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Summary "Formalism about Legal Reasoning" refers to the use of (often logic-based) formalisms to shed light on legal reasoning.  "Formal Models of Legal Reasoning," in contrast refers to the use of such formalisms to model actual legal reasoning.   Some works fit into both categories.  The former is also apt for discussions of the limits of the latter.  Both categories apply best to modeling or shedding light on judicial reasoning, or on the analysis of legal texts (be they statutes, constitutions [written or not], regulations, or exegeses of these), but are  less applicable to modeling or shedding light on the legislative or regulatory processes which produce these.
Key works Gardner 1987 is a general key work, while Gordon 1995 introduces dialogical models and dialogue logic, more generally, and discusses the issue of epistemic logic in formal models of law.  The seminal book Toulmin 1958 indirectly contributed far more to formal modeling using logic than the author intended, because for each objection Toulmin raised to the use of formal logic as a model, subsequent authors came along and found means of answering them within logic(s).
Introductions Hamfelt 1995 is a wonderful introduction to formal modeling of law, using classical logic as a framework.  The issue of epistemic logic in formal models of law is introduced extensively in Hage 2003.
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  1. added 2019-10-14
    How Much of Commonsense and Legal Reasoning is Formalizable? A Review of Conceptual Obstacles.James Franklin - 2012 - Law, Probability and Risk 11:225-245.
    Fifty years of effort in artificial intelligence (AI) and the formalization of legal reasoning have produced both successes and failures. Considerable success in organizing and displaying evidence and its interrelationships has been accompanied by failure to achieve the original ambition of AI as applied to law: fully automated legal decision-making. The obstacles to formalizing legal reasoning have proved to be the same ones that make the formalization of commonsense reasoning so difficult, and are most evident where legal reasoning has to (...)
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  2. added 2019-10-08
    Hohfeld in Cyberspace and Other Applications of Normative Reasoning in Agent Technology.Christen Krogh & Henning Herrestad - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1):81-96.
    Two areas of importance for agents and multiagent systems are investigated: design of agent programming languages, and design of agent communication languages. The paper contributes in the above mentioned areas by demonstrating improved or novel applications for deontic logic and normative reasoning. Examples are taken from computer-supported cooperative work, and electronic commerce.
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  3. added 2019-06-06
    What Can One Expect From Logic in the Law?: Notes • Discussion • Book Reviews.Eugenio Bulygin - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (1):150-156.
  4. added 2019-05-11
    Good Legal Thought: What Wordsworth Can Teach Langdell About Forms, Frames, Choices, and Aims.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2016 - Vermont Law Review 41 (1):1-22.
    Langdellian “science” and its “formalism” ignore ways form permits and even creates freedom of choice. For example, as Wordsworth notes, though the weaver is restricted by what his form of loom can weave, the weaver may nonetheless choose what and how he weaves. Furthermore, the loom creates weaving possibilities that do not exist without it. Such freedom alongside form is often lost on lawyers, judges, and teachers trained primarily in Langdellian redacted appellate cases where “facts” and other framed matters often (...)
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  5. added 2018-08-02
    The Present and Future of Judgement Aggregation Theory. A Law and Economics Perspective.Philippe Mongin - forthcoming - In Jean-François Laslier, Hervé Moulin, Remzi Sanver & William S. Zwicker (eds.), The Future of Economic Design. New York: Springer.
    This chapter briefly reviews the present state of judgment aggregation theory and tentatively suggests a future direction for that theory. In the review, we start by emphasizing the difference between the doctrinal paradox and the discursive dilemma, two idealized examples which classically serve to motivate the theory, and then proceed to reconstruct it as a brand of logical theory, unlike in some other interpretations, using a single impossibility theorem as a key to its technical development. In the prospective part, having (...)
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  6. added 2017-12-30
    Logical Semantics and Norms: A Kantian Perspective.Sérgio Mascarenhas - 2017 - Phenomenology and Mind (13):150-157.
    It’s widely accepted that normativity is not subject to truth values. The underlying reasoning is that truth values can only be predicated of descriptive statements; normative statements are prescriptive, not descriptive; thus truth value predicates cannot be assigned to normative statements. Hence, deonticity lacks logical semantics. This semantic monism has been challenged over the last decades from a series of perspectives that open the way for legal logics with imperative semantics. In the present paper I will go back to Kant (...)
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  7. added 2017-10-26
    Paradigmatische Fälle. Konstruktion, Narration und Verallgemeinerung von Fall-Wissen in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften.Katherina Kinzel & Ruben Hackler (eds.) - 2016 - Basel: Schwabe.
    Fallgeschichten werden seit dem 18. Jahrhundert zunehmend genutzt, um juristisches, psychologisches und medizinisches Wissen einer grösseren Öffentlichkeit zu vermitteln. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben sie auch in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften mehr Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Die Diskussion über paradigmatische Fälle in diesem Band zielt darauf ab, Fallgeschichten in ihrer Funktion als besonders anschauliche oder lehrreiche Beispiele in verschiedenen historischen Kontexten zu untersuchen und zu vergleichen. Die in diesem Heft versammelten Texte gehen der Frage nach, wie Fälle dazu beitragen, Debatten zu (...)
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  8. added 2017-05-22
    Law, Virtue, and Justice (Law and Practical Reason). [REVIEW]Jason Cruze - 20016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (6):743-746.
  9. added 2016-12-08
    Normative-Informational Positions: A Modal-Logical Approach.Andrew J. I. Jones & Xavier Parent - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):7-23.
    This paper is a preliminary investigation into the application of the formal-logical theory of normative positions to the characterisation of normative-informational positions, pertaining to rules that are meant to regulate the supply of information. First, we present the proposed framework. Next, we identify the kinds of nuances and distinctions that can be articulated in such a logical framework. Finally, we show how such nuances can arise in specific regulations. Reference is made to Data Protection Law and Contract Law, among others. (...)
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  10. added 2015-12-30
    Hechos, evidencia y estándares de prueba. Ensayos de epistemología jurídica.Andrés Páez (ed.) - 2015 - Ediciones Uniandes.
    Aunque el derecho probatorio y el derecho procesal se han dedicado desde siempre al estudio de los problemas relacionados con las pruebas y el establecimiento de los hechos en los procesos judiciales, el énfasis ha estado siempre en el aspecto formal, doctrinal y procedimental en detrimento de los fundamentos filosóficos y teóricos. Durante los últimos años ha habido un intento sostenido de explorar estos fundamentos combinando no sólo las herramientas tradicionales proporcionadas por la lógica, la gramática y la retórica, sino (...)
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  11. added 2015-09-14
    Elementos doctrinales para el estudio de la argumentación como eje del control judicial.Ivan Vargas-Chaves - 2014 - Prolegómenos 16 (32):235-246.
    En el presente artículo se examinan varias propuestas que abordan la argumentación como un ejercicio válido y necesario de control judicial; ello, a través del estudio de diversos elementos doctrinales, como lo son la representación democrática argumentativa, la interpretación previa y la debida justificación de las decisiones, así como la ponderación y la aplicación de los principios, entre otros. Al margen de lo anterior, nuestra intención no es otra sino la de presentar una descripción del estado del arte de dichas (...)
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  12. added 2015-09-08
    Introduction.Claudia Blöser, Mikael Janvid, Hannes Ole Matthiessen & Marcus Willaschek - 2013 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 87 (1):1-8.
  13. added 2015-08-12
    A Critique of Critical Legal Studies' Claim of Legal Indeterminacy.Ian Carlo Dapalla Benitez - 2015 - Lambert Academic Publishing.
    This paper challenges the Critical Legal Studies (CLS) claims of legal indeterminacy. It shall use a legal formalist logic and language as its main assertion, further maintaining that the CLS claims is only grounded in ambiguity and confusion. CLS is a legal theory that challenges and overturns accepted norms and standards in legal theory and practice. They maintained that law in the historical and contemporary society has an alleged impartiality, and it is used as a tool of privilege and power (...)
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  14. added 2015-08-06
    Sensitivity, Causality, and Statistical Evidence in Courts of Law.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):102-112.
    Recent attempts to resolve the Paradox of the Gatecrasher rest on a now familiar distinction between individual and bare statistical evidence. This paper investigates two such approaches, the causal approach to individual evidence and a recently influential (and award-winning) modal account that explicates individual evidence in terms of Nozick's notion of sensitivity. This paper offers counterexamples to both approaches, explicates a problem concerning necessary truths for the sensitivity account, and argues that either view is implausibly committed to the impossibility of (...)
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  15. added 2015-04-06
    Legal Arguments About Plausible Facts and Their Strategic Presentation.Henrike Jansen - unknown
    Arguments from plausibility, in which an appeal is made to customary behavior, are often used in the legal practice. For example: Joran van derSloot must have murdered Natalee Holloway, otherwise he would have called an ambulance when she looked dead. As in the example, such arguments are often presented with an explicit appeal to an inference license that gives the argument amodus tollensstructure [if he had not murdered her...]. I will address the question what motivates such a presentation.
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  16. added 2015-03-24
    Case-Based Reasoning in Law and Ethics.K. F. Schaffner - forthcoming - Presentation at the ‘Foundations of Bioethics’ Conference. Hastings Center.
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  17. added 2015-03-23
    Combining Statistics and Case-Based Reasoning for Medical Research.Rainer Schmidt & Olga Vorobieva - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Computational Intelligence. pp. 673--696.
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  18. added 2015-03-23
    Prototypical Cases for Retrieval, Reuse, and Knowledge Maintenance in Biomedical Case‐Based Reasoning.Isabelle Bichindaritz - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Computational Intelligence. pp. 25--3.
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  19. added 2015-03-23
    Legal Reasoning Models.C. Hafner - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
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  20. added 2015-03-23
    Developing Case-Based Reasoning Applications: The INRECA-Methodology.R. Bergmann, S. Breen, M. Göker, M. Manago & S. Wess - 1999 - In P. Brezillon & P. Bouquet (eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer.
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  21. added 2015-03-23
    Jaap C. Hage, Reasoning with Rules: An Essay on Legal Reasoning and Its Underlying Logic Reviewed By.William A. Edmundson - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18 (3):178-179.
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  22. added 2015-03-23
    Using Introspective Reasoning to Guide Index Refinement in Case-Based Reasoning.Susan Fox & David Leake - 1994 - In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. pp. 324--329.
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  23. added 2015-03-22
    How Does Formal Logic Fare as a Model of Legal Argumentation?Joseph S. Fulda - 1999 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 29 (3):34-35.
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  24. added 2015-03-21
    The Economic, Political, Strategic, and Rhetorical Uses of Simple Constructive Dilemma in Legal Argument.R. G. Scofield - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (1):1-14.
    The author argues that simple constructive dilemma is a valuable argument form for reasoning under relative conditions of uncertainty. When applied to legal argument this value of simple constructive dilemma is shown in its political, strategic, rhetorical, and especially economic, uses by lawyers and judges. After considering some examples of the use of the form by trial lawyers, the author gives examples of the more interesting use of the form by appellate courts. Research into the use of simple constructive dilemma (...)
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  25. added 2015-03-17
    Ontologies and Reasoning Techniques for (Legal) Intelligent Information Retrieval Systems.Gian Piero Zarri - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (3):251-279.
    An application of Narrative Knowledge Representation Language (NKRL) techniques on (declassified) ‘terrorism in Southern Philippines’ documents has been carried out in the context of the IST Parmenides project. This paper describes some aspects of this work: it is our belief, in fact, that the Knowledge Representation techniques and the Intelligent Information Retrieval tools used in this experiment can be of some interest also in an ‘Ontological Modelling of Legal Events and Legal Reasoning’ context.
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  26. added 2015-03-17
    Agatha: Using Heuristic Search to Automate the Construction of Case Law Theories. [REVIEW]Alison Chorley & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):9-51.
    In this paper we describe AGATHA, a program designed to automate the process of theory construction in case based domains. Given a seed case and a number of precedent cases, the program uses a set of argument moves to generate a search space for a dialogue between the parties to the dispute. Each move is associated with a set of theory constructors, and thus each point in the space can be associated with a theory intended to explain the seed case (...)
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  27. added 2015-03-17
    An Empirical Investigation of Reasoning with Legal Cases Through Theory Construction and Application.Alison Chorley & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (3-4):323-371.
    In recent years several proposals to view reasoning with legal cases as theory construction have been advanced. The most detailed of these is that of Bench-Capon and Sartor, which uses facts, rules, values and preferences to build a theory designed to explain the decisions in a set of cases. In this paper we describe CATE (CAse Theory Editor), a tool intended to support the construction of theories as described by Bench-Capon and Sartor, and which produces executable code corresponding to a (...)
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  28. added 2015-03-17
    Comparing Alternatives in the Law.Jaap Hage - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (3):181-225.
    This paper argues the thesis that a particular style of reasoning, qualitative comparative reasoning (QCR), plays a role in at least three areas of legal reasoning that are central in AI and law research, namely legal theory construction, case-based reasoning in the form of case comparison, and legal proof. The paper gives an informal exposition of one particular way to deal with QCR, based on the author’s previous work on reason-based logic (RBL). Then it contains a substantially adapted formalisation of (...)
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  29. added 2015-03-17
    Legal Logic? Or Can We Do Without?Arend Soeteman - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (2-3):197-210.
    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid argument.
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  30. added 2015-03-17
    An AI Model of Case-Based Legal Argument From a Jurisprudential Viewpoint.Kevin D. Ashley - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):163-218.
    This article describes recent jurisprudential accountsof analogical legal reasoning andcompares them in detail to the computational modelof case-based legal argument inCATO. The jurisprudential models provide a theoryof relevance based on low-levellegal principles generated in a process ofcase-comparing reflective adjustment. Thejurisprudential critique focuses on the problemsof assigning weights to competingprinciples and dealing with erroneously decidedprecedents. CATO, a computerizedinstructional environment, employs ArtificialIntelligence techniques to teach lawstudents how to make basic legal argumentswith cases. The computational modelhelps students test legal hypotheses againsta database of (...)
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  31. added 2015-03-17
    The Role of Context in Case-Based Legal Reasoning: Teleological, Temporal, and Procedural. [REVIEW]Carole D. Hafner & Donald H. Berman - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 10 (1-3):19-64.
    Computational models of relevance in case-based legal reasoning have traditionallybeen based on algorithms for comparing the facts and substantive legal issues of aprior case to those of a new case. In this paper we argue that robust models ofcase-based legal reasoning must also consider the broader social and jurisprudentialcontext in which legal precedents are decided. We analyze three aspects of legalcontext: the teleological relations that connect legal precedents to the socialvalues and policies they serve, the temporal relations between prior andsubsequent (...)
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  32. added 2015-03-17
    A Fuzzy Theoretical Approach to Case-Based Representation and Inference in CISG.Mingqiang Xu, Kaoru Hirota & Hajime Yoshino - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (2-3):259-272.
    In a legal expert system based on CBR (Case-Based Reasoning), legal statute rules are interpreted on the basis of precedents. This interpretation, because of its vagueness and uncertainty of the interpretation cannot be handled with the means used for crisp cases. In our legal expert system, on the basis of the facts of precedents, the statute rule is interpreted as a form of case rule, the application of which involves the concepts of membership and vagueness. The case rule is stored (...)
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  33. added 2015-03-17
    Evaluating a Legal Argument Program: The BankXX Experiments. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):1-74.
    In this article we evaluate the BankXX program from several perspectives. BankXX is a case-based legal argument program that retrieves cases and other legal knowledge pertinent to a legal argument through a combination of heuristic search and knowledge-based indexing. The program is described in detail in a companion article in Artificial Intelligence and Law 4: 1--71, 1996. Three perspectives are used to evaluate BankXX:(1) classical information retrieval measures of precision and recall applied against a hand-coded baseline; (2) knowledge-representation and case-based (...)
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  34. added 2015-03-17
    BankXX: Supporting Legal Arguments Through Heuristic Retrieval. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (1):1-71.
    The BankXX system models the process of perusing and gathering information for argument as a heuristic best-first search for relevant cases, theories, and other domain-specific information. As BankXX searches its heterogeneous and highly interconnected network of domain knowledge, information is incrementally analyzed and amalgamated into a dozen desirable ingredients for argument (called argument pieces), such as citations to cases, applications of legal theories, and references to prototypical factual scenarios. At the conclusion of the search, BankXX outputs the set of argument (...)
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  35. added 2015-03-17
    Issue Spotting in CHASER.Barbara Cuthill & Robert McCartney - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 2 (2):83-111.
    For any system that uses previous experience to solve problems in new situations, it is necessary to identify the features in the situation that should match features in the previous cases through some process ofsituation analysis. In this paper, we examine this problem in the legal domain, where lawyers know it asissue spotting. In particular, we present an implementation of issue spotting in CHASER, a legal reasoning system that works in the domain of tort law.This approach is a compromise between (...)
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  36. added 2015-03-17
    Hard Cases: A Procedural Approach. [REVIEW]Jaap C. Hage, Ronald Leenes & Arno R. Lodder - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 2 (2):113-167.
    Much work on legal knowledge systems treats legal reasoning as arguments that lead from a description of the law and the facts of a case, to the legal conclusion for the case. The reasoning steps of the inference engine parallel the logical steps by means of which the legal conclusion is derived from the factual and legal premises. In short, the relation between the input and the output of a legal inference engine is a logical one. The truth of the (...)
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  37. added 2015-03-17
    The IKBALS Project: Multi-Modal Reasoning in Legal Knowledge Based Systems. [REVIEW]John Zeleznikow, George Vossos & Daniel Hunter - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 2 (3):169-203.
    In attempting to build intelligent litigation support tools, we have moved beyond first generation, production rule legal expert systems. Our work integrates rule based and case based reasoning with intelligent information retrieval.When using the case based reasoning methodology, or in our case the specialisation of case based retrieval, we need to be aware of how to retrieve relevant experience. Our research, in the legal domain, specifies an approach to the retrieval problem which relies heavily on an extended object oriented/rule based (...)
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  38. added 2015-03-17
    Case-Based Reasoning and its Implications for Legal Expert Systems.Kevin D. Ashley - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (2-3):113-208.
    Reasoners compare problems to prior cases to draw conclusions about a problem and guide decision making. All Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) employs some methods for generalizing from cases to support indexing and relevance assessment and evidences two basic inference methods: constraining search by tracing a solution from a past case or evaluating a case by comparing it to past cases. Across domains and tasks, however, humans reason with cases in subtly different ways evidencing different mixes of and mechanisms for these components.In (...)
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  39. added 2014-04-02
    Formalizing Multiple Interpretation of Legal Knowledge.Andreas Hamfelt - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 3 (4):221-265.
    A representation methodology for knowledge allowing multiple interpretations is described. It is based on the following conception of legal knowledge and its open texture. Since indeterminate, legal knowledge must be adapted to fit the circumstances of the cases to which it is applied. Whether a certain adaptation is lawful or not is measured by metaknowledge. But as this too is indeterminate, its adaptation to the case must be measured by metametaknowledge, etc. This hierarchical model of law is quite well-established and (...)
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  40. added 2014-04-02
    Explanation-Based Interpretation of Open-Textured Concepts in Logical Models of Legislation.Stefania Costantini & Gaetano Aurelio Lanzarone - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 3 (3):191-208.
    In this paper we discuss a view of the Machine Learning technique called Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) or Explanation-Based Generalization (EBG) as a process for the interpretation of vague concepts in logic-based models of law.The open-textured nature of legal terms is a well-known open problem in the building of knowledge-based legal systems. EBG is a technique which creates generalizations of given examples on the basis of background domain knowledge. We relate these two topics by considering EBG''s domain knowledge as corresponding to (...)
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  41. added 2014-04-02
    Rationales and Argument Moves.R. P. Loui & Jeff Norman - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 3 (3):159-189.
    We discuss five kinds of representations of rationales and provide a formal account of how they can alter disputation. The formal model of disputation is derived from recent work in argument. The five kinds of rationales are compilation rationales, which can be represented without assuming domain-knowledge (such as utilities) beyond that normally required for argument. The principal thesis is that such rationales can be analyzed in a framework of argument not too different from what AI already has. The result is (...)
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  42. added 2014-04-01
    A Theory of Legal Reasoning and a Logic to Match.Jaap Hage - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (3-4):199-273.
    This paper describes a model of legal reasoning and a logic for reasoning with rules, principles and goals that is especially suited to this model of legal reasoning. The paper consists of three parts. The first part describes a model of legal reasoning based on a two-layered view of the law. The first layer consists of principles and goals that express fundamental ideas of a legal system. The second layer contains legal rules which in a sense summarise the outcome of (...)
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  43. added 2014-04-01
    On Law and Logic.Carlos E. Alchourron - 1996 - Ratio Juris 9 (4):331-348.
    The main purpose of this paper is to explore the role played by logic in the legal domain. In the traditional conception which underlies the movement of codification, judges are able to find in the legal system (the Master System) a unique answer for every legal problem. This entails its completeness, consistency and the possibility of deriving from it the contents of all judicial decisions. Although the ideal model of this conception is supported by important theoretical and political ideals, it (...)
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  44. added 2014-04-01
    A Model of Argumentation and its Application to Legal Reasoning.Kathleen Freeman & Arthur M. Farley - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (3-4):163-197.
    We present a computational model of dialectical argumentation that could serve as a basis for legal reasoning. The legal domain is an instance of a domain in which knowledge is incomplete, uncertain, and inconsistent. Argumentation is well suited for reasoning in such weak theory domains. We model argument both as information structure, i.e., argument units connecting claims with supporting data, and as dialectical process, i.e., an alternating series of moves by opposing sides. Our model includes burden of proof as a (...)
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  45. added 2014-03-30
    Von Wright's Deontic Logics and "Contrary-to-Duty Imperatives".Carlos Alarcon-Cabrera - 1998 - Ratio Juris 11 (1):67-79.
  46. added 2014-03-30
    Representing Law in Partial Information Structures.Niels Peek - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):263-290.
    This paper presents a new language for isomorphic representations of legalknowledge in feature structures. The language includes predefinedstructures based on situation theory for common-sense categories, andpredefined structures based on Van Kralingens frame-based conceptualmodelling language for legal rules. It is shown that the flexibility of thefeature-structure formalism can exploited to allow for structure-preservingrepresentations of non-primitive concepts, and to enable various types ofinteraction and cross- reference between language elements. A fragment of theDutch Opium Act is used to illustrate how modelling and reasoning (...)
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  47. added 2014-03-30
    Argument in Artificial Intelligence and Law.Trevor Bench-Capon - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):249-261.
    In this paper I shall discuss the notion of argument, and the importanceof argument in AI and Law. I shall distinguish four areas where argument hasbeen applied: in modelling legal reasoning based on cases; in thepresentation and explanation of results from a rule based legal informationsystem; in the resolution of normative conflict and problems ofnon-monotonicity; and as a basis for dialogue games to support the modellingof the process of argument. The study of argument is held to offer prospectsof real progress (...)
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  48. added 2014-03-30
    Defeasible Reasoning in Japanese Criminal Jurisprudence.Katsumi Nitta & Masato Shibasaki - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):139-159.
    Modeling legal argumentation is one of the most important research in AI and Law, and a lot of models have been proposed. However, most research has not treated value judgement and debate. In this paper, we introduce a legal reasoning model which covers various aspects of legalreasoning such as making argument, selecting argument and debate.Furthermore, we present how criminal law is described and reasoned inthis model.
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  49. added 2014-03-30
    A Goal-Dependent Abstraction for Legal Reasoning by Analogy.Tokuyasu Kakuta, Makoto Haraguchi & Yoshiaki Okubo - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):97-118.
    This paper presents a new algorithm to find an appropriate similarityunder which we apply legal rules analogically. Since there may exist a lotof similarities between the premises of rule and a case in inquiry, we haveto select an appropriate similarity that is relevant to both thelegal rule and a top goal of our legal reasoning. For this purpose, a newcriterion to distinguish the appropriate similarities from the others isproposed and tested. The criterion is based on Goal-DependentAbstraction (GDA) to select a (...)
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  50. added 2014-03-30
    On the Logical Foundations of Compound Predicate Formulae for Legal Knowledge Representation.Hajime Yoshino - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):77-96.
    In order to represent legal knowledge adequately, it is vital to create a formal device that can freely construct an individual concept directly from a predicate expression. For this purpose, a Compound Predicate Formula (CPF) is formulated for use in legal expert systems. In this paper, we willattempt to explain the nature of CPFs by rigorous logical foundation, i.e., establishing their syntax and semantics precisely through the use of appropriate examples. We note the advantages of our system over other such (...)
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