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  1. added 2018-11-09
    On the Intuitionistic Background of Gentzen's 1935 and 1936 Consistency Proofs and Their Philosophical Aspects.Yuta Takahashi - 2018 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 27:1-26.
    Gentzen's three consistency proofs for elementary number theory have a common aim that originates from Hilbert's Program, namely, the aim to justify the application of classical reasoning to quantified propositions in elementary number theory. In addition to this common aim, Gentzen gave a “finitist” interpretation to every number-theoretic proposition with his 1935 and 1936 consistency proofs. In the present paper, we investigate the relationship of this interpretation with intuitionism in terms of the debate between the Hilbert School and the Brouwer (...)
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  2. added 2018-04-13
    Critical Study of Michael Potter’s Reason’s Nearest Kin. [REVIEW]Richard Zach - 2005 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (4):503-513.
    Critical study of Michael Potter, Reason's Nearest Kin. Philosophies of Arithmetic from Kant to Carnap. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000. x + 305 pages.
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  3. added 2018-02-17
    Consistency Problem and “Unexpected Hanging Paradox” (An Answering to P=NP Problem).Farzad Didehvar - unknown
    Abstract The Theory of Computation in its existed form is based on Church –Turing Thesis. Throughout this paper, we show that the Turing computation model of this theory leads us to a contradiction. In brief, by applying a well-known paradox (Unexpected hanging paradox) we show a contradiction in the Theory when we consider the Turing model as our Computation model.
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  4. added 2017-11-09
    Fourteen Arguments in Favour of a Formalist Philosophy of Real Mathematics.Karlis Podnieks - 2015 - Baltic Journal of Modern Computing 3 (1):1-15.
    The formalist philosophy of mathematics (in its purest, most extreme version) is widely regarded as a “discredited position”. This pure and extreme version of formalism is called by some authors “game formalism”, because it is alleged to represent mathematics as a meaningless game with strings of symbols. Nevertheless, I would like to draw attention to some arguments in favour of game formalism as an appropriate philosophy of real mathematics. For the most part, these arguments have not yet been used or (...)
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  5. added 2017-10-12
    The Epsilon Calculus.Jeremy Avigad & Richard Zach - 2008 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.
    The epsilon calculus is a logical formalism developed by David Hilbert in the service of his program in the foundations of mathematics. The epsilon operator is a term-forming operator which replaces quantifiers in ordinary predicate logic. Specifically, in the calculus, a term εx A denotes some x satisfying A(x), if there is one. In Hilbert's Program, the epsilon terms play the role of ideal elements; the aim of Hilbert's finitistic consistency proofs is to give a procedure which removes such terms (...)
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  6. added 2017-08-13
    Numbers and Functions in Hilbert's Finitism.Richard Zach - 1998 - Taiwanese Journal for History and Philosophy of Science 10:33-60.
    David Hilbert's finitistic standpoint is a conception of elementary number theory designed to answer the intuitionist doubts regarding the security and certainty of mathematics. Hilbert was unfortunately not exact in delineating what that viewpoint was, and Hilbert himself changed his usage of the term through the 1920s and 30s. The purpose of this paper is to outline what the main problems are in understanding Hilbert and Bernays on this issue, based on some publications by them which have so far received (...)
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  7. added 2017-06-02
    A Case Study of Misconceptions Students in the Learning of Mathematics; The Concept Limit Function in High School.Widodo Winarso & Toheri Toheri - 2017 - Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika 4 (1): 120-127.
    This study aims to find out how high the level and trends of student misconceptions experienced by high school students in Indonesia. The subject of research that is a class XI student of Natural Science (IPA) SMA Negeri 1 Anjatan with the subject matter limit function. Forms of research used in this study is a qualitative research, with a strategy that is descriptive qualitative research. The data analysis focused on the results of the students' answers on the test essay subject (...)
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  8. added 2017-02-27
    Hilbert’s Program.Richard Zach - 2003 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.
    In the early 1920s, the German mathematician David Hilbert (1862–1943) put forward a new proposal for the foundation of classical mathematics which has come to be known as Hilbert's Program. It calls for a formalization of all of mathematics in axiomatic form, together with a proof that this axiomatization of mathematics is consistent. The consistency proof itself was to be carried out using only what Hilbert called “finitary” methods. The special epistemological character of finitary reasoning then yields the required justification (...)
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  9. added 2017-02-12
    Alan Weir , Truth Through Proof: A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics . Reviewed By.Julian C. Cole - 2012 - Philosophy in Review 32 (6):529-532.
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  10. added 2017-02-10
    Different Senses of Finitude: An Inquiry Into Hilbert's Finitism.Sören Stenlund - 2012 - Synthese 185 (3):335-363.
    This article develops a critical investigation of the epistemological core of Hilbert's foundational project, the so-called the finitary attitude. The investigation proceeds by distinguishing different senses of 'number' and 'finitude' that have been used in the philosophical arguments. The usual notion of modern pure mathematics, i.e. the sense of number which is implicit in the notion of an arbitrary finite sequence and iteration is one sense of number and finitude. Another sense, of older origin, is connected with practices of counting (...)
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  11. added 2017-02-08
    Hilbert's Program Modi Ed.Solomon Feferman - unknown
    The background to the development of proof theory since 1960 is contained in the article (MATHEMATICS, FOUNDATIONS OF), Vol. 5, pp. 208- 209. Brie y, Hilbert's program (H.P.), inaugurated in the 1920s, aimed to secure the foundations of mathematics by giving nitary consistency proofs of formal systems such as for number theory, analysis and set theory, in which informal mathematics can be represented directly. These systems are based on classical logic and implicitly or explicitly depend on the assumption of \completed (...)
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  12. added 2017-02-02
    Hilbert Et la Notion D’Existence En Mathématiques.Yvon Gauthier - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (2):399-402.
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  13. added 2017-02-01
    On the Meaning of Hilbert's Consistency Problem (Paris, 1900).Enrico Moriconi - 2003 - Synthese 137 (1-2):129 - 139.
    The theory that ``consistency implies existence'' was put forward by Hilbert on various occasions around the start of the last century, and it was strongly and explicitly emphasized in his correspondence with Frege. Since (Gödel's) completeness theorem, abstractly speaking, forms the basis of this theory, it has become common practice to assume that Hilbert took for granted the semantic completeness of second order logic. In this paper I maintain that this widely held view is untrue to the facts, and that (...)
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  14. added 2017-01-29
    Leibniz's and Kant's Philosophical Ideas Vs. Hilbert's Program.Roman Murawski - unknown - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 98:29-39.
  15. added 2017-01-28
    Finitism: An Essay on Hilbert's Programme.David Watson Galloway - 1991 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    In this thesis, I discuss the philosophical foundations of Hilbert's Consistency Programme of the 1920's, in the light of the incompleteness theorems of Godel. ;I begin by locating the Consistency Programme within Hilbert's broader foundational project. I show that Hilbert's main aim was to establish that classical mathematics, and in particular classical analysis, is a conservative extension of finitary mathematics. Accepting the standard identification of finitary mathematics with primitive recursive arithmetic, and classical analysis with second order arithmetic, I report upon (...)
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  16. added 2017-01-27
    Hilbert's Program: An Essay on Mathematical Instrumentalism by Michael Detlefsen. [REVIEW]Mark Steiner - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (6):331-336.
  17. added 2017-01-24
    Hilbert Versus Hindman.Jeffry L. Hirst - 2012 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (1-2):123-125.
    We show that a statement HIL, which is motivated by a lemma of Hilbert and close in formulation to Hindman’s theorem, is actually much weaker than Hindman’s theorem. In particular, HIL is finitistically reducible in the sense of Hilbert’s program, while Hindman’s theorem is not.
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  18. added 2017-01-23
    Truth Through Proof: A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics * by Alan Weir.Z. Damnjanovic - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):415-418.
  19. added 2017-01-23
    Hilbert's Program: An Essay on Mathematical Instrumentalism.Michael Detlefsen - 1986 - Reidel.
    An Essay on Mathematical Instrumentalism M. Detlefsen. THE PHILOSOPHICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF HILBERT'S PROGRAM 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter I shall attempt to set out Hilbert's Program in a way that is more revealing than ...
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  20. added 2017-01-17
    Hilbert Program of Formalism as a Working Philosophical Direction for Consideration of the Bases of Mathematics.N. V. Mikhailova - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russiaроссийский Гуманитарный Журналrossijskij Gumanitarnyj Žurnalrossijskij Gumanitaryj Zhurnalrossiiskii Gumanitarnyi Zhurnal 4 (6):534.
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  21. added 2017-01-16
    Hilbert program of formalism as a working philosophical direction for consideration of the bases of mathematics.N. V. Mikhailova - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russia 4 (6):534-545.
    In the article, philosophical and methodological analysis of the program of Hilbert’s formalism as a really working direction for consideration of the bases of modern mathematics is presented. For the professional mathematicians methodological advantages of the program of formalism advanced by David Hilbert, consist primarily in the fact that the highest possible level of theoretical rigor of modern mathematical theories was practically represented there. To resolve the fundamental difficulties of the problem of bases of mathematics, according to Hilbert, the theory (...)
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  22. added 2016-12-08
    The Autonomy of Mathematical Knowledge: Hilbert's Program Revisited.Curtis Franks - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Most scholars think of David Hilbert's program as the most demanding and ideologically motivated attempt to provide a foundation for mathematics, and because they see technical obstacles in the way of realizing the program's goals, they regard it as a failure. Against this view, Curtis Franks argues that Hilbert's deepest and most central insight was that mathematical techniques and practices do not need grounding in any philosophical principles. He weaves together an original historical account, philosophical analysis, and his own development (...)
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  23. added 2016-10-23
    Hilbert's Program Revisited.Panu Raatikainen - 2003 - Synthese 137 (1):157-177.
    After sketching the main lines of Hilbert's program, certain well-known and influential interpretations of the program are critically evaluated, and an alternative interpretation is presented. Finally, some recent developments in logic related to Hilbert's program are reviewed.
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  24. added 2016-07-05
    Laplacian Growth Without Surface Tension in Filtration Combustion: Analytical Pole Solution.Oleg Kupervasser - 2016 - Complexity 21 (5):31-42.
    Filtration combustion is described by Laplacian growth without surface tension. These equations have elegant analytical solutions that replace the complex integro-differential motion equations by simple differential equations of pole motion in a complex plane. The main problem with such a solution is the existence of finite time singularities. To prevent such singularities, nonzero surface tension is usually used. However, nonzero surface tension does not exist in filtration combustion, and this destroys the analytical solutions. However, a more elegant approach exists for (...)
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  25. added 2015-08-30
    Towards a Theory of Mathematical Research Programmes (I).Michael Hallett - 1979 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (1):1-25.
  26. added 2015-06-14
    Formalism.Michael Detlefsen - 2005 - In Stewart Shapiro (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 236--317.
    A comprehensive historical overview of formalist ideas in the philosophy of mathematics.
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  27. added 2015-06-14
    What Does Gödel's Second Theorem Say.Michael Detlefsen - 2001 - Philosophia Mathematica 9 (1):37-71.
    We consider a seemingly popular justification (we call it the Re-flexivity Defense) for the third derivability condition of the Hilbert-Bernays-Löb generalization of Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem (G2). We argue that (i) in certain settings (rouglily, those where the representing theory of an arithmetization is allowed to be a proper subtheory of the represented theory), use of the Reflexivity Defense to justify the tliird condition induces a fourth condition, and that (ii) the justification of this fourth condition faces serious obstacles. We (...)
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  28. added 2015-06-14
    Constructive Existence Claims.Michael Detlefsen - 1998 - In Matthias Schirn (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematics Today. Clarendon Press. pp. 1998--307.
    It is a commonplace of constructivist thought that a claim that an object of a certain kind exists is to be backed by an explicit display or exhibition of an object that is manifestly of that kind. Let us refer to this requirement as the exhibition condition. The main objective of this essay is to examine this requirement and to arrive at a better understanding of its epistemic character and the role that it plays in the two main constructivist philosophies (...)
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  29. added 2015-06-14
    Hilbert's Formalism.Michael Detlefsen - 1993 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 47 (186):285-304.
    Various parallels between Kant's critical program and Hilbert's formalistic program for the philosophy of mathematics are considered.
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  30. added 2015-06-14
    On an Alleged Refutation of Hilbert's Program Using Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem.Michael Detlefsen - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):343 - 377.
    It is argued that an instrumentalist notion of proof such as that represented in Hilbert's viewpoint is not obligated to satisfy the conservation condition that is generally regarded as a constraint on Hilbert's Program. A more reasonable soundness condition is then considered and shown not to be counter-exemplified by Godel's First Theorem. Finally, attention is given to the question of what a theory is; whether it should be seen as a "list" or corpus of beliefs, or as a method for (...)
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  31. added 2015-06-14
    On Interpreting Gödel's Second Theorem.Michael Detlefsen - 1979 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 8 (1):297 - 313.
    In this paper I have considered various attempts to attribute significance to Gödel's second incompleteness theorem (G2 for short). Two of these attempts (Beth-Cohen and the position maintaining that G2 shows the failure of Hilbert's Program), I have argued, are false. Two others (an argument suggested by Beth, Cohen and ??? and Resnik's Interpretation), I argue, are groundless.
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  32. added 2014-10-10
    Study of Analytic Number Theory: Riemann’s Hypothesis and Prime Number Theorem with Addendum on Integer Partitions.Lukasz Andrzej Glinka - 2013 - Cambridge International Science Publishing.
    This monograph explores several classical issues of modern mathematics, and discusses both the historical and research aspects. The brief historical part is focused on Riemann’s zeta function and few related problems. The research part starts from direct formulation of simple proofs of both the prime number theorem and Riemann’s hypothesis, two intriguing problems of modern mathematics, which applies the concept of Mertens’s function and is based on Apostol’s and Littlewood’s criterions of equivalence. The second research problem discussed in this book (...)
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  33. added 2014-04-02
    Why Did Weyl Think That Formalism's Victory Against Intuitionism Entails a Defeat of Pure Phenomenology?Iulian D. Toader - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (2):198-208.
    It has been contended that it is unjustified to believe, as Weyl did, that formalism's victory against intuitionism entails a defeat of the phenomenological approach to mathematics. The reason for this contention, recently put forth by Paolo Mancosu and Thomas Ryckman, is that, unlike intuitionistic Anschauung, phenomenological intuition could ground classical mathematics. I argue that this indicates a misinterpretation of Weyl's view, for he did not take formalism to prevail over intuitionism with respect to grounding classical mathematics. I also point (...)
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  34. added 2014-03-30
    Logicism, Intuitionism, and Formalism - What has Become of Them?Sten Lindström, Erik Palmgren, Krister Segerberg & Viggo Stoltenberg-Hansen (eds.) - 2009 - Springer.
    The period in the foundations of mathematics that started in 1879 with the publication of Frege's Begriffsschrift and ended in 1931 with Gödel's Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme I can reasonably be called the classical period. It saw the development of three major foundational programmes: the logicism of Frege, Russell and Whitehead, the intuitionism of Brouwer, and Hilbert's formalist and proof-theoretic programme. In this period, there were also lively exchanges between the various schools culminating in (...)
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  35. added 2014-03-29
    Truth Through Proof: A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics.Alan Weir - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    Truth Through Proof defends an anti-platonist philosophy of mathematics derived from game formalism. Alan Weir aims to develop a more satisfactory successor to game formalism utilising a widely accepted, broadly neo-Fregean framework, in which the proposition expressed by an utterance is a function of both sense and background circumstance.
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  36. added 2014-03-27
    Hilbert's Formalism and Arithmetization of Mathematics.Judson C. Webb - 1997 - Synthese 110 (1):1-14.
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  37. added 2014-03-23
    Proof-Theoretic Reduction as a Philosopher's Tool.Thomas Hofweber - 2000 - Erkenntnis 53 (1-2):127-146.
    Hilbert’s program in the philosophy of mathematics comes in two parts. One part is a technical part. To carry out this part of the program one has to prove a certain technical result. The other part of the program is a philosophical part. It is concerned with philosophical questions that are the real aim of the program. To carry out this part one, basically, has to show why the technical part answers the philosophical questions one wanted to have answered. Hilbert (...)
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  38. added 2014-03-22
    Why Do We Prove Theorems?Y. Rav - 1999 - Philosophia Mathematica 7 (1):5-41.
    Ordinary mathematical proofs—to be distinguished from formal derivations—are the locus of mathematical knowledge. Their epistemic content goes way beyond what is summarised in the form of theorems. Objections are raised against the formalist thesis that every mainstream informal proof can be formalised in some first-order formal system. Foundationalism is at the heart of Hilbert's program and calls for methods of formal logic to prove consistency. On the other hand, ‘systemic cohesiveness’, as proposed here, seeks to explicate why mathematical knowledge is (...)
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  39. added 2014-03-19
    The Pragmatism of Hilbert's Programme.Volker Peckhaus - 2003 - Synthese 137 (1-2):141 - 156.
    It is shown that David Hilbert's formalistic approach to axiomaticis accompanied by a certain pragmatism that is compatible with aphilosophical, or, so to say, external foundation of mathematics.Hilbert's foundational programme can thus be seen as areconciliation of Pragmatism and Apriorism. This interpretation iselaborated by discussing two recent positions in the philosophy ofmathematics which are or can be related to Hilbert's axiomaticalprogramme and his formalism. In a first step it is argued that thepragmatism of Hilbert's axiomatic contradicts the opinion thatHilbert style (...)
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  40. added 2014-03-12
    Lieber Herr Bernays!, Lieber Herr Gödel! Gödel on Finitism, Constructivity and Hilbert's Program.Solomon Feferman - 2008 - Dialectica 62 (2):179–203.
    This is a survey of Gödel's perennial preoccupations with the limits of finitism, its relations to constructivity, and the significance of his incompleteness theorems for Hilbert's program, using his published and unpublished articles and lectures as well as the correspondence between Bernays and Gödel on these matters. There is also an important subtext, namely the shadow of Hilbert that loomed over Gödel from the beginning to the end.
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  41. added 2014-03-10
    Hilbert's Objectivity.Lydia Patton - 2014 - Historia Mathematica 41 (2):188-203.
    Detlefsen (1986) reads Hilbert's program as a sophisticated defense of instrumentalism, but Feferman (1998) has it that Hilbert's program leaves significant ontological questions unanswered. One such question is of the reference of individual number terms. Hilbert's use of admittedly "meaningless" signs for numbers and formulae appears to impair his ability to establish the reference of mathematical terms and the content of mathematical propositions (Weyl (1949); Kitcher (1976)). The paper traces the history and context of Hilbert's reasoning about signs, which illuminates (...)
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  42. added 2014-03-09
    How to Nominalize Formalism.J. Azzouni - 2005 - Philosophia Mathematica 13 (2):135-159.
    Formalism shares with nominalism a distaste for abstracta. But an honest exposition of the former position risks introducing abstracta as the stuff of syntax. This article describes the dangers, and offers a new escape route from platonism for the formalist. It is explained how the needed role of derivations in mathematical practice can be explained, not by a commitment to the derivations themselves, but by the commitment of the mathematician to a practice which is in accord with a theory of (...)
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  43. added 2013-05-31
    Rendering Conditionals in Mathematical Discourse with Conditional Elements.Joseph S. Fulda - 2009 - Journal of Pragmatics 41 (7):1435-1439.
    In "Material Implications" (1992), mathematical discourse was said to be different from ordinary discourse, with the discussion centering around conditionals. This paper shows how.
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  44. added 2013-02-08
    The Mode of Existence of Mathematical Objects.M. A. Rozov - 1989 - Philosophia Mathematica (2):105-111.
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  45. added 2013-01-05
    Formalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Alan Weir - unknown
    The guiding idea behind formalism is that mathematics is not a body of propositions representing an abstract sector of reality but is much more akin to a game, bringing with it no more commitment to an ontology of objects or properties than ludo or chess. This idea has some intuitive plausibility: consider the tyro toiling at multiplication tables or the student using a standard algorithm for differentiating or integrating a function. It also corresponds to some aspects of the practice of (...)
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  46. added 2013-01-05
    Review of J. O'Neill, Worlds Without Content: Against Formalism[REVIEW]Steven J. Wagner - 1996 - Philosophia Mathematica 4 (3).
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  47. added 2013-01-04
    Review of J. O'Neill, Worlds Without Content: Against Formalism[REVIEW]Richard Tieszen - 1993 - Husserl Studies 10 (3).
  48. added 2012-12-20
    Review of R. Hersh, What is Mathematics, Really?.F. Richman - 1998 - Philosophia Mathematica 6 (2):245-255.
  49. added 2012-12-20
    Review of J. Azzouni, Metaphysical Myths, Mathematical Practice: The Ontology and Epistemology of the Exact Sciences[REVIEW]Michael D. Resnik - 1995 - Philosophia Mathematica 3 (3).
  50. added 2012-12-16
    A Critique of a Formalist-Mechanist Version of the Justification of Arguments in Mathematicians' Proof Practices.Yehuda Rav - 2007 - Philosophia Mathematica 15 (3):291-320.
    In a recent article, Azzouni has argued in favor of a version of formalism according to which ordinary mathematical proofs indicate mechanically checkable derivations. This is taken to account for the quasi-universal agreement among mathematicians on the validity of their proofs. Here, the author subjects these claims to a critical examination, recalls the technical details about formalization and mechanical checking of proofs, and illustrates the main argument with aanalysis of examples. In the author's view, much of mathematical reasoning presents genuine (...)
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