varioussubareas of the legal domain. A trial lawyer might need to reason andthe beliefs, reasoning and other mental states and processes of membersof a jury; a police officer might need to reason about the conjecturedbeliefs and reasoning of perpetrators; a judge may need to consider adefendant's mental states and processes for the purposes of sentencing;and so on. Further, the mental states in question may themselves beabout the mental states and processes of (...)
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  23. Acting in Concert or Going It Alone: Game Theory and the Law.Theodore M. Benditt - 2004 - Law and Philosophy 23 (6):615 - 630.
    In recent years a number of writers have maintained that law can usefully be illuminated by game theory. Some believe that game theory can provide guidance in formulating rules for dealing with specific problems. Others advance the philosophically ambitious contention that we can gain a better understanding and/or appreciation of law by seeing it in terms of game-theoretic ideas. My purpose in this article is to examine some claims of the latter sort, and in particular to ask how distant law (...)
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  24. Isomorphism and Legal Knowledge Based Systems.T. J. M. Bench-Capon & F. P. Coenen - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (1):65-86.
    This paper discusses some engineering considerations that should be taken into account when building a knowledge based system, and recommends isomorphism, the well defined correspondence of the knowledge base to the source texts, as a basic principle of system construction in the legal domain. Isomorphism, as it has been used in the field of legal knowledge based systems, is characterised and the benefits which stem from its use are described. Some objections to and limitations of the approach are discussed. The (...)
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  25. The Missing Link Revisited: The Role of Teleology in Representing Legal Argument. [REVIEW]T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):79-94.
    In this paper I recapitulate the ideas of Berman and Hafner (1993) regarding the role of teleology in legal argument. I show how these ideas can be used to address some issues arising from more recent work on legal argument, and how this relates to ideas associated with the New Rhetoric of Perelman. I illustrate the points with a discussion of the classic problem of which vehicles should be allowed in parks.
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  26. ARPO-2: An Expert System for Legal Advice on the Breach of Building Contracts. [REVIEW]Jesús Cardeñosa & Pilar Lasala - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (2):133-156.
    Although Berman and Hafner [Berman 1989, pp. 928–938] presented the possibility to adapt the model of reasoning of development of an expert system for medical diagnosis to the reasoning of a judge when he/she sentences criminals does not resemble the reasoning found in the decisions of physicians, mathematicians or statisticians.When a lawyer reasons, he/she not only looks for the solution of a case; he/she simultaneously looks for the bases on which his/her reasoning can rest [Galindo 1992, pp. 363–367]. That is (...)
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  27. LaBEO: A Knowledge-Based Expert System for the “Animation” of Legal Texts.Costantino Ciampi - 1987 - Theoria 3 (1):341-362.
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  28. A Dialogical Theory of Legal Discussions:Pragma-Dialectical Analysis and Evaluation of Legalargumentation.Eveline T. Feteris - 2000 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (2-3):115-135.
    In this paper, the author describes a dialogical approach tolegal argumentation from the perspective of argumentationtheory. In a pragma-dialectical approach of legalargumentation, the argumentation is considered to be part of acritical discussion aimed at the rational resolution of thedispute. The author describes how a pragma-dialecticalanalysis and evaluation of legal argumentation can be carriedout.
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  29. Representing and Using Legal Knowledge in Integrated Decision Support Systems: Datalex Workstations. [REVIEW]Graham Greenleaf, Andrew Mowbray & Peter Dijk - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 3 (1-2):97-142.
    There is more to legal knowledge representation than knowledge-bases. It is valuable to look at legal knowledge representation and its implementation across the entire domain of computerisation of law, rather than focussing on sub-domains such as legal expert systems. The DataLex WorkStation software and applications developed using it are used to provide examples. Effective integration of inferencing, hypertext and text retrieval can overcome some of the limitations of these current paradigms of legal computerisation which are apparent when they are used (...)
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  30. The Strategic Use of Formal Argumentation in Legal Decisions.Harm Kloosterhuis - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (4):496-506.
    In legal decisions standpoints can be supported by formal and also by substantive interpretative arguments. Formal arguments consist of reasons the weight or force of which is essentially dependent on the authoritativeness that the reasons may also have: In this connection one may think of linguistic and systemic arguments. On the other hand, substantive arguments are not backed up by authority, but consist of a direct invocation of moral, political, economic, or other social considerations. Formal arguments can be analyzed as (...)
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  31. Technology Report: Work Product Retrieval Systems in Today's Law Offices. [REVIEW]Marc Lauritsen - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 3 (4):287-304.
    Contemporary law offices use many different technologies for storing and retrieving documents produced in the course of legal work. This article examines two approaches in detail: document management, as exemplified by SoftSolutions, and electronic publishing, as exemplified by Folio VIEWS. Some other approaches are reviewed, and the pragmatics, politics, economics, and legalities of legal work product retrieval are discussed.
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  32. Cultural Elements in the Practice of Law in Mexico: Informal Networks in a Formal System.Larissa Adler Lomnitz & Rodrigo Salazar - 2002 - In Yves Dezalay & Bryant G. Garth (eds.), Global Prescriptions: The Production, Exportation, and Importation of a New Legal Orthodoxy. University of Michigan Press.
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  33. Innovative Techniques for Legal Text Retrieval.Marie-Francine Moens - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 9 (1):29-57.
    Legal text retrieval traditionally relies upon external knowledge sources such as thesauri and classification schemes, and an accurate indexing of the documents is often manually done. As a result not all legal documents can be effectively retrieved. However a number of current artificial intelligence techniques are promising for legal text retrieval. They sustain the acquisition of knowledge and the knowledge-rich processing of the content of document texts and information need, and of their matching. Currently, techniques for learning information needs, learning (...)
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  34. Understanding the Law: Improving Legal Knowledge Dissemination by Translating the Contents of Formal Sources of Law. [REVIEW]Laurens Mommers, Wim Voermans, Wouter Koelewijn & Hugo Kielman - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (1):51-78.
    Considerable attention has been given to the accessibility of legal documents, such as legislation and case law, both in legal information retrieval (query formulation, search algorithms), in legal information dissemination practice (numerous examples of on-line access to formal sources of law), and in legal knowledge-based systems (by translating the contents of those documents to ready-to-use rule and case-based systems). However, within AI & law, it has hardly ever been tried to make the contents of sources of law, and the relations (...)
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  35. Legal Scholarship, Microcomputers, and Super-Optimizing Decision-Making.Stuart S. Nagel - 1993 - Quorum Books.
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  36. Model for Knowledge and Legal Expert Systems.Anja Oskamp - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (4):245-274.
    This paper presents a four layer model for working with legal knowledge in expert systems. It distinguishes five sources of knowledge. Four contain basic legal knowledge found in published and unpublished sources. The fifth consists of legal metaknowledge. In the model the four basic legal knowledge sources are placed at the lowest level. The metaknowledge is placed at levels above the other four knowledge sources. The assumption is that the knowledge is represented only once. The use of metaknowledge at various (...)
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  37. An Intellectual Celebration: A Review of the Jurix Legal Knowledge Based Systems Scholarship. [REVIEW]Abdul Paliwala - 2000 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (4):317-335.
    The Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems (JURIX) has, sinceits foundation in 1988, become an internationally renowned forumfor Law and Artificial Intelligence in theNetherlands. This paper is based onan intellectual review of the work of JURIX requested by theorganisation as part of its 10th anniversary in December 1997 andpresented as a keynote address at the 10th anniversary conference.It has been updated to include the following two conferences. Itapplauds the overall effort but also suggests some directions forfuture development and suggests in particular:The (...)
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  38. Introduction: From Legal Theories to Neural Networks and Fuzzy Reasoning. [REVIEW]Lothar Philipps & Giovanni Sartor - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):115-128.
    Computational approaches to the law have frequently been characterized as being formalistic implementations of the syllogistic model of legal cognition: using insufficient or contradictory data, making analogies, learning through examples and experiences, applying vague and imprecise standards. We argue that, on the contrary, studies on neural networks and fuzzy reasoning show how AI & law research can go beyond syllogism, and, in doing that, can provide substantial contributions to the law.
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  39. Advanced Techniques for Legal Document Processing and Retrieval.E. Pietrosanti & B. Graziadio - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (4):341-361.
    A large interest has been dedicated in recent years to the study of models for textual databases amenable to an effective integration of search and navigation functions. In the field of legal databases the need for sophisticated models is emphasised by the need to relate and combine in an effective way different types of texts, in order to solve legal problems.In our research we have analysed several existing models, each providing specific benefits and exhibiting corresponding limitations, under both a functional (...)
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  40. A Knowledge Engineering Framework for Intelligent Retrieval of Legal Case Studies.Adel Saadoun, Jean-Louis Ermine, Claude Belair & Jean-Mark Pouyot - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (3):179-205.
    Juris-Data is one of the largest case-study base in France. The case studies are indexed by legal classification elaborated by the Juris-Data Group. Knowledge engineering was used to design an intelligent interface for information retrieval based on this classification. The aim of the system is to help users find the case-study which is the most relevant to their own.The approach is potentially very useful, but for standardising it for other legal document bases it is necessary to extract a legal classification (...)
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  41. A Methodology to Create Legal Ontologies in a Logic Programming Based Web Information Retrieval System.José Saias & Paulo Quaresma - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (4):397-417.
    Web legal information retrieval systems need the capability to reason with the knowledge modeled by legal ontologies. Using this knowledge it is possible to represent and to make inferences about the semantic content of legal documents. In this paper a methodology for applying NLP techniques to automatically create a legal ontology is proposed. The ontology is defined in the OWL semantic web language and it is used in a logic programming framework, EVOLP+ISCO, to allow users to query the semantic content (...)
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  42. CHIRON: Planning in an Open-Textured Domain. [REVIEW]Kathryn E. Sanders - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 9 (4):225-269.
    Planning problems arise in law when an individual (or corporation)wants to perform a sequence of actions that raises legal issues. Manylawyers make their living planning transactions, and a system thathelped them to solve these problems would be in demand.The designer of such a system in a common-law domain must addressseveral difficult issues, including the open-textured nature of legal rules,the relationship between legal rules and cases, the adversarial nature ofthe domain, and the role of argument. In addition, the system's design isconstrained (...)
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  43. Teleological Arguments and Theory-Based Dialectics.Giovanni Sartor - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):95-112.
    This paper proposes to model legal reasoning asdialectical theory-constructiondirected by teleology. Precedents are viewed asevidence to be explained throughtheories. So, given a background of factors andvalues, the parties in a case canbuild their theories by using a set of operators,which are called theory constructors.The objective of each party is to provide theoriesthat both explain the evidence (theprecedents) and support the decision wished by thatparty. This leads to theory-basedargumentation, i.e., a dialectical exchange ofcompeting theories, which support opposedoutcomes by explaining the same (...)
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  44. Advanced Lexical Ontologies and Hybrid Knowledge Based Systems: First Steps to a Dynamic Legal Electronic Commentary. [REVIEW]Erich Schweighofer & Doris Liebwald - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):103-115.
    Legal Information Retrieval (IR) research has stressed the fact that legal knowledge systems should be sufficiently capable to interpret and handle the semantics of a database. Modeling (expert-) knowledge by using ontologies enhances the ability to extract and exploit information from documents. This contribution presents theories, ideas and notions regarding the development of dynamic electronic commentaries based on a comprehensive legal ontology.
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  45. An Object Model for Use in Oral and Written Advocacy.Charles Unwin - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (4):389-402.
    This paper describes the author’s development and use of a diagramming model in preparing a legal case for which he was responsible. He combined Wigmorean analysis and object oriented techniques in order to model arguments based on generalisations taken from the real world and from legal precedent. The paper addresses the modelling issues, but in particular identifies the very real benefits that affected the way the case was conducted. Those areas in which the model came into its own were principally (...)
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  46. Salomon: Automatic Abstracting of Legal Cases for Effective Access to Court Decisions. [REVIEW]Caroline Uyttendaele, Marie-Francine Moens & Jos Dumortier - 1998 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 6 (1):59-79.
    The SALOMON project is a contribution to the automatic processing of legal texts. Its aim is to automatically summarise Belgian criminal cases in order to improve access to the large number of existing and future cases. Therefore, techniques are developed for identifying and extracting relevant information from the cases. A broader application of these techniques could considerably simplify the work of the legal profession.A double methodology was used when developing SALOMON: the cases are processed by employing additional knowledge to interpret (...)
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  47. The Defence of Belief in Consent: Guidelines and Jury Instructions for Application of Criminal Code Section 265(4).Lucinda Vandervort - 2005 - Criminal Law Quarterly 50 (4):441-452.
    The availability of the defence of belief in consent under section 265(4) is a question of law, subject to review on appeal. The statutory provision is based on the common law rule that applies to all defences. Consideration of the defence when it is unavailable in law and failure to consider it when it is available are both incorrect. A judge is most likely to avoid error when ruling on availability of the defence if the ruling: (1) is grounded on (...)
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  48. A Comparison of Four Ontologies for the Design of Legal Knowledge Systems.Pepijn R. S. Visser & Trevor J. M. Bench-Capon - 1998 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 6 (1):27-57.
    There is a growing interest in how people conceptualise the legal domain for the purpose of legal knowledge systems. In this paper we discuss four such conceptualisations (referred to as ontologies): McCarty's language for legal discourse, Stamper's norma formalism, Valente's functional ontology of law, and the ontology of Van Kralingen and Visser. We present criteria for a comparison of the ontologies and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the ontologies in relation to these criteria. Moreover, we critically review the criteria.
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  49. Arno R. Lodder, Dialaw: On Legal Justification and Dialogical Models of Argumentation. Law and Philosophy Library Vol. 42. [REVIEW]Gerard A. W. Vreeswijk - 2000 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (2-3):265-276.
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  50. Witness Testimony Evidence: Argumentation, Artificial Intelligence, and Law.Douglas Walton - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Recent work in artificial intelligence has increasingly turned to argumentation as a rich, interdisciplinary area of research that can provide new methods related to evidence and reasoning in the area of law. Douglas Walton provides an introduction to basic concepts, tools and methods in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence as applied to the analysis and evaluation of witness testimony. He shows how witness testimony is by its nature inherently fallible and sometimes subject to disastrous failures. At the same time such (...)
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