About this topic
Summary Most philosophers and laypeople believe that under most conditions human beings, perhaps along with some other animals, possess a power of selecting and implementing actions which is special. This power is very widely held to be a necessary condition of responsibility for actions, for autonomy and for being entitled to take pride in (or to feel shame for) one's achievements. The free will debate in philosophy aims at elucidating the nature of that power as well as at identifying potential threats to it and explaining how it can exist. A major focus of the debate is the compatibility of free will with causal determinism. A minority of philosophers deny that we have free will because free will is incompatible with causal determinism.
Key works The free will debate is ancient in Western philosophy, but was first developed systematically by scholastic thinkers concerning about the relationship free will and God's foreknowledge (eg Ockham 1969). The rise of mechanistic science brought determinism to the forefront and played an important role in the development of compatibilism by philosophers like Hume (Hume 1751). The advent of Frankfurt-style cases (Frankfurt 1969) transformed the late 20th century debate, by allowing compatibilists to dispense with the principle of alternate possibilities (see Widerker & McKenna 2003 for important contributions to this debate). At the same time, important new libertarian views have been developed by thinkers like Robert Kane (Kane 1996) and Timothy O'Connor (O'Connor 2000). Very recently, there has been a revival of free will skepticism (Strawson 1994; Levy 2011).
Introductions O'Connor & Franklin 2018;McKenna 2008; Clarke & Capes 2021
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  1. Respecting the free will, authenticity and autonomy of transgender youth.Leonie Crosse - 2024 - Nursing Ethics 31 (2-3):331-341.
    Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth are currently being targeted by global anti-trans legislation that would prevent their access to gender-affirming care even by healthcare providers willing to deliver it and who understand the importance of this support. It has been suggested in some studies that transness in young people is a result of peer contagion. As such their free will, authenticity and autonomy could be brought into question when accessing gender-affirming care. It is important to explore the relevance of (...)
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  2. Explanationism about Freedom and Orthonomy.David Heering - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    According to a popular idea, freedom is grounded in orthonomy – the ability to be responsive to normative demands. But how exactly must an agent’s action relate to their reasons in order for this orthonomous relationship to hold? In this paper, I propose a novel explanationist answer to this question. I argue that extant answers – causalism and modalism about orthonomy – fail because they fail to account for the fact that intuitions about freedom and orthonomy track facts about explanation. (...)
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  3. Free Will and Action.Filip Grgic & Davor Pećnjak (eds.) - 2018 - Dordrecht:
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  4. Watchmen as Philosophy: Illustrating Time and Free Will.Nathaniel Goldberg & Chris Gavaler - 2022 - In David Kyle Johnson (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Popular Culture as Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 1969-1986.
    Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons’ Watchmen may be the most acclaimed graphic novel of the twentieth century. This chapter examines how it explores two metaphysical questions: What is the nature of time? Does free will exist? Moore and Gibbons explore these questions together, illuminating connections between time and free will through connections between the graphic novel’s form and content. The chapter introduces three views of the nature of time: presentism, the view that only the present exists; growing-universe theory, the view (...)
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  5. Do we have (in)compatibilist intuitions? Surveying experimental research.Kiichi Inarimori, Soichiro Homma & Kengo Miyazono - 2024 - Frontiers in Psychology 15 (1369399).
    This article critically examines the experimental philosophy of free will, particularly the interplay between ordinary individuals’ compatibilist and incompatibilist intuitions. It explores key insights from research studies that propose “natural compatibilism” and “natural incompatibilism”. These studies reveal a complex landscape of folk intuitions, where participants appear to exhibit both types of intuitions. Here, we examine error theories, which purport to explain the coexistence of apparently contradictory intuitions: the Affective Performance Error hypothesis, the “Free Will No Matter What” hypothesis, the Bypassing (...)
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  6. Free Will: A consensus gentium Argument.William Hunt - 2024 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 31 (1):22-47.
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  7. Religion and free will.William Benett - 1913 - Oxford,: The Clarendon press.
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  8. A criticism of some deterministic systems in their relation to practical problems..Jesse Herrmann - 1914 - Princeton,: Princeton university press; [etc., etc.].
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  9. Rejecting Retributivism – Free Will, Punishment, and Criminal Justice, written by Gregg D. Caruso.Daniel Peixoto Murata - 2024 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 21 (1-2):222-225.
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  10. The will in ethics.Theophilus Baker Stork - 1915 - Boston,: Sherman, French & Company.
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  11. Die unfreiheit des willens.Arnold Ruesch - 1925 - Darmstadt,: O. Reichl.
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  12. The premortalist free will defense.James Spiegel - 2024 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 95 (1):49-59.
    As a response to the problem of evil, the free will defense proposes that evil might exist as a consequence of God’s endowing human beings with moral freedom which we have tragically misused. Standard versions of the free will defense assume that (1) our moral freedom began in this earthly existence and (2) what explains our suffering in this world must constitute an abuse rather than a right use of our moral freedom. However, there is another variation of the free (...)
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  13. Free Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy by Tobias Hoffmann (review).Nicholas Ogle - 2023 - Nova et Vetera 21 (1):388-393.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Free Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy by Tobias HoffmannNicholas OgleFree Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy by Tobias Hoffmann (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021), xiv + 292 pp.Modern readers are often perplexed by the frequency and rigor with which angels are discussed in medieval philosophical texts. To the untrained eye, it may seem as if debates concerning the various properties and abilities of (...)
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  14. Efficacious Grace and Free Will: Six Inadequate Arguments.Steven J. Jensen - 2023 - Nova et Vetera 21 (1):115-146.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Efficacious Grace and Free Will:Six Inadequate ArgumentsSteven J. JensenDuring the de auxiliis controversies, the idea of efficacious grace was used extensively as an attempt to explain the manner in which God infallibly achieves his will at the level of supernatural grace. One meaning of efficacious grace has often been considered inconsistent with the idea of free will. The inconsistency—if there is any—depends upon a particular meaning, according to which (...)
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  15. Sibboleth: die Interpretation von Luthers Schrift De servo arbitrio seit Theodosius Harnack.Klaus Schwarzwäller - 1969 - München,: C. Kaiser.
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  16. Abrahamic Theism, Free Will, and Eternal Torment.Stephen J. Sullivan - 2024 - Athens Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):9-16.
    Atheist philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre and Kurt Baier, though from different philosophical traditions, shared a common concern about the traditional Judeo-Christian-Muslim doctrine that human beings are the creations of a Supreme Being. For Sartre, in “Existentialism is a Humanism” (1946), a God who designed us would thereby detract from our freedom and dignity. For Baier, in “The Meaning of Life” (1957), the idea that God designs us to serve his own purposes was deeply offensive in treating us as artifacts, domestic animals, (...)
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  17. Loss of free will from the perspective of islamic neurolaw: The Iranian criminal justice system.Arian Petoft, Mahmoud Abbasi & Alireza Zali - 2024 - Médecine et Droit 2024 (184):1-10.
  18. Fichte on Free Will and Predestination.Kienhow Goh - 2024 - New York and London: Routledge.
    The book presents Fichte’s position on free will as a form of compatibilism that has not yet been explored in the literature. Due to early rationalist convictions, Fichte is as much concerned with reconciling freedom with a logical and a theological determinism as he is with a causal determinism. He sees in Kant’s novel concept of a pure practical reason a new form of rationalism, one consisting of a system of moral rather than natural necessitating grounds. At the same time, (...)
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  19. Wolność.George Santayana, Adam Grzeliński, Rafał Michalski & Alicja Pietras - 2023 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 14 (3):147-166.
    Niniejszy esej stanowi piąty rozdział tomu The Realm of Spirit kończącego cykl The Realms of Being. Podstawą przekładu jest pierwsze wydanie dzieła: George Santayana, The Realms of Being (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., Toronto: The Macmillan Company, 1940), 67–89. -/- This essay is the fifth chapter of The Realm of Spirit volume concluding The Realms of Being series. The translation is based on the first edition of the work: George Santayana, The Realms of Being (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., Toronto: (...)
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  20. George Santayana i problem wolności.Adam Grzeliński & Alicja Pietras - 2023 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 14 (3):123-146.
    This article is a commentary and an introduction to the Polish translation of George Santayana’s work, Freedom, which is a chapter in the fourth volume of his series, The Realms of Being, titled The Realm of Spirit (1940). It provides an overview of his previous works, particularly his series The Life of Reason (1905–1906) and Scepticism and Animal Faith (1926). Additionally, it briefly examines the evolution of Santayana’s standpoint and the meaning of the fundamental categories and concepts of his ontology. (...)
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  21. Breathing is coupled with voluntary initiation of mental imagery.Timothy J. Lane - 2022 - NeuroImage 264.
    Previous research has suggested that bodily signals from internal organs are associated with diverse cortical and subcortical processes involved in sensory-motor functions, beyond homeostatic reflexes. For instance, a recent study demonstrated that the preparation and execution of voluntary actions, as well as its underlying neural activity, are coupled with the breathing cycle. In the current study, we investigated whether such breathing-action coupling is limited to voluntary motor action or whether it is also present for mental actions not involving any overt (...)
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  22. Free Will and Relationality.Aku Visala - 2021 - Philosophy, Theology and the Sciences 8 (2):184.
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  23. Die Semantik des Schicksals: zur Relevanz des Unverfügbaren zwischen Aufklärung und Erstem Weltkrieg.Franziska Rehlinghaus - 2015 - Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    Warum ist eine moderne, in ihrem Selbstverständnis rationale Gesellschaft auf einen so okkult anmutenden Begriff wie den des Schicksals angewiesen? Franziska Rehlinghaus weist nach, dass der deutsche Schicksalsbegriff seit seiner Etablierung um 1650 ein zentraler Ausdruck epochenspezifischer Problemstellungen war, so dass man von der Neuzeit als einem fatalisierten Zeitalter sprechen kann. Dafür rekonstruiert sie erstmals den semantischen und den funktionalen Wandel sowie die Konjunkturen des Schicksalsbegriffs von der Aufklärung bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts.
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  24. Immanuel Kant’s idea of radical evil as a systematic and terminological problem.Anna Szyrwińska-Hörig - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (2).
    The paper investigates the systematic connection between Kantian concept of radical evil and radical indeterministic idea of freedom. According to the presented thesis the systematically relevant interpretation of the radical evil concept requires considering not only philosophical ideas Kant`s but also the historic background in which they were formulated. Particularly the specific situation of German philosophic terminology in the 17th and early 18th Century will be acknowledged as one of the most significant factors influencing the development of the radical evil (...)
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  25. Gedancken von dem Einflusse der göttlichen Vorsehung in die freyen Handlungen der Menschen.Georg Friedrich Meier - 2020 - Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag. Edited by Alexander Aichele.
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  26. Waarom schurken pech hebben en helden geluk: een nieuwe filosofie van de vrije wil.Jurriën Hamer - 2021 - Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij.
    Heeft een miljonair recht op zijn rijkdom? Moeten we zelfs een moordenaar vergeven? En kan een mens ooit zijn lot veranderen? Het hangt allemaal af van ons antwoord op een fundamentele vraag: hebben we een vrije wil? 0Filosofen twijfelen al eeuwen over het antwoord hierop, en sinds decennia roepen biologen en neurologen dat de vrije wil niet bestaat. Ieder jaar stapelt het bewijs tegen de vrije wil zich verder op: we zijn een product van onze genen, van onze geschiedenis en (...)
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  27. Determinismo e giustizia sociale.Giuseppe Ferraro - 2023 - Milano: Mimesis.
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  28. Erasmus and Luther : free will and tradition.Greta Kroeker - 2023 - In Eric M. MacPhail (ed.), A companion to Erasmus. Boston: Brill.
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  29. Losing free will? : Three thought experiments.Kadri Vihvelin - 2023 - In Taylor W. Cyr, Andrew Law & Neal A. Tognazzini (eds.), Freedom, Responsibility, and Value: Essays in Honor of John Martin Fischer. New York: Routledge.
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  30. Wille, determinismus, strafe.Ludwig Traeger - 1895 - Berlin,: Puttkammer & Mühlbrecht.
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  31. Opyt o svobodi︠e︡ voli.Petr Evgenïevich Astafʹev - 1897 - Edited by Vvedenskiıĭ Aleksi︠e︡ĭ Ivanovich.
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  32. Ethik des reinen willens.Hermann Cohen - 1904 - Berlin,: B. Cassirer.
    Excerpt from Ethik des Reinen Willens Die Summe der Logik Die Grundlagen als Grundlegungen Wahrheit und die Idee des Guten Zusammenhang der Ethik mit der Logik Die Religion und Prometheus Wahrheit in der Verbindung von Logik und Ethik Lessings Parabel Die Sittlichkeit in Wissenschaft und Recht Die Methode der Reinheit Das Ding und die Sache Bewusstsein und Selbstbewusstsein Subjekt und Person Die Zweideutigkeit des Gesetzes Das Sichere der H pothesis Psyche und Ethos Die Hypothesis das erkzeug der Wahrheit Der Trieb (...)
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  33. Die lehre vom willen bei Anselm von Canterbury.Ernst Lohmeyer - 1914 - Lucka S.-A.,: R. Berger.
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  34. L'idée de liberté morale.Charles Leuridan - 1936 - Paris,: F. Alcan.
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  35. Determinism and Free Will in Hafez and Maari Ideologies.Mohammad Khaghani, Davoud Nejati & Reza Jafari - 2010 - Research on Mystical Literature 4 (2):1-22.
    The subject of ‘Determinism’ and ‘Free will’ is one of the most debatable and abstruse theological arguments. This argument has very old historical roots and has been appeared in different ways in the sayings and thoughts of philosophers, mystics, poets and others. It can be said that the concept of determinism is one of the key and practical concepts in the poetry of Hafez and Abu Ala Maari. Judging from the form of words, some people assume that these two poets (...)
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  36. The Evolution of Consciousness, Free Will, and Morality: The Human Evolution from the Perspective of Daniel Dennett’s Natural Philosophy. 조현우 & 양경은 - 2023 - Journal of the Society of Philosophical Studies 68:49-80.
    데넷에 의하면 인간의 의식, 자유의지, 도덕성은 자신의 복제자를 더욱 많이 퍼트리기 위해 만든 밈의 기생공간이자 정보고속도로인 뇌와 신경계를 진화시킨 결과이다. 본 논문은 데넷 연구의 전체적인 구조를 라카토슈 연구프로그램으로 분석한다. 데넷의 연구프로그램은 이론을 특징지우는 견고한 핵과 이를 보완하는 보호대로 구성되어 있다. 연구프로그램의 핵심 원리인 견고한 핵은 자연선택의 특성을 집약적으로 표현하고 그 적용범위를 확대하는 ‘알고리즘으로서의 자연 선택’, ‘지향성 진화가설’, ‘밈 적응’으로 구성된다. 이들 견고한 핵이 가지는 추상성을 보완하여, 구체적인 가설을 첨부하는 보호대는 ‘만능산과 크레인 비유’, ‘생산과 검증의 탑’, ‘다중원고 모형’으로 구성된다. 궁극적으로 이들 (...)
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  37. Pulganŭng ŭn ŏpta: sinnyŏm ŭi kwahak.Chae-hyo Kim - 1966 - Sŏul: T'op'ik Ch'ulp'ansa.
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  38. Voluntad y libertad jurídicas.Domínguez Devars & María Dolores - 1966 - México:
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  39. Determination und Freiheit.Bernhard Welte - 1969 - Frankfurt am Main,: J. Knecht.
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  40. ha-Yaḥas ben ha-mashmaʻut ha-ontologit shel ha-determinizm le-mashmaʻuto ha-maʻasit.Michael Strauss - 1969
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  41. The place of Free Will: the freedom of the prisoner.Paolo Nichelli - forthcoming - Neurological Sciences.
    Debates about the concept of Free Will date back to ancient times. About 40 years ago Benjamin Libet designed an experiment showing that the conscious intention to move is preceded by a specific pattern of brain activation. His finding suggested that unconscious processes determine our decisions. Libet-style experiments have continued to dominate the debate about Free-Will, pushing some authors to argue that the existence of Free Will is a mere illusion. We believe that this dispute is because we often measure (...)
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  42. No Pure Theory of Law without Free Will.Joachim Renzikowski - 2023 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 109 (4):482-496.
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  43. Not a Hope in Hell.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Beijing: Routledge.
    [The following is a draft abstract:] -/- This book aims to diagnose and tackle a problem concerning God's action. If God has good reasons for everything He does, then it does not seem as if God could do otherwise than He does. If God were to do otherwise than what He has good reason to do (we might think) God would act arbitrarily. While this general problem has been dealt with in various ways by philosophers, I propose that a specific (...)
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  44. À propos de Free Will, Causality and Neuroscience.Yves Poullet - 2020 - Archives de Philosophie du Droit 62 (1):565-572.
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  45. Soft Free Will.John G. Shannon - manuscript
    This paper delves into the philosophical debate surrounding determinism and free will, exploring the compatibility of these two concepts in light of contemporary understanding in physics, psychology, and philosophy. The author critiques Ayer's perspective on free will and determinism, employing examples from quantum mechanics and neuroscience to argue for a deterministic framework of understanding human choices and actions. The paper introduces the concept of "Soft Free Will" as a reconciliation between determinism and the human experience of making choices, positing that (...)
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  46. Kant’s Conception of Free Will and Its Implications To Understanding Moral Culpability and Personal Autonomy.Patrick Nogoy - manuscript
    The paper is about Kant’s moral psychology, a complex analysis and philosophical reflection on the tension of human will as arbitrium sensitivum in acting consistently as ratio essendi. It explores the tension of fallibility of the human will. In Kant’s notion of practical freedom he points to the dynamics of the will—Wille and Willkur—and how it creates tension between choice and culpability. This occurs specifically in the Willkur’s function as the arbiter. I explore the impact of Willkur’s arbitration in self-determination, (...)
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  47. Predisposed Agency: A New Term for Free Will Because Our Will Isn’t So Free.Randall S. Firestone - 2023 - Open Journal of Philosophy 13 (4):621-645.
    This paper proposes that we rename free will, also called libertarian free will, to the more accurate characterization of “predisposed agency.” This is needed for two reasons: First, classical compatibilists have redefined free will to mean something quite different than and in fact contrary to libertarian free will, and thus have introduced needless confusion into the concept. More importantly, even those who believe in libertarian free will recognize that our will is not so free in that we are predisposed toward (...)
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  48. Free Will and Causal Sourcehood - An Interventionist Criticism on Manipulation Arguments and Its Problems -. 김성수 - 2023 - CHUL HAK SA SANG - Journal of Philosophical Ideas 89 (89):319-340.
    조작 논증에 따르면, (1) 결정론적인 세계에서 발생하는 일상적인 행위와 일정한 방식으로 조작된 행위 사이에 차이가 없고 (2) 조작된 행위는 자유행위가 아니므로 (3) 따라서 일상적인 행위 역시 자유행위가 아니다. 최근의 논문에서, 디어리와 나미어스(2017)는 조작 논증으로부터 자유의지와 결정론에 대한 양립가능주의를 옹호하기 위해, 개입주의 인과론을 사용하여 인과적 근원의 정의를 제시하고 이를 적용한다. 그 결과는, 조작된 행위의 인과적 근원은 조작자에게 있는 반면, 결정론적 세계에서의 일상적인 행위는 그 인과적 근원이 행위자에게 있다는 것이다. 즉 논증의 전제 (1)이 거짓이다. 제시된 정의는, 주어진 행위에 대한 임의의 실제 원인에 (...)
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  49. al-Ḥatmīyah wa-al-ḥurrīyah bayna al-mītāfīzīqā wa-al-ḥayāh.Nabīhah Qārah - 2003 - Tūnis: Markaz al-Nashr al-Jāmiʻī.
    Free will and determinism; philosophy; history.
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  50. Eznik Koghbatsʻin kamkʻi azatutʻyan masin: usumnasirutʻyun iravunkʻi tesaketitsʻ.Samvel A. Khachʻatryan - 2003 - Erevan: Zangak 97.
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