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  1. The Formal Approach to Meaning: Formal Semantics and its Recent Developments.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing (...)
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  2. Formalizing the Logic of Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.Ernest Adams - 1992 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (1):90-99.
  3. Assertability Conditions of Epistemic (and Fictional) Attitudes and Mood Variation.Mari Alda - unknown - Proceedings of SALT 26.
    Italian is a well-known exception to the cross-linguistic generalization according to which `belief' predicates are indicative selectors across languages. We newly propose that languages that select the subjunctive with epistemic predicates allow us to see a systematic polysemy between what we call an expressive-`belief' (featuring only a doxastic dimension) and an inquisitive-`belief' (featuring both a doxastic and an epistemic dimension conveying doxastic certainty (in the assertion) and epistemic uncertainty (in the presupposition)). We offer several previously unseen contrasts proving this distinction (...)
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  4. Logic in Linguistics.Jens S. Allwood, Lars-Gunnar Andersson & Östen Dahl - 1977
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  5. On Truth Unpersistence: At the Crossroads of Epistemic Modality and Discourse.Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete - 2016 - Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 34.
    We propose a semantic analysis of the particles afinal (European Portuguese) and alla fine (Italian) in terms of the notion of truth unpersistence, which combines both epistemic modality and constraints on discourse structure. We argue that the felicitous use of these modal particles requires that the truth of a proposition p* fail to persist through a temporal succession of epistemic states, where p* is incompatible with the proposition modified by afinal/alla fine, and that the interlocutors share knowledge of a previous (...)
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  6. Focus and Uninformativity in Yucatec Maya Questions.Scott AnderBois - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):349-390.
    Crosslinguistically, questions frequently make crucial use of morphosyntactic elements which also occur outside of questions. Chief among these are focus, disjunctions, and wh-words with indefinite semantics. This paper provides a compositional account of the semantics of wh-, alternative, and polar questions in Yucatec Maya (YM), which are composed primarily of these elements. Key to the account is a theory of disjunctions and indefinites (extending work by others) which recognizes the inherently inquisitive nature of these elements. While disjunctions and indefinites are (...)
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  7. Experience, Evaluation and Faultless Disagreement.Alex Anthony - 2016 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (6):686-722.
    In the last decade there has been a torrent of work at the intersection of philosophy and linguistics on predicates of personal taste, subjective expressions like fun and tasty that are used to express opinions rather than matters of fact. In each section of this paper I discuss a phenomenon that has been largely overlooked in the literature on PPTs. In Section 1, I identify a neglected experiential reading of these adjectives. All other theories of expressions like fun take them (...)
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  8. Context in Content Composition.Nicholas Asher - 2012 - In Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.), Philosophy of Linguistics. North Holland. pp. 229.
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  9. Truth Conditions and Semantic Knowledge: Toward a Theory of Linguistic Understanding.Nicholas Michael Asher - 1982 - Dissertation, Yale University
    The dissertation examines several proposals for necessary and sufficient conditions for understanding sentences of a natural language within the context of a truth conditional theory of meaning. Any such proposal has two parts: first, an account of meaning, second, an account of an interpreter's attitudes toward meanings and meaningful expressions of a language. Efforts to provide an account of linguistic understanding by Frege, Davidson, Dummett and others have largely assumed a certain account of semantic knowledge that leads to difficulties when (...)
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  10. Monotonicity and Collective Quantification.Gilad B. Avi & Yoad Winter - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):127--151.
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  11. In This Note, We Will Look at Some Data That Bear on the Further Question or More Specific Form of the Question: How is Quantification Expressed in a Polysynthetic Language Like Haisla? Haisla has the Following Kinds of Linguistic Elements.E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kraner & B. H. Partee - 1995 - In Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer & Barbara Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 13.
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  12. The Algebra of Events.Emmon Bach - 1986 - Linguistics and Philosophy 9 (1):5--16.
  13. Nouns and Noun Phrases.Emmon Bach - 1968 - In Emmon Bach & R. Harms (eds.), Universals in Linguistic Theory. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. pp. 90--122.
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  14. The NP-S Analysis of Relative Clauses and Compositional Semantics.Emmon Bach & Robin Cooper - 1978 - Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (1):145 - 150.
    We have sketched how it is possible to give an analysis for adjoined relative clauses which is consistent with the compositionality principle and have shown that the technique which seems necessary for this analysis can be used to provide a compositional semantics for the NP-S analysis of English relative clauses.It is unlikely that anyone working within the framework of a compositional theory would choose the NP-S analysis for English, since it is clearly much less elegant and simple, in some intuitive (...)
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  15. The Semantics of Generic The.John Bacon - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (3):323 - 339.
  16. Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface.Tista Bagchi - manuscript
    Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface Tista Bagchi National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (NISTADS) and the University of Delhi Since the proposal of Logical Form (LF) was put forward by Robert May in his 1977 MIT doctoral dissertation and was subsequently adopted into the overall architecture of language as conceived under Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), there has been a steady research effort to determine the nature of LF in language in light of structurally (...)
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  17. Tense Structure and Reference a First-Order Non-Modal Analysis.Diane Dorough Barense - 1980 - Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  18. The Dynamics of Vagueness.Chris Barker - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (1):1-36.
  19. A Theory of Command Relations.Chris Barker & Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1990 - Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):1 - 34.
  20. A System of Intensional Logic.John Anthony Barker - 1967 - Dissertation, Tulane University
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  21. Logic and Linguistics Meeting: Santa Cruz, 1991.Barwise Jon, Ladusaw William, ter Meulen Alice, Oehrle Richard & Thomason Richmond - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1498-1499.
  22. Logic and Linguistics Meeting, Stanford, 1987.K. Jon Barwise & Richmond H. Thomason - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (4):1275-1282.
  23. Semantics.David Beaver & Joey Frazee - forthcoming - The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics 2nd Edition.
    Formal semantics is the study of linguistic meaning using precise mathematical characterizations; this chapter introduces formal semantics to scholars and students of natural-language processing. We give simple logical representations of English sentences, and show how meanings are composed in a grammar. We then consider two more advanced issues that arise in processing texts, anaphora and temporality, using Discourse Representation Theory. Finally we discuss the relationship between deep logic-based methods for semantic analysis and shallower distributional methods that have been used in (...)
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  24. DegP Scope Revisited.Sigrid Beck - 2012 - Natural Language Semantics 20 (3):227-272.
    The semantic literature takes degree operators like the comparative, but also measure phrases, the equative, the superlative and so on, to be quantifiers over degrees. This is well motivated by their semantic contribution, but leads one to expect far more scope interaction than is actually observed. This paper proposes an alternative-semantic analysis of certain degree constructions, in particular constructions with little and other negative antonyms. Restrictions on scope can then be explained as intervention effects.
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  25. Proceedings of NELS 26.Jill Beckman (ed.) - 1997 - GLSA, UMass Amhert.
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  26. Feature System for Quantification Structures in Natural Language.I. Bellert - 1989 - Foris Publications.
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  27. A Possibility-Free Logic of Descriptions.Ermanno Bencivenga - 1984 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 24 (1):159-165.
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  28. Some Extensions of a Montague Fragment of English.Michael Ruisdael Bennett - 1975 - Indiana University Linguistics Club.
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  29. Categorial Grammar and Type Theory.Johan Benthem - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (2):115 - 168.
  30. Situations and Inference.Johan Benthem - 1985 - Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (1):3 - 8.
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  31. Presupposition and Two-Dimensional Logic.Merrie Bergmann - 1981 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 10 (1):27 - 53.
  32. Rich Ontologies for Tense and Aspect.Patrick Blackburn, Claire Gardent & Maarten De Rijke - 1996 - In Jerry Seligman & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language and Computation. Csli Publications, Stanford.
  33. Collective Objects.U. Blau - 1981 - Theoretical Linguistics 8:101-130.
    The set-theoretic and individual-theoretic analyses of collections make the same mistake: their ontologies are far removed from language. Our basic notion, the collector, has a clear linguistic counterpart: the definite article. Our theory furnishes a theory of definite descriptions as a special case. We use 3-valued valued logic in order to come to grips with the existential presuppositions of the collections.
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  34. Counterfactual Attitudes and The Relational Analysis.Kyle H. Blumberg - forthcoming - Mind.
    In this paper, I raise a problem for standard precisifications of The Relational Analysis. The problem I raise involves so–called ‘counterfactual’ attitude verbs, such as ‘wish’. In short, the trouble is this: there are true attitude reports ‘S wishes that P’ but there is no suitable referent for the term ‘that P’. The problematic reports illustrate that the content of a subject’s wish is intimately related to the content of their beliefs. I capture this fact by moving to a framework (...)
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  35. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.) - 2011
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  36. Interpreting Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences.Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik - forthcoming - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  37. Tractable Versus Intractable Reciprocal Sentences.Oliver Bott, Fabian Schlotterbeck & Jakub Szymanik - 2011 - In J. Bos & S. Pulman (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Semantics 9.
    In three experiments, we investigated the computational complexity of German reciprocal sentences with different quantificational antecedents. Building upon the tractable cognition thesis (van Rooij, 2008) and its application to the verification of quantifiers (Szymanik, 2010) we predicted complexity differences among these sentences. Reciprocals with all-antecedents are expected to preferably receive a strong interpretation (Dalrymple et al., 1998), but reciprocals with proportional or numerical quantifier antecedents should be interpreted weakly. Experiment 1, where participants completed pictures according to their preferred interpretation, provides (...)
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  38. Rich Situated Attitudes.Mark Bowker - 2017 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10247:45-61.
    We outline a novel theory of natural language meaning, Rich Situated Semantics [RSS], on which the content of sentential utterances is semantically rich and informationally situated. In virtue of its situatedness, an utterance’s rich situated content varies with the informational situation of the cognitive agent interpreting the utterance. In virtue of its richness, this content contains information beyond the utterance’s lexically encoded information. The agent-dependence of rich situated content solves a number of problems in semantics and the philosophy of language (...)
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  39. On the Dynamic Turn in the Study of Meaning and Interpretation.Richard Breheny - 2003 - In Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.), Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Elsevier Science.
  40. Mainstream Semantics + Deflationary Truth.Alexis Burgess - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (5):397-410.
    Recent philosophy of language has been profoundly impacted by the idea that mainstream, model-theoretic semantics is somehow incompatible with deflationary accounts of truth and reference. The present article systematizes the case for incompatibilism, debunks circularity and “modal confusion” arguments familiar in the literature, and reconstructs the popular thought that truth-conditional semantics somehow “presupposes” a correspondence theory of truth as an inference to the best explanation. The case for compatibilism is closed by showing that this IBE argument fails to rule out (...)
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  41. Review of Higginbotham, J., Pianesi, F. Varzi, A, a Cura di ‘Speaking of Events’. [REVIEW]Alessandro Capone - 2001 - Linguistics 39 (6):1179-1192.
    review of Higginbotham et al. Speaking of events.
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  42. Review of Higginbotham Ed. Speaking of Events. [REVIEW]Alessandro Capone - 2001 - Linguistics 39 (6): 1179–1192..
    review of Higginbotham et al. -/- A Davidsonian approach.
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  43. C. L-Semantics.Rudolf Carnap - 1959 - In Introduction to Semantics and Formalization of Logic. Harvard University Press. pp. 56-154.
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  44. On Belief-Sentences.Rudolf Carnap - 1954 - In Margaret MacDonald (ed.), Journal of Symbolic Logic. Blackwell. pp. 128--31.
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  45. Homogeneity in Donkey Anaphora.Lucas Champollion, Dylan Bumford & Robert Henderson - manuscript
    Donkey sentences have existential and universal readings, but they are not often perceived as ambiguous. We extend the pragmatic theory of homogeneity in plural definites by Križ (2016) to explain how context disambiguates donkey sentences. We propose that the denotations of such sentences produce truth value gaps — in certain scenarios the sentences are neither true nor false — and demonstrate that Križ’s pragmatic theory fills these gaps to generate the standard judgments of the literature. Building on Muskens’s (1996) Compositional (...)
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  46. Restricting and Embedding Imperatives.Nate Charlow - 2010 - In M. Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. de Jager & K. Schulz (eds.), Logic, Language, and Meaning: Selected Papers from the 17th Amsterdam Colloquium. Springer.
    We use imperatives to refute a naïve analysis of update potentials (force-operators attaching to sentences), arguing for a dynamic analysis of imperative force as restrictable, directed, and embeddable. We propose a dynamic, non-modal analysis of conditional imperatives, as a counterpoint to static, modal analyses. Our analysis retains Kratzer's analysis of if-clauses as restrictors of some operator, but avoids typing it as a generalized quantifier over worlds (against her), instead as a dynamic force operator. Arguments for a restrictor treatment (but against (...)
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  47. Natural Language Inference in Coq.Stergios Chatzikyriakidis & Zhaohui Luo - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (4):441-480.
    In this paper we propose a way to deal with natural language inference by implementing Modern Type Theoretical Semantics in the proof assistant Coq. The paper is a first attempt to deal with NLI and natural language reasoning in general by using the proof assistant technology. Valid NLIs are treated as theorems and as such the adequacy of our account is tested by trying to prove them. We use Luo’s Modern Type Theory with coercive subtyping as the formal language into (...)
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  48. The Logical Form of Imperatives.Brian Farrell Chellas - 1969 - Dissertation, Stanford University
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  49. Spector. Scalar Implicature as a Grammatical Phenomenon.Fox Chierchia - 2012 - In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 3--2297.
  50. Two switches in the theory of counterfactuals: A study of truth conditionality and minimal change.Ivano Ciardelli, Linmin Zhang & Lucas Champollion - manuscript
    Based on a crowdsourced truth-value judgment experiment, we provide empirical evidence challenging two classical views in semantics, and we develop a novel account of counterfactuals that combines ideas from inquisitive semantics and causal reasoning. First, we show that two truth-conditionally equivalent clauses can make different semantic contributions when embedded in a counterfactual antecedent. Assuming compositionality, this means that the meaning of these clauses is not fully determined by their truth conditions. This finding has a clear explanation in inquisitive semantics: truth-conditionally (...)
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