Future Generations

Edited by Ori Herstein (King's College London, Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
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  1. Review Essay of Contingent Future Persons, Jan C. Heller and Nick Fotion, Eds. [REVIEW]Stuart Rachels - - 1999 - Bioethics 13:160-167.
    This essay critically comments on Contingent Future Persons (1997), an anthology of thirteen papers on the same topic as Obligations to Future Generations (1978), namely, the morality of decisions affecting the existence, number and identity of future persons. In my discussion, I identify the basic point of dispute between R. M. Hare and Michael Lockwood on potentiality; I criticize Nick Fotion's thesis that the Repugnant Conclusion is too far-fetched to be philosophically valuable; I object to Clark Wolf's "Impure Consequentialist Theory (...)
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  2. Identiteit En Toekomstige Generaties Identité Et Générations Futures.W. Achterberg - 1989 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 81 (2):102-118.
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  3. Future Generations: A Prioritarian View.Matthew Adler - 2009 - George Washington Law Review 77:1478-1520.
    Should we remain neutral between our interests and those of future generations? Or are we ethically permitted or even required to depart from neutrality and engage in some measure of intergenerational discounting? This Article addresses the problem of intergenerational discounting by drawing on two different intellectual traditions: the social welfare function (“SWF”) tradition in welfare economics, and scholarship on “prioritarianism” in moral philosophy. Unlike utilitarians, prioritarians are sensitive to the distribution of well-being. They give greater weight to well-being changes affecting (...)
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  4. What Future for Future Generations?: A Programme of Unesco and the International Environment Institute.Emanuel Agius & Salvino Busuttil (eds.) - 1994 - Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta.
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  5. 16 Intergenerational Justice.Emmanuel Agius - 2006 - In Tremmel J. (ed.), The Handbook of Intergenerational Justice. Edward Elgar. pp. 317.
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  6. Light Upon the Mist a Reflection of Wisdom for the Future Generations of Native Hawaiians.Akaiko Akana - 1992
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  7. Issues: The Distant Future?Fritz Allhoff - forthcoming - Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology.
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  8. On the Idea of Obligation to Future Generations.Nirmalya N. Arayan Chakraborty - 2010 - In Shashi Motilal (ed.), Applied Ethics and Human Rights: Conceptual Analysis and Contextual Applications. London: Anthem Press.
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  9. Justice Between Age Groups and Generations. [REVIEW]David Archard - 1993 - Radical Philosophy 63.
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  10. Future Generations: A Challenge for Moral Theory.Gustaf Arrhenius - manuscript
    FD-Diss., Uppsala: University Printers, 2000 (ix+225 pages).
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  11. The Paradoxes of Future Generations and Normative Theory.Gustaf Arrhenius - unknown
    As the title of this paper indicates, I’m going to discuss what we ought to do in situations where our actions affect future generations. More specifically, I shall focus on the moral problems raised by cases where our actions affect who’s going to live, their number and their well being. I’ll start, however, with population axiology. Most discussion in population ethics has concentrated on how to evaluate populations in regard to their goodness, that is, how to order populations by the (...)
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  12. Mutual Advantage Contractarianism and Future Generations.Gustaf Arrhenius - 1999 - Theoria 65 (1):25-35.
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  13. Future Generations and Interpersonal Compensations: Moral Aspects of Energy Use.Gustaf Arrhenius & Krister Bykvist - unknown
    Several people have helped us to write this essay. Our greatest debt is to Wlodek Rabinowicz, who has been an excellent supervisor of the project. He spent a lot of time and energy reading drafts of the essay. Without his painstaking criticism and helpful comments this essay would lack in precision, relevance, and logical correctness. Earlier drafts of the essay were discussed in Sven Danielsson and Wlodek Rabinowicz's seminar at the Department of Philosophy, University of Uppsala. The participants of the (...)
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  14. Biocentrism and Artificial Life.Robin Attfield - 2012 - Environmental Values 21 (1):83 - 94.
    Biocentrism maintains that all living creatures have moral standing, but need not claim that all have equal moral significance. This moral standing extends to organisms generated through human interventions, whether by conventional breeding, genetic engineering, or synthetic biology. Our responsibilities with regard to future generations seem relevant to non-human species as well as future human generations and their quality of life. Likewise the Precautionary Principle appears to raise objections to the generation of serious or irreversible changes to the quality of (...)
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  15. Nolt, Future Harm and Future Quality of Life.Robin Attfield - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):11-13.
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  16. Environmental Ethics and Intergenerational Equity.Robin Attfield - 1998 - Inquiry 41 (2):207 – 222.
    Possible environmental and related impacts of human activity are shown to include the extinction of humanity and other sentient species, excessive human numbers, and a deteriorating quality of life (I). I proceed to argue that neither future rights, nor Kantian respect for future people's autonomy, nor a contract between the generations supplies a plausible basis of obligations with regard to future generations. Obligations concern rather promoting the well-being of the members of future generations, whoever they may be, as well as (...)
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  17. Adaptive Ideals and Aspirational Goals: The Utopian Ideals and Realist Constraints of Climate Change Adaptation.Patrik Baard - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (4):739-757.
    There is a growing need to implement anticipatory climate change adaptation measures, particularly in vulnerable sectors, such as in agriculture. However, setting goals to adapt is wrought with several challenges. This paper discusses two sets of challenges to goals of anticipatory adaptation, of empirical and normative character. The first set of challenges concern issues such as the extent to which the climate will change, the local impacts of such changes, and available adaptive responses. In the second set of uncertainties are (...)
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  18. Cautious Utopias: Environmental Goal-Setting with Long Time Frames.Patrik Baard & Karin Edvardsson Björnberg - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):187-201.
    Sustainable development is a common goal in the public sector but may be difficult to implement due to epistemic uncertainties and the long time frames required. This paper proposes that some of these problems can be solved by formulating cautious utopias, entailing a relationship between means and goals differing from both utopian and realistic goal-setting. Cautiously utopian goals are believed, but not certain, to be achievable and to remain desirable, but are open to future adjustments due to changing desires and/or (...)
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  19. A Declaration of the Responsibilities of Present Generations Toward Past Generations.Antoonde Baets - 2004 - History and Theory 43 (4):130–164.
  20. Do Future Generations Have the Right to Breathe Clean Air? A Note.Bertram Bandman - 1982 - Political Theory 10 (1):95-102.
  21. Circumstances of Justice and Future Generations.Brian Barry - 1978 - In Richard I. Sikora & Brian M. Barry (eds.), Obligations to Future Generations. White Horse Press. pp. 204--48.
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  22. Paul R. Portney and John P. Weyant (Eds.), Discounting and Intergenerational Equity.A. A. Batabyal - 2001 - Agriculture and Human Values 18 (2):235-236.
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  23. Sustainable Development and Future Generations.Volkert Beekman - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (1):3-22.
    This paper argues, mainly on the basis of Rawls''s savings principle, Wissenburg''s restraint principle, Passmore's chains of love, and De-Shalit's transgenerational communities, for a double interpretation of sustainable development as a principle of intergenerational justice and a future-oriented green ideal. This double interpretation (1) embraces the restraint principle and the argument that no individualcan claim an unconditional right to destroy environmental goods as a baseline that could justify directive strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles, and (2) suggests that people's (...)
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  24. Human Rights, Harm, and Climate Change Mitigation.Brian Berkey - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):416-435.
    A number of philosophers have resisted impersonal explanations of our obligation to mitigate climate change, and have developed accounts according to which these obligations are explained by human rights or harm-based considerations. In this paper I argue that several of these attempts to explain our mitigation obligations without appealing to impersonal factors fail, since they either cannot account for a plausibly robust obligation to mitigate, or have implausible implications in other cases. I conclude that despite the appeal of the motivations (...)
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  25. Climate Change, Moral Intuitions, and Moral Demandingness.Brian Berkey - 2014 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 4 (2):157-189.
    In this paper I argue that reflection on the threat of climate change brings out a distinct challenge for appeals to what I call the Anti-Demandingness Intuition, according to which a view about our obligations can be rejected if it would, as a general matter, require very large sacrifices of us. The ADI is often appealed to in order to reject the view that well off people are obligated to make substantial sacrifices in order to aid the global poor, but (...)
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  26. State Action, State Policy, and the Doing/Allowing Distinction.Brian Berkey - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):147-149.
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  27. A Way Out From the Wrongful Environmental Mindset: The Origins and Possible Solutions to the Tragedy of the Commons.Paweł Bernat - 2013 - Philosophy and Practice of Sustainable Development.
    The paper indicates and discusses three phenomena identified as the main origins of the mindset responsible for the tragedy of the global commons, namely (1) Cornucopianism, (2) rationality of self-interest and egoism, and (3) the presupposed instrumental value of nature. It is demonstrated that all those theses can be philosophically and ethically dismissed and thus, the wrongful environmental mindset built around them should be rejected. It is further argued that the up-to-date solutions to the tragedy are unsatisfactory. Moreover, the tragedy (...)
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  28. Governmental Foresight and Future Generations.Clem Bezold - 1999 - In Tʻae-chʻang Kim & James Allen Dator (eds.), Co-Creating a Public Philosophy for Future Generations. Praeger. pp. 89.
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  29. Future Generations and Contemporary Ethical Theory.Stephen Bickham - 1981 - Journal of Value Inquiry 15 (2):169-177.
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  30. For the (Distant) Future?Dieter Birnbacher - 2009 - In Gosseries Axel & Meyers L. (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 273.
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  31. Responsibility for Future Generations.Dieter Birnbacher - 2006 - In Tremmel J. (ed.), The Handbook of Intergenerational Justice. Edward Elgar.
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  32. Responsibility for Future Generations–Scope and Limits.Dieter Birnbacher - 2006 - In Tremmel J. (ed.), The Handbook of Intergenerational Justice. Edward Elgar. pp. 23--38.
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  33. How to Prepare for the Unknown? On the Significance of Future Generations and Future Studies in Environmental Policy.J. J. Boersema - 2001 - Environmental Values 10 (1):35-58.
    The core question of this article is: how can we take account of the future and future generations if our knowledge of the future is so sparse? The importance of the future is discussed within the framework of our concept of time. After that it is argued that future generations do not constitute a new, let alone unique, element in the debate on the future. Two different routes to acquire knowledge about the future and prepare for the future are described. (...)
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  34. Don't Stop Thinking About Tomorrow: Two Paradoxes About Duties to Future Generations.David Boonin-Vail - 1996 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 25 (4):267-307.
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  35. The Wisdom of Caution: Genetic Enhancement and Future Children.Jason Borenstein - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):517-530.
    Many scholars predict that the technology to modify unborn children genetically is on the horizon. According to supporters of genetic enhancement, allowing parents to select a child’s traits will enable him/her to experience a better life. Following their logic, the technology will not only increase our knowledge base and generate cures for genetic illness, but it may enable us to increase the intelligence, strength, and longevity of future generations as well. Yet it must be examined whether supporters of genetic enhancement, (...)
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  36. The Future of Humanity.Nick Bostrom - 2009 - In Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Evan Selinger & Søren Riis (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Technology. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The future of humanity is often viewed as a topic for idle speculation. Yet our beliefs and assumptions on this subject matter shape decisions in both our personal lives and public policy – decisions that have very real and sometimes unfortunate consequences. It is therefore practically important to try to develop a realistic mode of futuristic thought about big picture questions for humanity. This paper sketches an overview of some recent attempts in this direction, and it offers a brief discussion (...)
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  37. Climate Change, Justice and Future Generations.Paul Bou-Habib - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (1):151-153.
  38. The Construction of a Sustainable Development in Times of Climate Change.Eric Brandstedt - 2013 - Dissertation, Lund University
    This dissertation is a contribution to the debate about ‘climate justice’, i.e. a call for a just and feasible distribution of responsibility for addressing climate change. The main argument is a proposal for a cautious, practicable, and necessary step in the right direction: given the set of theoretical and practical obstacles to climate justice, we must begin by making contemporary development practices sustainable. In times of climate change, this is done by recognising and responding to the fact that emissions of (...)
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  39. The Future is Not What It Used to Be: On the Roles and Function of Assumptions in Visions of the Future.Eric Brandstedt & Oksana Mont - 2016 - In Max Koch & Oksana Mont (eds.), Sustainability and the Political Economy of Welfare. Routledge. pp. 59-74.
    Any future-oriented work, whether of academic or policy kind, needs a vision of the future, however vague. It is well known that such predictions are bound to be wrong, at least on the margin. The question is how to minimise that threat and make reliable assumptions. In this chapter we discuss a strategy of hypothetical retrospection. By imagining a future state of the world that is radically different from the present, we scrutinise hidden assumptions and suppositions taken for granted in (...)
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  40. Discounting the Future, yet Again.Geoffrey Brennan - 2007 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (3):259-284.
    discounting the future' is one on which philosophers and economists have divergent professional views. There is a lot of talking at cross-purposes across the disciplinary divide here; but there is a fair bit of confusion (I think) within disciplines as well. My aim here is essentially clarificatory. I draw several distinctions that I see as significant: • between inter-temporal and intergenerational questions • between price (discount rate) and quantity (inter-temporal and intergenerational allocations) as the ethically relevant magnitude, and • between (...)
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  41. Building on the Past, Creating a Future.Isis Brook - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (4):453 - 456.
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  42. How Not to Save the Planet.Thom Brooks - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):119-135.
    Climate change presents us with perhaps the most pressing challenge today. But is it a problem we can solve? This article argues that existing conservationist and adaptation approaches fail to satisfy their objectives. A second issue that these approaches disagree about how best to end climate change, but accept that it is a problem that can be solved. I believe this view is mistaken: a future environmental catastrophe is an event we might at best postpone, but not avoid. This raises (...)
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  43. Justice Unconceived: How Posterity has Rights.Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl - manuscript
    This paper advances a rights-based approach to our relations with future generations. It first explains why an account of intergenerational relations is necessary and why a rights-centered approach represents the correct approach. While not denying that there can be more to our shared moral and political life than rights, I argue that this situation is one in which rights are the appropriate idiom. The paper then addresses the central question of how it is possible for future people to hold rights (...)
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  44. Life Extension and Future Generations.Adrian Bunn - 2016 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):133-147.
    Future technology may dramatically extend the human lifespan. Peter Singer argues that we should reject life extension because developing it would result in a world with lower total and average happiness. Singer’s argument depends on the claim that we should maximise average happiness per moment. I will argue that developing the life-extending drug would not be impermissible because doing so will maximise average happiness per person. I offer an independent argument for why we should adopt a consequentialist principle which says (...)
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  45. And Intergenerational Justice.Krister Bykvist - 2009 - In Gosseries Axel & Meyers L. (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 301.
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  46. Preference Formation and Intergenerational Justice.Krister Bykvist - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
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  47. The Future of Environmental Philosophy.J. Baird Callicott - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):119-120.
  48. Political Institutions for the Future: A Five-Fold Package.Simon Caney (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Governments are often so focused on short-term gains that they ignore the long term, thus creating extra unnecessary burdens on their citizens, and violating their responsibilities to future generations. What can be done about this? In this paper I propose a package of reforms to the ways in which policies are made by legislatures, and in which those policies are scrutinised, implemented and evaluated. The overarching aim is to enhance the accountability of the decision-making process in ways that take into (...)
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  49. Climate Change, Intergenerational Equity and the Social Discount Rate.Simon Caney - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (4):320-342.
    Climate change is projected to have very severe impacts on future generations. Given this, any adequate response to it has to consider the nature of our obligations to future generations. This paper seeks to do that and to relate this to the way that inter-generational justice is often framed by economic analyses of climate change. To do this the paper considers three kinds of considerations that, it has been argued, should guide the kinds of actions that one generation should take (...)
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  50. Human Rights, Responsibilities, and Climate Change.Simon Caney - 2011 - In Charles R. Beitz & Robert E. Goodin (eds.), Global Basic Rights. Oxford University Press.
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