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Summary "Formalism about Legal Reasoning" refers to the use of (often logic-based) formalisms to shed light on legal reasoning.  "Formal Models of Legal Reasoning," in contrast refers to the use of such formalisms to model actual legal reasoning.   Some works fit into both categories.  The former is also apt for discussions of the limits of the latter.  Both categories apply best to modeling or shedding light on judicial reasoning, or on the analysis of legal texts (be they statutes, constitutions [written or not], regulations, or exegeses of these), but are  less applicable to modeling or shedding light on the legislative or regulatory processes which produce these.
Key works Gardner 1987 is a general key work, while Gordon 1995 introduces dialogical models and dialogue logic, more generally, and discusses the issue of epistemic logic in formal models of law.  The seminal book Toulmin 1958 indirectly contributed far more to formal modeling using logic than the author intended, because for each objection Toulmin raised to the use of formal logic as a model, subsequent authors came along and found means of answering them within logic(s).
Introductions Hamfelt 1995 is a wonderful introduction to formal modeling of law, using classical logic as a framework.  The issue of epistemic logic in formal models of law is introduced extensively in Hage 2003.
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  1. The Present and Future of Judgement Aggregation Theory. A Law and Economics Perspective.Philippe Mongin - forthcoming - In Jean-François Laslier, Hervé Moulin, Remzi Sanver & William S. Zwicker (eds.), The Future of Economic Design. New York: Springer.
    This chapter briefly reviews the present state of judgment aggregation theory and tentatively suggests a future direction for that theory. In the review, we start by emphasizing the difference between the doctrinal paradox and the discursive dilemma, two idealized examples which classically serve to motivate the theory, and then proceed to reconstruct it as a brand of logical theory, unlike in some other interpretations, using a single impossibility theorem as a key to its technical development. In the prospective part, having (...)
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  2. Case-Based Reasoning in Law and Ethics.K. F. Schaffner - forthcoming - Presentation at the ‘Foundations of Bioethics’ Conference. Hastings Center.
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  3. Arguments and Stories in Legal Reasoning: The Case of Evidence Law.Gianluca Andresani - 2020 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosphie 106 (1):75-90.
    We argue that legal argumentation, as the subject matter as well as a special subfield of Argumentation Studies (AS), has to be examined by making skilled use of the full panoply of tools such as argumentation and story schemes which are at the forefront of current work in AS. In reviewing the literature, we make explicit our own methodological choices (particularly regarding the place of normative deliberation in practical reasoning) and then illustrate the implications of such an approach through the (...)
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  4. Logical Semantics and Norms: A Kantian Perspective.Sérgio Mascarenhas - 2017 - Phenomenology and Mind (13):150-157.
    It’s widely accepted that normativity is not subject to truth values. The underlying reasoning is that truth values can only be predicated of descriptive statements; normative statements are prescriptive, not descriptive; thus truth value predicates cannot be assigned to normative statements. Hence, deonticity lacks logical semantics. This semantic monism has been challenged over the last decades from a series of perspectives that open the way for legal logics with imperative semantics. In the present paper I will go back to Kant (...)
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  5. Paradigmatische Fälle. Konstruktion, Narration und Verallgemeinerung von Fall-Wissen in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften.Katherina Kinzel & Ruben Hackler (eds.) - 2016 - Basel: Schwabe.
    Fallgeschichten werden seit dem 18. Jahrhundert zunehmend genutzt, um juristisches, psychologisches und medizinisches Wissen einer grösseren Öffentlichkeit zu vermitteln. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben sie auch in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften mehr Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Die Diskussion über paradigmatische Fälle in diesem Band zielt darauf ab, Fallgeschichten in ihrer Funktion als besonders anschauliche oder lehrreiche Beispiele in verschiedenen historischen Kontexten zu untersuchen und zu vergleichen. Die in diesem Heft versammelten Texte gehen der Frage nach, wie Fälle dazu beitragen, Debatten zu (...)
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  6. Good Legal Thought: What Wordsworth Can Teach Langdell About Forms, Frames, Choices, and Aims.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2016 - Vermont Law Review 41 (1):1-22.
    Langdellian “science” and its “formalism” ignore ways form permits and even creates freedom of choice. For example, as Wordsworth notes, though the weaver is restricted by what his form of loom can weave, the weaver may nonetheless choose what and how he weaves. Furthermore, the loom creates weaving possibilities that do not exist without it. Such freedom alongside form is often lost on lawyers, judges, and teachers trained primarily in Langdellian redacted appellate cases where “facts” and other framed matters often (...)
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  7. A Critique of Critical Legal Studies' Claim of Legal Indeterminacy.Ian Carlo Dapalla Benitez - 2015 - Lambert Academic Publishing.
    This paper challenges the Critical Legal Studies (CLS) claims of legal indeterminacy. It shall use a legal formalist logic and language as its main assertion, further maintaining that the CLS claims is only grounded in ambiguity and confusion. CLS is a legal theory that challenges and overturns accepted norms and standards in legal theory and practice. They maintained that law in the historical and contemporary society has an alleged impartiality, and it is used as a tool of privilege and power (...)
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  8. Sensitivity, Causality, and Statistical Evidence in Courts of Law.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):102-112.
    Recent attempts to resolve the Paradox of the Gatecrasher rest on a now familiar distinction between individual and bare statistical evidence. This paper investigates two such approaches, the causal approach to individual evidence and a recently influential (and award-winning) modal account that explicates individual evidence in terms of Nozick's notion of sensitivity. This paper offers counterexamples to both approaches, explicates a problem concerning necessary truths for the sensitivity account, and argues that either view is implausibly committed to the impossibility of (...)
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  9. Hechos, evidencia y estándares de prueba. Ensayos de epistemología jurídica.Andrés Páez (ed.) - 2015 - Ediciones Uniandes.
    Aunque el derecho probatorio y el derecho procesal se han dedicado desde siempre al estudio de los problemas relacionados con las pruebas y el establecimiento de los hechos en los procesos judiciales, el énfasis ha estado siempre en el aspecto formal, doctrinal y procedimental en detrimento de los fundamentos filosóficos y teóricos. Durante los últimos años ha habido un intento sostenido de explorar estos fundamentos combinando no sólo las herramientas tradicionales proporcionadas por la lógica, la gramática y la retórica, sino (...)
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  10. Elementos doctrinales para el estudio de la argumentación como eje del control judicial.Ivan Vargas-Chaves - 2014 - Prolegómenos 16 (32):235-246.
    En el presente artículo se examinan varias propuestas que abordan la argumentación como un ejercicio válido y necesario de control judicial; ello, a través del estudio de diversos elementos doctrinales, como lo son la representación democrática argumentativa, la interpretación previa y la debida justificación de las decisiones, así como la ponderación y la aplicación de los principios, entre otros. Al margen de lo anterior, nuestra intención no es otra sino la de presentar una descripción del estado del arte de dichas (...)
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  11. Introduction.Claudia Blöser, Mikael Janvid, Hannes Ole Matthiessen & Marcus Willaschek - 2013 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 87 (1):1-8.
  12. A General Structure for Legal Arguments About Evidence Using Bayesian Networks.Norman Fenton, Martin Neil & David A. Lagnado - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):61-102.
    A Bayesian network (BN) is a graphical model of uncertainty that is especially well suited to legal arguments. It enables us to visualize and model dependencies between different hypotheses and pieces of evidence and to calculate the revised probability beliefs about all uncertain factors when any piece of new evidence is presented. Although BNs have been widely discussed and recently used in the context of legal arguments, there is no systematic, repeatable method for modeling legal arguments as BNs. Hence, where (...)
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  13. Modeling the Forensic Two-Trace Problem with Bayesian Networks.Simone Gittelson, Alex Biedermann, Silvia Bozza & Franco Taroni - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (2):221-252.
    The forensic two-trace problem is a perplexing inference problem introduced by Evett (J Forensic Sci Soc 27:375–381, 1987). Different possible ways of wording the competing pair of propositions (i.e., one proposition advanced by the prosecution and one proposition advanced by the defence) led to different quantifications of the value of the evidence (Meester and Sjerps in Biometrics 59:727–732, 2003). Here, we re-examine this scenario with the aim of clarifying the interrelationships that exist between the different solutions, and in this way, (...)
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  14. Introduction to Special Issue on Modelling Popov V. Hayashi.Katie Atkinson - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (1):1-14.
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  15. Representing Popov V Hayashi with Dimensions and Factors.T. J. M. Bench-Capon - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (1):15-35.
    Modelling reasoning with legal cases has been a central concern of AI and Law since the 1980s. The approach which represents cases as factors and dimensions has been a central part of that work. In this paper I consider how several varieties of the approach can be applied to the interesting case of Popov v Hayashi. After briefly reviewing some of the key landmarks of the approach, the case is represented in terms of factors and dimensions, and further explored using (...)
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  16. How Much of Commonsense and Legal Reasoning is Formalizable? A Review of Conceptual Obstacles.James Franklin - 2012 - Law, Probability and Risk 11:225-245.
    Fifty years of effort in artificial intelligence (AI) and the formalization of legal reasoning have produced both successes and failures. Considerable success in organizing and displaying evidence and its interrelationships has been accompanied by failure to achieve the original ambition of AI as applied to law: fully automated legal decision-making. The obstacles to formalizing legal reasoning have proved to be the same ones that make the formalization of commonsense reasoning so difficult, and are most evident where legal reasoning has to (...)
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  17. A Carneades Reconstruction of Popov V Hayashi.Thomas F. Gordon & Douglas Walton - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (1):37-56.
    Carneades is an open source argument mapping application and a programming library for building argumentation support tools. In this paper, Carneades’ support for argument reconstruction, evaluation and visualization is illustrated by modeling most of the factual and legal arguments in Popov v Hayashi.
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  18. Courts of Many Minds.Kai Spiekermann & Robert E. Goodin - 2012 - British Journal of Political Science 42:555-571.
    In 'A Constitution of Many Minds' Cass Sunstein argues that the three major approaches to constitutional interpretation – Traditionalism, Populism and Cosmopolitanism – all rely on some variation of a ‘many-minds’ argument. Here we assess each of these claims through the lens of the Condorcet Jury Theorem. In regard to the first two approaches we explore the implications of sequential influence among courts (past and foreign, respectively). In regard to the Populist approach, we consider the influence of opinion leaders.
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  19. Obligations and Prohibitions in Talmudic Deontic Logic.M. Abraham, D. M. Gabbay & U. Schild - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):117-148.
    This paper examines the deontic logic of the Talmud. We shall find, by looking at examples, that at first approximation we need deontic logic with several connectives: O T A Talmudic obligation F T A Talmudic prohibition F D A Standard deontic prohibition O D A Standard deontic obligation. In classical logic one would have expected that deontic obligation O D is definable by $O_DA \equiv F_D\neg A$ and that O T and F T are connected by $O_TA \equiv F_T\neg (...)
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  20. Arguments, Stories and Criminal Evidence: A Formal Hybrid Theory.Floris Bex - 2011 - Springer.
    In this book a theory of reasoning with evidence in the context of criminal cases is developed. The main subject of this study is not the law of evidence but rather the rational process of proof, which involves constructing, testing and justifying scenarios about what happened using evidence and commonsense knowledge. A central theme in the book is the analysis of ones reasoning, so that complex patterns are made more explicit and clear. This analysis uses stories about what happened and (...)
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  21. The Mathematics of Patent Claim Analysis.Zsófia Kacsuk - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (4):263-289.
    In patent law most of the crucial legal questions such as patentability and infringement are linked to the patent claims. The European Patent Office regards patent claims as a set of independent features which are examined separately in a more or less formal way. The author has found that this approach allows for developing a simple mathematical model which treats patent claim features as logical statements and patent claims as compound statements wherein the individual statements are connected by logical connectives. (...)
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  22. Using Argument Schemes for Hypothetical Reasoning in Law.Trevor Bench-Capon & Henry Prakken - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (2):153-174.
    This paper studies the use of hypothetical and value-based reasoning in US Supreme-Court cases concerning the United States Fourth Amendment. Drawing upon formal AI & Law models of legal argument a semi-formal reconstruction is given of parts of the Carney case, which has been studied previously in AI & law research on case-based reasoning. As part of the reconstruction, a semi-formal proposal is made for extending the formal AI & Law models with forms of metalevel reasoning in several argument schemes. (...)
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  23. The Logic of “Asked and Answered!”: The Case of the Traffic Light.Joseph S. Fulda - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (2):282-287.
    Uses erotetic logic to model the courtroom objection "Asked and Answered!".
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  24. Modular Argumentation for Modelling Legal Doctrines of Performance Relief.Nguyen Duy Hung, Phan Minh Thang & Phan Minh Dung - 2010 - Argument and Computation 1 (1):47-69.
    We present an argument-based formalism of contract dispute resolution following a modern view that the court would resolve a contract dispute by enforcing an interpretation of contract that reasonably represents the mutual intention of contract parties. Legal doctrines provide principles, rules and guidelines for the court to objectively arrive at such an interpretation. In this paper, we establish the appropriateness of the formalism by applying it to resolve disputes about performance relief with the legal doctrines of impossibility and frustration of (...)
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  25. Dialectical and Heuristic Arguments: Presumptions and Burden of Proof.Fabrizio Macagno - 2010 - In C. Tindale & C. Reed (eds.), Dialectics, Dialogue and Argumentation: An Examination of Douglas Walton's Theories of Reasoning and Argument. College Publications. pp. 45-57.
    Presumption is a complex concept in law, affecting the dialogue setting. However, it is not clear how presumptions work in everyday argumentation, in which the concept of “plausible argumentation” seems to encompass all kinds of inferences. By analyzing the legal notion of presumption, it appears that this type of reasoning combines argument schemes with reasoning from ignorance. Presumptive reasoning can be considered a particular form of reasoning, which needs positive or negative evidence to carry a probative weight on the conclusion. (...)
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  26. Dudas razonables, sesgos cognitivos y emociones en la argumentación jurídica.María G. Navarro - 2010 - Bajo Palabra. Revista de Filosofía 5:203-214.
    Concepts as reasonable doubt, cognitive biases and emotions are now a theoretical problem for the practice of law, and the law understood as legal argumentation. From a theoretical point of view, the screenplay written by Reginald Rose, Twelve Angry Men, is an outstanding example to analyze some of these concepts, and its influence on procedural stage. Cognitive biases and informal fallacies are theoretical challenge to legal argumentation.
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  27. Dialectics, Dialogue and Argumentation: An Examination of Douglas Walton's Theories of Reasoning and Argument.C. Tindale & C. Reed (eds.) - 2010 - College Publications.
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  28. Prototypical Cases for Retrieval, Reuse, and Knowledge Maintenance in Biomedical Case‐Based Reasoning.Isabelle Bichindaritz - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Computational Intelligence. pp. 25--3.
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  29. Modular Argumentation for Modelling Legal Doctrines in Common Law of Contract.Phan Minh Dung & Phan Minh Thang - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (3):167-182.
    To create a programming environment for contract dispute resolution, we propose an extension of assumption-based argumentation into modular assumption-based argumentation in which different modules of argumentation representing different knowledge bases for reasoning about beliefs and facts and for representation and reasoning with the legal doctrines could be built and assembled together. A distinct novel feature of modular argumentation in compare with other modular logic-based systems like Prolog is that it allows references to different semantics in the same module at the (...)
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  30. Combining Statistics and Case-Based Reasoning for Medical Research.Rainer Schmidt & Olga Vorobieva - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Computational Intelligence. pp. 673--696.
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  31. Introduction to Special Issue on Modelling Legal Cases.Katie Atkinson - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (4):329-331.
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  32. What Can One Expect From Logic in the Law?: Notes • Discussion • Book Reviews.Eugenio Bulygin - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (1):150-156.
  33. Norms and Plans as Unification Criteria for Social Collectives.Aldo Gangemi - 2008 - Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 16 (3).
    Based on the paradigm of Constructive Descriptions and Situations, we introduce NIC, an ontology of social collectives that includes social agents, plans, norms, and the conceptual relations between them. Norms are distinguished from plans, and their relations are formalized. A typology of social collectives is also proposed, including collection of agents, knowledge community, intentional collective, and normative intentional collective. NIC, represented as a first-order theory as well as a description logic for applications requiring automated reasoning, provides the expressivity to talk (...)
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  34. Normative-Informational Positions: A Modal-Logical Approach.Andrew J. I. Jones & Xavier Parent - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):7-23.
    This paper is a preliminary investigation into the application of the formal-logical theory of normative positions to the characterisation of normative-informational positions, pertaining to rules that are meant to regulate the supply of information. First, we present the proposed framework. Next, we identify the kinds of nuances and distinctions that can be articulated in such a logical framework. Finally, we show how such nuances can arise in specific regulations. Reference is made to Data Protection Law and Contract Law, among others. (...)
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  35. A Formal Model of Adjudication Dialogues.Henry Prakken - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (3):305-328.
    This article presents a formal dialogue game for adjudication dialogues. Existing AI & law models of legal dialogues and argumentation-theoretic models of persuasion are extended with a neutral third party, to give a more realistic account of the adjudicator’s role in legal procedures. The main feature of the model is a division into an argumentation phase, where the adversaries plea their case and the adjudicator has a largely mediating role, and a decision phase, where the adjudicator decides the dispute on (...)
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  36. Formalising Ordinary Legal Disputes: A Case Study. [REVIEW]Henry Prakken - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (4):333-359.
    This paper presents a formal reconstruction of a Dutch civil legal case in Prakken’s formal model of adjudication dialogues. The object of formalisation is the argumentative speech acts exchanged during the dispute by the adversaries and the judge. The goal of this formalisation is twofold: to test whether AI & law models of legal dialogues in general, and Prakken’s model in particular, are suitable for modelling particular legal procedures; and to learn about the process of formalising an actual legal dispute.
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  37. Practical Reasoning as Presumptive Argumentation Using Action Based Alternating Transition Systems.Katie Atkinson & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):855-874.
    In this paper we describe an approach to practical reasoning, reasoning about what it is best for a particular agent to do in a given situation, based on presumptive justifications of action through the instantiation of an argument scheme, which is then subject to examination through a series of critical questions. We identify three particular aspects of practical reasoning which distinguish it from theoretical reasoning. We next provide an argument scheme and an associated set of critical questions which is able (...)
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  38. A Web Ontologies Framework for Digital Rights Management.Roberto García, Rosa Gil & Jaime Delgado - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (2):137-154.
    In order to improve the management of copyright in the Internet, known as Digital Rights Management, there is the need for a shared language for copyright representation. Current approaches are based on purely syntactic solutions, i.e. a grammar that defines a rights expression language. These languages are difficult to put into practise due to the lack of explicit semantics that facilitate its implementation. Moreover, they are simple from the legal point of view because they are intended just to model the (...)
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  39. The Carneades Model of Argument and Burden of Proof.Thomas F. Gordon, Henry Prakken & Douglas Walton - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):875-896.
    We present a formal, mathematical model of argument structure and evaluation, taking seriously the procedural and dialogical aspects of argumentation. The model applies proof standards to determine the acceptability of statements on an issue-by-issue basis. The model uses different types of premises (ordinary premises, assumptions and exceptions) and information about the dialectical status of statements (stated, questioned, accepted or rejected) to allow the burden of proof to be allocated to the proponent or the respondent, as appropriate, for each premise separately. (...)
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  40. Ontologies and Reasoning Techniques for (Legal) Intelligent Information Retrieval Systems.Gian Piero Zarri - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (3):251-279.
    An application of Narrative Knowledge Representation Language (NKRL) techniques on (declassified) ‘terrorism in Southern Philippines’ documents has been carried out in the context of the IST Parmenides project. This paper describes some aspects of this work: it is our belief, in fact, that the Knowledge Representation techniques and the Intelligent Information Retrieval tools used in this experiment can be of some interest also in an ‘Ontological Modelling of Legal Events and Legal Reasoning’ context.
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  41. Deontic Logics for Prioritized Imperatives.Jörg Hansen - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (1-2):1-34.
    When a conflict of duties arises, a resolution is often sought by use of an ordering of priority or importance. This paper examines how such a conflict resolution works, compares mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature, and gives preference to one developed by Brewka and Nebel. I distinguish between two cases – that some conflicts may remain unresolved, and that a priority ordering can be determined that resolves all – and provide semantics and axiomatic systems for accordingly defined (...)
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  42. The Economic, Political, Strategic, and Rhetorical Uses of Simple Constructive Dilemma in Legal Argument.R. G. Scofield - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (1):1-14.
    The author argues that simple constructive dilemma is a valuable argument form for reasoning under relative conditions of uncertainty. When applied to legal argument this value of simple constructive dilemma is shown in its political, strategic, rhetorical, and especially economic, uses by lawyers and judges. After considering some examples of the use of the form by trial lawyers, the author gives examples of the more interesting use of the form by appellate courts. Research into the use of simple constructive dilemma (...)
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  43. How to Make and Defend a Proposal in a Deliberation Dialogue.Douglas Walton - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (3):177-239.
    In this paper it is shown how tools developed in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence can be applied to the development of a new dialectical analysis of the speech act of making a proposal in a deliberation dialogue. These tools are developed, modified and used to formulate dialogue pre-conditions, defining conditions and post-conditions for the speech act of making a proposal in a deliberation dialogue. The defining conditions set out what is required for a move in a dialogue to count (...)
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  44. An Empirical Investigation of Reasoning with Legal Cases Through Theory Construction and Application.Alison Chorley & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (3-4):323-371.
    In recent years several proposals to view reasoning with legal cases as theory construction have been advanced. The most detailed of these is that of Bench-Capon and Sartor, which uses facts, rules, values and preferences to build a theory designed to explain the decisions in a set of cases. In this paper we describe CATE (CAse Theory Editor), a tool intended to support the construction of theories as described by Bench-Capon and Sartor, and which produces executable code corresponding to a (...)
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  45. Agatha: Using Heuristic Search to Automate the Construction of Case Law Theories. [REVIEW]Alison Chorley & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):9-51.
    In this paper we describe AGATHA, a program designed to automate the process of theory construction in case based domains. Given a seed case and a number of precedent cases, the program uses a set of argument moves to generate a search space for a dialogue between the parties to the dispute. Each move is associated with a set of theory constructors, and thus each point in the space can be associated with a theory intended to explain the seed case (...)
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  46. A Value-Based Argument Model of Convention Degradation.Paul E. Dunne - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 13 (1):153-188.
    The analysis of how social conventions emerge and become established is rightly viewed as a significant study of great relevance to models of legal and social systems. Such conventions, however, do not operate in a monotonic fashion, i.e. the fact that a convention is recognised and complied with at some instant is no guarantee it will continue to be so indefinitely. In total rules and protocols may evolve, with or without the consent of individual members of the society, even to (...)
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  47. Case-Based Reasoning and Law.Edwina L. Rissland - 2005 - Knowledge Engineering Review 20 (3):293-298.
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  48. Book Review: Bram Roth, Case-Based Reasoning in the Law: A Formal Theory of Reasoning by Case Comparison. Ph. D. Thesis, the University of Maastricht, 2003. 181 Pp. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (3):227-229.
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  49. Comparing Alternatives in the Law.Jaap Hage - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (3):181-225.
    This paper argues the thesis that a particular style of reasoning, qualitative comparative reasoning (QCR), plays a role in at least three areas of legal reasoning that are central in AI and law research, namely legal theory construction, case-based reasoning in the form of case comparison, and legal proof. The paper gives an informal exposition of one particular way to deal with QCR, based on the author’s previous work on reason-based logic (RBL). Then it contains a substantially adapted formalisation of (...)
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  50. Law, Logic, Rhetoric: A Procedural Model of Legal Argumentation.Arno R. Lodder - 2004 - In S. Rahman (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 569--588.
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