About this topic
Summary

Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746) was born in Ireland but was educated and spent his career in Scotland at the University of Glasgow, where he was professor and chair of moral philosophy from 1729 until his death. Hutcheson is generally considered a key figure, and sometimes even the ‘father’, of the Scottish Enlightenment, especially considering his ideas had such an important impact on figures like Hume, Smith, and Reid. Hutcheson is best known for his theory of the moral sense and his sentimentalist moral theory more generally, wherein he provided an early formulation of the utilitarian principle of ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’, among other things. He also made a significant contribution to early aesthetic theory, and his works were not only translated and discussed in places like Germany, where he had an influence on Kant, but were also discussed in the American colonies both at colleges and by writers on slavery and colonial independence.

Key works

Hutcheson’s most read works are the Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725, modern edition 2008) and the Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations upon the Moral sense (1728, modern edition 2002). The Inquiry contains his theory of the moral sense and sense of beauty, as well as his arguments against the self-interested moral psychology of Hobbes and Mandeville and alternative theory of benevolence. The Essay is an even more extensive elucidation of his theory of motivation, and the Illustrations contains his famous distinction between exciting and justifying reasons. Hutcheson’s other writings include texts on logic and metaphysics (Hutcheson et al 2006), a Latin textbook introduction to moral philosophy (2007), his posthumously published magnum opus A System of Moral Philosophy (1755, modern edition 2015), as well as a translation of Marcus Aurelius’s Meditations. Among his more famous shorter writings are his exchange with the rationalist Gilbert Burnet in the London Journal and his inaugural lecture on the Social Nature of Man (see Mautner 1993). Facsimiles of eighteenth-century editions of Hutcheson’s works have been reproduced by Georg Olms press (1745), but the new standard edition of Hutcheson’s works is that published by Liberty Fund, and which is available online (some volumes are still forthcoming).

Introductions

For an excellent introduction to Hutcheson’s meta- and normative ethics, see Dorsey 2021. On Hutcheson’s aesthetics see Grote 2017. For Hutcheson’s relation to the Scottish Enlightenment, see Carey 2015. For Hutcheson’s relation to utilitarianism see Hollander 2019. The standard biography of Hutcheson remains Scott 1900.

Related categories

264 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 264
  1. Active Powers of the Human Mind.Ruth Boeker - forthcoming - In Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, vol. 2. Oxford:
  2. Editorial: New Perspectives on Hutcheson's Moral Philosophy.Michael Walschots - forthcoming - Journal of Scottish Philosophy.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Hutcheson's Theory of Obligation.Michael Walschots - forthcoming - Journal of Scottish Philosophy.
    In this article I argue that Hutcheson has a theory of obligation that is different in important ways from the views of his predecessors and that his theory may not be as problematic as critics have claimed. In section (I) I sketch a brief picture of the rich conceptual landscape surrounding the concept of obligation in the Early Modern period. I focus on the five figures Hutcheson explicitly references: Hugo Grotius, Samuel Pufendorf, their French translator and commentator Jean Barbeyrac, as (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Mencius and Hutcheson on Empathy-Based Benevolence.Christina Chuang - 2022 - Philosophy East and West 72 (1):57-78.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Francis Hutcheson.Dale Dorsey - 2021 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Moralsinn und Gewissen: Shaftesbury, Hutcheson und Butler.Jens Kulenkampff - 2021 - In Christoph Halbig & Felix Timmermann (eds.), Handbuch Tugend Und Tugendethik. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 199-211.
    Aus der Beobachtung, dass es für jedes organisierte Wesen einen Bestzustand gibt, den zu erreichen bzw. zu erhalten sein oberstes Interesse ist, und aus der durchgängigen teleologischen Ordnung der Welt gewinnt Shaftesbury, der Vater der Moral-Sense-Schule der Ethik, sowohl den Unterschied von Nutzen und Schaden als auch den Begriff einer natürlichen Güte, die darin besteht, dass sich ein jedes Wesen, gemäß der Ordnung der Natur, für das Wohlergehen anderer Wesen als nützlich erweist. Der Begriff eigentlicher, allein dem Menschen eigener Tugend (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Die Erweckung aus dem dogmatischen Schlummer der Ästhetik: Francis Hutcheson und Immanuel Kant.Helke Panknin-Schappert - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. De Gruyter. pp. 1085-1094.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Francis Hutcheson on Liberty.Ruth Boeker - 2020 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 88:121-142.
    This paper aims to reconstruct Francis Hutcheson's thinking about liberty. Since he does not offer a detailed treatment of philosophical questions concerning liberty in his mature philosophical writings I turn to a textbook on metaphysics. We can assume that he prepared the textbook during the 1720s in Dublin. This textbook deserves more attention. First, it sheds light on Hutcheson's role as a teacher in Ireland and Scotland. Second, Hutcheson's contributions to metaphysical disputes are more original than sometimes assumed. To appreciate (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9. The Problem of Partiality in 18th Century British Moral Philosophy.Getty L. Lustila - 2019 - Dissertation, Boston University
    The dissertation traces the development of what I call “the problem of partiality” through the work of certain key figures in the British Moralist tradition: John Locke, Catharine Trotter Cockburn, Anthony Ashley Cooper (the Third Earl of Shaftesbury), Francis Hutcheson, John Gay, David Hume, Joseph Butler, and Adam Smith. On the one hand, we are committed to impartiality as a constitutive norm of moral judgment and conduct. On the other hand, we are committed to the idea that it is permissible, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Francis Hutcheson and John Clarke on Desire and Self-Interest.John J. Tilley - 2019 - The European Legacy 24 (1): 1-24.
    Among the most animating debates in eighteenth-century British ethics was the debate over psychological egoism, the view that our most basic desires are self-interested. An important episode in that debate, less well known than it should be, was the exchange between Francis Hutcheson and John Clarke of Hull. In the early editions of his Inquiry into Virtue, Hutcheson argued ingeniously against psychological egoism; in his Foundation of Morality, Clarke argued ingeniously against Hutcheson’s arguments. Later, Hutcheson attempted new arguments against psychological (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Inner Sense, Outer Sense, and Feeling: Hutcheson and Kant on Aesthetic Pleasure.Colin McQuillan - 2017 - In Chris W. Surprenant & Elizabeth Robinson (eds.), Kant and the Scottish Enlightenment. New York: Routledge.
  12. Hutcheson and Kant: Moral Sense and Moral Feeling.Michael Walschots - 2017 - In Chris W. Surprenant & Elizabeth Robinson (eds.), Kant and the Scottish Enlightenment. London: Routledge. pp. 36-54.
    My aim in this paper is to discuss Kant’s engagement with what is arguably the core feature of Hutcheson’s moral sense theory, namely the idea that the moral sense is the foundation of moral judgement. In section one I give an account of Hutcheson’s conception of the moral sense. This sense is a perceptive faculty that explains our ability both to feel a particular kind of pleasure upon perceiving benevolence, and to appraise such benevolence as morally good on the basis (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Kant on Moral Satisfaction.Michael Walschots - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (2):281-303.
    This paper gives an account of Kant’s concept of self-contentment (Selbstzufriedenheit), i.e. the satisfaction involved in the performance of moral action. This concept is vulnerable to an important objection: if moral action is satisfying, it might only ever be performed for the sake of this satisfaction. I explain Kant’s response to this objection and argue that it is superior to Francis Hutcheson’s response to a similar objection. I conclude by showing that two other notions of moral satisfaction in Kant’s moral (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  14. Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment.Christian Maurer - 2016 - In John Sellars (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Stoic Tradition. Routledge. pp. 254-269.
  15. How to Be a Moral Taste Theorist.John McAteer - 2016 - Essays in Philosophy 17 (1):05-21.
    In this paper, I attempt to recover an 18th Century approach to moral theory that can be called Moral Taste Theory. Through an exploration of 18th Century sources I define the characteristics of moral taste theory and to distinguish it from its closest rival, moral sense theory. In general a moral taste theorist holds that moral judgments are analogous to aesthetic judgments while a moral sense theorist holds that moral judgments are analogous to physical sense perception. Francis Hutcheson was a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  16. Passions, Perceptions, and Motives: Fault-Lines in Hutcheson's Account of Moral Sentiment.Glen Pettigrove - 2016 - In Heather Kerr, David Lemmings & Robert Phiddian (eds.), Passions, Sympathy and Print Culture: Public Opinion and Emotional Authenticity in Eighteenth-Century Britain. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 203-222.
    In the 1720s Francis Hutcheson developed a systematic account of the origins of ethical judgments that would have a profound influence on later writers. Ethical judgments, he argues, arise from the perceptions of internal senses that are, themselves, rooted in ‘Passions and Affections’. This paper describes his account and draws attention to an important tension at its heart. When judging particular cases, Hutcheson praises kindly, generous, and merciful affections as exemplary. But when he proposes a mathematical formula for ‘computing the (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Francis Hutcheson and the Emerging Aesthetic Experience.Endre Szécsényi - 2016 - Journal of Scottish Thought 7:171-209.
  18. Hutcheson's Theological Objection to Egoism.John J. Tilley - 2016 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 14 (1):101-123.
    Francis Hutcheson's objections to psychological egoism usually appeal to experience or introspection. However, at least one of them is theological: It includes premises of a religious kind, such as that God rewards the virtuous. This objection invites interpretive and philosophical questions, some of which may seem to highlight errors or shortcomings on Hutcheson's part. Also, to answer the questions is to point out important features of Hutcheson's objection and its intellectual context. And nowhere in the scholarship on Hutcheson do we (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19. Moral Sense Theory and the Development of Kant's Ethics.Michael Walschots - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    This dissertation investigates a number of ways in which an eighteenth century British philosophical movement known as “moral sense theory” influenced the development of German philosopher Immanuel Kant’s (1724-1804) moral theory. I illustrate that Kant found both moral sense theory’s conception of moral judgement and its conception of moral motivation appealing during the earliest stage of his philosophical development, but eventually came to reject its conception of moral judgement, though even in his early writings Kant preserves certain features of its (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Francis Hutcheson on Luxury and Intemperance: The Mandeville Threat.Lisa Broussois - 2015 - History of European Ideas 41 (8):1093-1106.
    This paper looks at two figures in the modern, European, eighteenth-century debate on luxury. It claims to better understand the differences between Francis Hutcheson and Bernard Mandeville by exploring how Hutcheson treated the topic of luxury as a distinction between two desires, thus differing from Mandeville's concept of luxury, and a concept of temperance based on moral sense. It explores why Hutcheson believed that luxury was a moral, social and political issue and particularly why he considered Mandeville the embodiment of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21. Francis Hutcheson’s Philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment: Reception, Reputation, and Legacy.Daniel Carey - 2015 - In Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.), Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century: Volume I: Morals, Politics, Art, Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 36-76.
    This chapter presents an account of the life and work of Francis Hutcheson. It charts his career from its beginnings in Dublin to the attempt to cement his place in British intellectual life that was his posthumously published A System of Moral Philosophy. Hutcheson’s ideas were not universally welcomed and acclaimed. Religious conservatives constantly challenged him even after he was elected to the Glasgow chair of moral philosophy. The chapter describes the rationalist critique of Hutcheson’s moral sense theory, the criticism (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22. Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume I: Morals, Politics, Art, Religion.Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    This new history of Scottish philosophy will include two volumes that focus on the Scottish Enlightenment. In this volume a team of leading experts explore the ideas, intellectual context, and influence of Hutcheson, Hume, Smith, Reid, and many other thinkers, frame old issues in fresh ways, and introduce new topics and questions into debates about the philosophy of this remarkable period. The contributors explore the distinctively Scottish context of this philosophical flourishing, and juxtapose the work of canonical philosophers with contemporaries (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. A System of Moral Philosophy 2 Volume Set: In Three Books.Francis Hutcheson - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Often described as the father of the Scottish Enlightenment, Francis Hutcheson was born in the north of Ireland to an Ulster-Scottish Presbyterian family. Organised into three 'books' that were divided between two volumes, A System of Moral Philosophy was his most comprehensive work. It synthesised ideas that he had formulated as a minister and as the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Published posthumously by his son in 1755, prefaced by an account of his life, it is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. A System of Moral Philosophy: In Three Books.Francis Hutcheson - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Often described as the father of the Scottish Enlightenment, Francis Hutcheson was born in the north of Ireland to an Ulster-Scottish Presbyterian family. Organised into three 'books' that were divided between two volumes, A System of Moral Philosophy was his most comprehensive work. It synthesised ideas that he had formulated as a minister and as the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Published posthumously by his son in 1755, prefaced by an account of his life, it is (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25. Making Sense of Moral Perception.Rafe McGregor - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (4):745-758.
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that Francis Hutcheson’s moral sense theory offers a satisfactory account of moral perception. I introduce Hutcheson’s work in §1 and indicate why the existence of a sixth sense is not implausible. I provide a summary of Robert Cowan and Robert Audi’s respective theories of evaluative perception in §2, identifying three problematic objections: the Directness Objection to Cowan’s ethical perception and the aesthetic and perceptual model objections to Audi’s moral perception. §3 examines Hutcheson’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  26. John Clarke of Hull's Argument for Psychological Egoism.John J. Tilley - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):69-89.
    John Clarke of Hull, one of the eighteenth century's staunchest proponents of psychological egoism, defended that theory in his Foundation of Morality in Theory and Practice. He did so mainly by opposing the objections to egoism in the first two editions of Francis Hutcheson's Inquiry into Virtue. But Clarke also produced a challenging, direct argument for egoism which, regrettably, has received virtually no scholarly attention. In this paper I give it some of the attention it merits. In addition to reconstructing (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Francis Hutcheson, da beleza à perspectiva do desígnio.Lisa Broussois - 2014 - Discurso 44:97-126.
    O que é “a outra perspectiva nas obras da natureza”, de que fala Hutcheson? De que forma a beleza provê acesso a ela? O presente artigo discute o lugar dessa “outra perspectiva” na teoria estética de Francis Hutcheson. Trata-se de compreender por que o desígnio (design) surge do belo através de uma reflexão sobre a beleza em sua Investigação sobre a origem de nossas ideias da beleza e da virtude, de 1725. Buscaremos determinar se essa teoria estética estaria subordinada aos (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Hutcheson sobre a importância de ser desinteressado. Um encômio a Shaftesbury?Laurent Jaffro - 2014 - Discurso 44:79-99.
    Costuma-se dizer que a filososfia moral de Hutcheson seria tributária daquela de Shaftesbury, a ponto mesmo de ser um prolongamento do pensamento moral do filósofo inglês. O artigo busca mostrar que essa é uma visão simplista, examinando para tanto o conceito de desinteresse em Hutcheson.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Ethical Intuitionism and the Emotions: Toward an Empirically Adequate Moral Sense Theory.James Sias - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):533-549.
    IntroductionEthical intuitionists have never known quite what to make of the emotions. Generally speaking, these philosophers fall into two camps: rational intuitionists and moral sense theorists. And by my lights, neither camp has been able to tell a convincing story about the exact role and significance of emotion in moral judgment. Rational intuitionists are for the most part too dismissive of the emotions, either regarding emotions as little more than distractions to moral judgment,Samuel Clarke, for instance, after naming our “faculties (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30. Hutcheson, Francis.Dale Dorsey - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism.Noriaki Iwasa - 2013 - Prolegomena 12 (1):61-82.
    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson's, David Hume's, and Adam Smith's moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sentiments alone (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  32. La Mesure du Bien. Que Calcule le Calcul Moral de Hutcheson?Laurent Jaffro - 2013 - Philosophiques 40 (1):197.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33. The Bridge of Benevolence: Hutcheson and Mencius.Alejandra Mancilla - 2013 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (1):57-72.
    The Scottish sentimentalist Francis Hutcheson and the Chinese Confucianist Mencius give benevolence (ren) a key place in their respective moral theories, as the first and foundational virtue. Leaving aside differences in style and method, my purpose in this essay is to underline this similarity by focusing on four common features: first, benevolence springs from compassion, an innate and universal feeling shared by all human beings; second, its objects are not only human beings but also animals; third, it is sensitive to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  34. Self-Interest and Sociability.Christian Maurer - 2013 - In James A. Harris (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press. pp. 291-314.
    The chapter analyses the debates on the relation between self-interest and sociability in eighteenth-century British moral philosophy. It focuses on the selfish hypothesis, i.e. on the egoistic theory that we are only motivated by self-interest or self-love, and that our sociability is not based on disinterested affections, such as benevolence. The selfish hypothesis is much debated especially in the early eighteenth century (Mandeville, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Butler, Clarke, Campbell, Gay), and then rather tacitly accepted (Hartley, Tucker, Paley) or rejected (Hume, Smith, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  35. The Nature of Virtue.Dario Perinetti - 2013 - In James A. Harris (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press. pp. 333.
    This chapter examines the different answers that British moralists gave to the question ‘what does virtue consist in?’ Rather than as a royal road to present-day views in ethics, their answers are best understood when considered against the background of early modern natural law theories and their projected metaphysics of morals. The emerging ‘science of morality’ dealt with the metaphysical problem of determining what sort of thing virtue is. Considered from this vantage point, the British moralists struggled with the problem (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Moral Sentimentalism and the Reasonableness of Being Good.Elizabeth S. Radcliffe - 2013 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 2013 (no. 263):9-27.
    In this paper, I discuss the implications of Hutcheson’s and Hume’s sentimentalist theories for the question of whether and how we can offer reasons to be moral. Hutcheson and Hume agree that reason does not give us ultimate ends. Because of this, on Hutcheson’s line, the possession of affections and of a moral sense makes practical reasons possible. On Hume’s view, that reason does not give us ultimate ends means that reason does not motivate on its own, and this makes (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Hutcheson, Francis.Phyllis Vandenberg & Abigail DeHart - 2013 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Francis Hutcheson (1694-1745) Francis Hutcheson was an eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher whose meticulous writings and activities influenced life in Scotland, Great Britain, Europe, and even the newly formed North American colonies. For historians and political scientists, the emphasis has been on his theories of liberalism and political rights; for philosophers and psychologists, Hutcheson’s importance comes from […].
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Anatomie du sens moral : Hume et Hutcheson.Lisa Broussois - 2012/2013 - Philonsorbonne 7:169.
    Le présent article a pour objectif de mettre en évidence un aspect de l’influence de Francis Hutcheson sur la troisième partie du Traité de la Nature Humaine de David Hume, consacrée à la morale : Hume écrit, en effet, que l’être humain est doté d’un sens moral. Cependant, la distinction qu’il opère entre la philosophie de l’anatomiste et celle du peintre, dans cette œuvre, montre qu’il se refuse à suivre totalement l’exemple de Hutcheson. Hume compte bien, au contraire, approfondir et (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Archibald Campbell's Views of Self-Cultivation and Self-Denial in Context.Christian Maurer - 2012 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 10 (1):13-27.
    This paper discusses the accounts of self-cultivation and self-denial of Archibald Campbell (1691–1756). It analyses how he attempts to make room for moral self-improvement and for the control of the passions in a thoroughly egoistic psychological framework, and with a theory of moral motivation that focuses on a specific kind of self-love, namely the desire for esteem. Campbell's views are analysed in the context of his criticisms of both Francis Hutcheson's benevolence-based moral philosophy and of Bernard Mandeville's version of an (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  40. Presbyterianism and the Right of Private Judgement : Church Government in Ireland and Scotland in the Age of Francis Hutheson.James Moore - 2012 - In Ruth Savage (ed.), Philosophy and Religion in Enlightenment Britain: New Case Studies. Oxford University Press.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Family Trees: Sympathy, Comparison, and the Proliferation.Amy M. Schmitter - 2012 - In Martin Pickavé & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), Emotion and Cognitive Life in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 255.
  42. The Problem of Inconsistency in Wollaston's Moral Theory.John J. Tilley - 2012 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (3):265–80.
    This paper challenges Francis Hutcheson's and John Clarke of Hull's alleged demonstrations that William Wollaston's moral theory is inconsistent. It also present a form of the inconsistency objection that fares better than theirs, namely, that of Thomas Bott (1688-1754). Ultimately, the paper shows that Wollaston's moral standard is not what some have thought it to be; that consequently, his philosophy withstands the best-known efforts to expose it as inconsistent; and further, that one of the least-known British moralists is more important (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  43. Wollaston's Early Critics.John J. Tilley - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (6):1097-1116.
    Some of the most forceful objections to William Wollaston's moral theory come from his early critics, namely, Thomas Bott (1688-1754), Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746), and John Clarke of Hull (1687-1734). These objections are little known, while the inferior objections of Hume, Bentham, and later prominent critics are familiar. This fact is regrettable. For instance, it impedes a robust understanding of eighteenth-century British ethics; also, it fosters a questionable view as to why Wollaston's theory, although at first well received, soon faded in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  44. Exciting Reasons and Moral Rationalism in Hutcheson's Illustrations Upon the Moral Sense.John J. Tilley - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (1):53-83.
    One of the most oft-cited parts of Francis Hutcheson’s Illustrations upon the Moral Sense (1728) is his discussion of “exciting reasons.” In this paper I address the question: What is the function of that discussion? In particular, what is its relation to Hutcheson’s attempt to show that the rationalists’ normative thesis ultimately implies, contrary to their moral epistemology, that moral ideas spring from a sense? Despite first appearances, Hutcheson’s discussion of exciting reasons is not part of that attempt. Mainly, it (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. Witherspoon, Edwards and 'Christian Magnanimity'.H. G. Callaway - 2011 - In K. P. Minkema, A. Neele & K. van Andel (eds.), Jonathan Edwards and Scotland. Dunedin Academic Press. pp. 117-128.
    This paper focuses on John Witherspoon (1723-1794) and the religious background of the American conception of religious liberty and church-state separation, as found in the First Amendment. Witherspoon was strongly influenced by debates and conflicts concerning liberty of conscience and the independence of the congregations in his native Scotland; and he brought to his work, as President of the (Presbyterian) College of New Jersey, a moderate Calvinism challenging the conception of “true virtue” found in Jonathan Edwards. Witherspoon was teacher to (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Hutcheson, Smith, and Utilitarianism.Maria A. Carrasco - 2011 - Review of Metaphysics 64 (3):515-553.
  47. Hutcheson on Natural Religion.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):711 - 740.
    Recent scholars have examined the important role of English Deism in the formation of a modern naturalistic approach to the study of human religiosity. Despite the volume of important studies of various aspects of his thought, the role of Francis Hutcheson (1694?1746) in this development has been overlooked. The aim of this paper is to show how Hutcheson develops his own account of the origins of religion, consonant with his more well-known theories in aesthetics and moral philosophy, that diverges sharply (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48. The Secret Chain: A Limited Defense of Sympathy.Julia Driver - 2011 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):234-238.
    This paper responds to criticisms of sympathy-based approaches to ethics made by Jesse Prinz, focusing on the criticism that emotions are too variable to form a basis for ethics. I draw on the idea, articulated by early sentimentalists such as Hutcheson and Hume, that proper reliance on sympathy is subject to a corrective procedure in order, in part, to avoid the variability problem.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  49. Sentimentalism and the Is-Ought Problem.Noriaki Iwasa - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):323-352.
    Examining the moral sense theories of Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, and Adam Smith from the perspective of the is-ought problem, this essay shows that the moral sense or moral sentiments in those theories alone cannot identify appropriate morals. According to one interpretation, Hume's or Smith's theory is just a description of human nature. In this case, it does not answer the question of how we ought to live. According to another interpretation, it has some normative implications. In this case, it (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  50. Humes angeblicher Erfolg über Hutcheson.Noriaki Iwasa - 2011 - Synthesis Philosophica 26 (2):323-336.
    David Hume charakterisierte die Menschenneigungen als naturgegeben voreingenommen, während Francis Hutcheson des Dafürhaltens war, die Menschen seien ursprünglich unbefangen gütig. Michael Gill findet, Humes Moraltheorie überwinde jene Hutchesons, dank ihres Abbruchs der Verbindung zwischen der Erläuterung und der Rechtfertigung der Moralität. Gill zufolge irrt sich Hutcheson in der Annahme, unsere originäre Natur habe als Basis der Moralität zu dienen. Gills Lesart der Theorie Hutchesons übermittelt ebendieselbe nicht restlos, da für Hutcheson Selbstliebe einschließlich des Selbstinteresses unter speziellen Umständen zugelassen ist, überdies (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 264