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Summary Franz Brentano (1838-1917) published relatively little in his lifetime. But through his lectures he was extraordinarily influential. His best-known contribution to modern philosophy is the notion of intentionality, but he also developed original accounts of consciousness, judgment, truth, existence, substance, part-whole relations, emotion, value, beauty, and other central philosophical notions. The literature features both scholarly debates on what Brentano's view exactly was in each area and critical debates on the plausibility of these views. While such debates have been uninterrupted in the German-speaking world (as well as in Polish and Italian philosophy) throughout the 20th century, in the English-speaking world awareness of Brentano's philosophy is more recent and owes much to Roderick Chisholm's work. The term "Brentano School" is often used to refer to later generations of philosophers working within general paradigms he set out. Brentano's ideas propagated from his students in at least six directions: from Husserl to the Phenomenological movement, from Meinong to the so-called Graz School and Italian Gestalt Psychology, from Twardowski to Polish philosophy and logic, from Stumpf to the so-called Berlin School and German psychology, from Marty to the Prague School of orthodox Brentanianism, and from Ehrenfles to early Austrian economic thought. Some scholars have argued that Analytic Philosophy itself is an Austro-English development whose source is the work of Bolzano and Brentano.
Key works Chisholm 1976 has spawned an enormous literature on Brentano's notion of intentionality; a recent discussion is Crane 2006. Brentano's account of consciousness has recently received renewed attention - see Textor 2006. Brentano's contributions to logic and the theory of judgment were more widely discussed in the 1980s - see Chisholm 1976 and Simons 1987. For Brentano's metaphysics and mereology, see Chisholm 1978 and Mulligan & Smith 1985. The most thorough and comprehensive discussion of Brentano's value theory is still Chisholm 1986, but the theory has been the focus of sustained interest of late - see Danielsson & Olson 2007. G.E. Moore's review of Brentano 1889/1969 has been influential for its early reception - see Moore 1903. Many of Brentano's lecture notes have been edited posthumously by his students Alfred Kastil and Oskar Kraus; it is important to know that they sometimes interpolate their own understanding of Brentano into the text, and the reliability of their interpolations is debatable. Many of Brentano's original manuscripts are held by the Houghton Library at Harvard and can be consulted online; other manuscripts are held in Graz and Wurzburg.
Introductions Brentano's best known work is Brentano 1874, a relatively early book that presents a systematic picture of the nature and structure of mind; it is so clearly written that it still stands as the best introduction to Brentano's work. Also influential has been his Brentano 1889/1969, which defends an early version of a fitting-attitude account of value. Many of Brentano's articles, lectures, and letters on judgment, knowledge, and truth are collected in Brentano 1930/1966; and on metaphysics and mereology in Brentano 1933/1981. The most comprehensive and systematic English-language introduction to Brentano's philosophy is Albertazzi 2006. An extremely lucid exposition of Brentano's epistemology and metaethics is Chisholm 1986. An Early English-language collection on Brentano is McAlister 1976; a more recent one is Jacquette 2004. For discussion of the central ideas in the Brentano School, see Smith 1994; an extremely useful visual device is Dewalque 2013.
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Brentano: Consciousness
  1. Immanent Realism: An Introduction to Brentano.Liliana Albertazzi - 2006 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This book guides the readers through Brentano's life and works, investigating into the inherent complexity of both his view of mental life and the related methodology.
  2. Introduzione a Brentano.Liliana Albertazzi - 1999 - Laterza.
  3. Brentano, Meinong and Husserl on Internal Time.Liliana Albertazzi - 1993 - Brentano Studien 3:89-110.
    Brentano's Descriptive Psychology marks a breakthrough into clarification of internal time, made possible by using his doctrine of intentionality (and modality) of consciousness. Husserl's version of descriptive psychology, a pure phenomenological psychology, according to its author tries to overcome Brentano's (naturalistic) description of internal experience by explicitly considering the intentional content of mental events, and the different categories of objects as objects of a possible consciousness. Husserl's investigations on internal time are an example of a quite specific sort of genetic (...)
  4. Husserl's Break From Brentano Reconsidered: Abstraction and the Structure of Consciousness.Andreea Smaranda Aldea - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (3):395-426.
    The paper contends that abstraction lies at the core of the philosophical and methodological rupture that occurred between Husserl and his mentor Franz Brentano. To accomplish this, it explores the notion of abstraction at work in these two thinkers’ methodological discussions through their respective claims regarding the structure of consciousness, and shows that how Husserl and Brentano analyze the structure of consciousness conditions and strictly delineates the nature and reach of their methods of inquiry. The paper pays close attention to (...)
  5. Ein unveröffentlichtes Kapitel der Philosophieund Psychologiegeschichte.Mauro Antonelli - 2015 - In Gustav TheodorHG Fechner & Franz Brentano (eds.), Briefwechsel Über Psychophysik, 1874-1878. De Gruyter. pp. 3-74.
  6. Seiendes, Bewußtsein, Intentionalit Im Frühwerk von Franz Brentano.Mauro Antonelli - 2001 - K. Alber.
  7. As concepções brentaniana e neo-brentaniana dos objetos das sensações: extensão e limite de uma visão representacionalista da mente.Arthur Octavio de Melo Araujo - 2014 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 18 (3):337.
  8. Brentano on the Unity of Consciousness.Dainton Barry - 2017 - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 61-74.
  9. Perceiving Structure: Phenomenological Method and Categorial Ontology in Brentano, Husserl, and Sartre.Philip J. Bartok - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    Phenomenologists call for the abandoning of all philosophical theorizing in favor of a descriptive study of the "things themselves" as they are given. On its face, such a study of appearances would appear to have little to contribute to ontology, traditionally understood as the science of being and its most fundamental categories. But phenomenologists have not hesitated to draw ontological conclusions from their phenomenological investigations. Phenomenology and its ontological pretensions have come under attack, however, from philosophers of a wide variety (...)
  10. Von Brentano zu Külpe. die Deskriptive Psychologie Brentanos und die “Würzburger Schule” der Denkpsychologie.E. Baumgartner & W. Baumgartner - 1998 - Brentano Studien 7:31-52.
  11. Psychologie - Ontologie - Metaphysik. Zur Tragweite des deskriptiv-phänomenologischen Verfahrens bei Franz Brentano.Wilhelm Baumgartner - 1991 - Perspektiven der Philosophie 17:23-36.
  12. Vom Bemerken und.Wilhelm Baumgartner - 1986 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 28:235-251.
  13. La classificazione dei fenomeni psichici secondo Franz Brentano.A. Bausola - 1967 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 59:457.
  14. Conoscenza E Moralita' in Franz Brentano.Adriano Bausola - 1968 - Vita E Pensiero.
  15. Modes temporels de la conscience et réalité du temps: Husserl et Brentano sur le temps.Jocelyn Benoist - 2008 - In La conscience du temps. Vrin. pp. 11-28.
  16. Quelques remarques sur la doctrine brentanienne de l'évidence.Jocelyn Benoist - 2003 - Studia Phaenomenologica 3 (1-2):61-74.
  17. Untersuchungen zum Problem der Evidenz der inneren Wahrnehmung.Hugo Bergmann - 1908 - Halle: Max Niemeyer.
  18. Evidenz der Inneren Wahrnehmung.Hugo Bergmann - 1908 - Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  19. Brentano or Husserl? Intentionality, Consciousness, and Self-Consciousness in Contemporary Phenomenology of Mind.Federico Boccaccini - 2015 - Archivio Di Filosofia (3):189-202.
  20. Ist das Erleben Teil des Erlebten?Andrea Borsato - 2009 - Phänomenologische Forschungen (2009):37-59.
    If the inner consciousness of a mental state is a part of the mental state itself, then one is forced to admit an 'inner consciousness of the inner consciousness'. This counterintuitive consequence can however be avoided, if we conceive of the inner consciousness of the mental state as a 'mode of giveness' of the state itself. This paper discusses Brentano's theory of inner consciousness from the point of view of Husserl's philosophy.
  21. Innere Wahrnehmung Und Innere Vergegenwärtigung.Andrea Borsato - 2009 - Koenigshausen-Neumann.
  22. Brentano's Influence on Ehrenfels's Theory of Perceptual Gestalts.John Macnamara Andgeert-jan Boudewijnse - 1995 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 25 (4):401–418.
  23. What is Pre-Reflective Self-Consciousness? Brentano's Theory of Inner Consciousness Revisited.Johannes Brandl - 2013 - In D. Fisette & G. Frechette (eds.), Themes from Brentano. Rodopi. pp. 44--41.
  24. Du nombre des sens.Franz Brentano - 2015 - Philosophie 124 (1):6-11.
    § 1. Selon la tradition, les sens sont au nombre de cinq. Ce nombre semble toutefois insuffisant à certains. Aristote déjà avait soulevé la question de savoir si ce qu’on appelle le sens du toucher ne devait pas être divisé en un sens du chaud et du froid et en un sens de l’aqueux et du sec. D’autres ont voulu distinguer un sens musculaire, et l’on a aussi parlé d’un sens temporel et d’un sens spatial...
  25. Eléments de conscience.Franz Brentano - 2009 - Annales de Phénomenologie 8:191-204.
  26. Psychognosie et psychologie génétique.Franz Brentano - 2009 - Annales de Phénomenologie 8:183-190.
  27. Textos acerca de la unidad plural de la conciencia y la conciencia interna.Franz Brentano - 2003 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 35 (108):7-34.
  28. Grundlegung der Tonpsychologie.Franz Brentano - 1994 - Brentano Studien 5:219-233.
  29. Descriptive Psychology.Franz Brentano - 1982/1995 - Routledge.
    Franz Brentano (1838-1917) is a key figure in the development of Twentieth Century thought. It was his work that set Husserl on to the road of phenomenology and intentionality, that inspired Meinong's theory of the object which influenced Bertrand Russell, and the entire Polish school of philosophy. ^Descriptive Psychology presents a series of lectures given by Brentano in 1887; they were the culmination of his work, and the clearest statement of his mature thought. It was this later period which proved (...)
  30. Deskriptive Psychologie.Franz Brentano - 1982 - Meiner.
    Den Plan, seine Untersuchungen zur Deskriptiven Psychologie in einem umfassenden Werk zur Darstellung zu bringen, hat Brentano nicht verwirklicht. Neben kleineren Schriften zu diesem Gedankenkreis sind aber die Kollegmanuskripte der 1887 bis 1891 unter wechselnden Titeln gehaltenen Wiener Vorlesungen zur Deskriptiven Psychologie erhalten.
  31. Psychologie du point de vue empirique.Franz Brentano - 1944 - Montaigne.
    Dans son ouvrage de 1874, repris et complété en 1911, puis augmenté à nouveau par une série d’appendices tardifs, dans l’édition procurée par Oscar Kraus, en 1924, Brentano n’est pas seulement celui qui ouvre le dossier très complet des questions psychologiques débattues dans l’après-Kant et jusqu’à la fin du XIXe siècle, dans l’espace intellectuel germanique, mais aussi et principalement anglophone; pas seulement celui qui, à la faveur de la redéfinition, à la fois très ancienne et novatrice, des phénomènes psychiques, caractérisés (...)
  32. Vom Sinnlichen Und Noetischen Bewußtsein.Franz Brentano - 1928 - Meiner.
  33. Von der Klassifikation der psychischen Phänomene.Franz Brentano - 1911 - Duncker Und Humblot.
  34. Untersuchungen Zur Sinnespsychologie.Franz Brentano - 1907 - Duncker Und Humblot.
    Dieser Band präsentiert den Text der Originalausgabe von 1907, drei weitere Arbeiten über ein optisches Paradoxon sowie sieben bisher unveröffentlichte Basisuntersuchungen zum Problem Sinneswahrnehmungen, die Brentano in eine zweite ...
  35. Zur Lehre von der Empfindung.Franz Brentano - 1897 - In Dritter internationaler Kongreß für Psychologie in München. Lehmann. pp. 110-133.
    Ganz allgemein hat sich die Ansicht festgesetzt, daß eine psychische Betätigung ohne irgendwelce Intensität einen Widerspruch involvieren würde. Eine Null von Intensität, meint man, müsse für die psychische Tätigkeit selbst den Nullpunkt bilden. Danach käme dann z. B., auch wenn wir einen Begriff wie Wahrheit, Beziehung, Zukunft oder irgendeinen Zahlbegriff denken, diesem Denken immer eine Intensität zu. Und ebenso wäre jedem Urteilsakt und jeder Gemütstätigkeit, dem ruhigen Vorsatz nicht minder als dem aufgeregten Affekt, stets eine gewisse Intensität eigen. Doch, während (...)
  36. Zur Lehre von den Optischen Täuschungen.Franz Brentano - 1894 - Zeitschrift für Psychologie Und Physiologie Der Sinnesorgane 6:1-7.
  37. Über ein optisches Paradoxon (Zweiter Artikel).Franz Brentano - 1893 - Zeitschrift für Psychologie Und Physiologie Der Sinnesorgane 5.
  38. Über ein optisches Paradoxon.Franz Brentano - 1892 - Zeitschrift für Psychologie Und Physiologie Der Sinnesorgane 3:349-358.
    Ein befreundeter Physiologie machte mich jüngst mit einem überraschenden Falle optischer Täuschung bekannt, der - ich erfrug nicht durch wen - erst kürzlich, ohne Beigabe eines Erklärungsgrundes, veröffentlicht worden war.
  39. Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint.Franz Brentano - 1874 - Routledge.
  40. Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte.Franz Brentano - 1874 - Duncker Und Humblot.
    Im Zentrum der 1874 erschienenen bewußtseinspsychologischen Abhandlungen Brentanos steht die Beschreibung und Analyse des Psychischen. Damit bahnte sich jene Abwendung von der sensualistischen Tradition der philosophischen Bewußtseinslehre an, die in der Phänomenologie Edmund Husserls vollendet wurde.
  41. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology.Franz Brentano - unknown
  42. Sensory and Noetic Consciousness.Franz Clemens Brentano - 1981 - Routledge.
  43. Conscience et intentionnalité d'après saint Thomas et Brentano.S. Breton - 1955 - Archives de Philosophie 19:63.
  44. Über Das Verhältnis Edmund Husserls Zu Franz Brentano Vornehmlich Mit Rücksicht Auf Brentanos Psychologie.Maria Brück - 1933 - Dissertationsdruckerei Und-Verlag K. Triltsch.
  45. Über das Verhältnis Edmund Husserls zu Franz Brentano.Maria Brück - 1933 - Triltsch.
  46. Franz Brentano: Psychologie Vom Empirischen Standpunkt. [REVIEW]W. Caldwell - 1926 - Philosophical Review 35 (2):189.
  47. Intencionalidad sin conciencia: Brentano, Searle y las ciencias cognitivas.Oscar Lucas González Castán - 1992 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 7 (2):99-118.
    In this paper, I shall argue that both cognitivism and liberal contractualism defend a pre-moral conception of human desire that has its origin in the Hobbesian and Humean tradition that both theories share. Moreover, the computational and syntactic themes in cognitive science support the notion, which Gauthier evidently shares, that the human mind – or, in Gauthier’s case, the mind of “economic man” – is a purely formal mechanism, characterized by logical and mathematical operations. I shall conclude that a single (...)
  48. Husserl, Brentano et la psychologie descriptive.Fabien Cayla - 1993 - Philosophiques 20 (2):347-361.
  49. Brentano on "Unconscious Consciousness".Roderick M. Chisholm - 1993 - In Roberto Polli (ed.), Consciousness, Knowledge and Truth. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  50. Brentano's Analysis of the Consciousness of Time.Roderick M. Chisholm - 1981 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6 (1):3-16.
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