G. W. F. Hegel

Edited by Paul Redding (University of Sydney)
Assistant editor: Paolo Diego Bubbio (University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury)
About this topic
Summary

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) is generally considered to be the most systematic philosopher within the movement of “German idealism” in the first decades of the Nineteenth Century. In his writings, and particularly in his popular lectures at the University of Berlin in the 1820s, Hegel attempted to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic philosophy from a “logical” starting point. He is perhaps most well-known for his social and political philosophy and for his teleological account of history, an account which was later taken over by Karl Marx and “inverted” into a materialist theory of an historical development culminating in communism. For most of the twentieth century, the “logical” and systematic side of Hegel's thought had been largely forgotten, but his political and social philosophy continued to attract interest and support. Since the 1970s, a degree of more general philosophical interest in Hegel’s systematic thought has also been revived, often treating Hegel’s philosophy in relation to the earlier “transcendental” idealism of Immanuel Kant.

Key works Hegel's first major publication was his Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) [Hegel 1977], published in 1807. Working through this work was meant to lift the reader from their naturally perspectival view of the world to the objective standpoint of philosophy or "science" (Wissenschaft). This work was followed by his Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik) published in three volumes in 1812, 1813 and 1816 [Hegel 2010], and then, in 1817, his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, comprising a shortened "Logic" [Hegel 2010], a "Philosophy of Nature" [Hegel 1970] and a "Philosophy of Spirit" [Hegel 1970]. While occupying the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, Hegel gave multiple lecture series on the Philosophy of History [Hegel 2011], the History of Philosophy [Brown 2009, Brown 2006, Brown 2009], Aesthetics [Hegel 1998, Hegel 1998], and Philosophy of Religion [Hegel 2006].
Introductions Online encyclopedia articles: David A. Duquette, "Hegel's Social and Political Thought" [Duquette 2001]; Paul Redding, "G. W. F. Hegel" [Redding 2008]. Book-length introductory works: Frederick Beiser, Hegel [Beiser 2002]; Stephen Houlgate, An Introduction to Hegel: Freedom, Truth and History [Houlgate 2005]; Peter Singer, Hegel: A Very Short Introduction [Singer 2001]. Terry Pinkard, Hegel: A Biography [Pinkard 2000] provides a comprehensive introduction to all spheres of Hegel's philosophy presented in the context of his biography.
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Hegel, Misc (328)

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  1. Hegel And Schelling on the Path of Aristotelian Ascent.Chandler D. Rogers - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (5):763-774.
    This essay argues that Schelling's late transition from Negative to Positive Philosophy constitutes a pointed inversion of the path of systematic ascent mapped by Hegel for the first time in the Phenomenology's Preface, which itself establishes Hegel's development out of and beyond Schelling's early philosophy; that a key notion to inspire the Hegelian vision articulated in the Preface returns to cap off the critique implicit in Schelling's late inversion, where this notion emerges from their divergent readings of Aristotle's Metaphysics; and (...)
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  2. Norbert Waszek (Hg.): G. W. F. Hegel und Hermann Cohen. Wege zur Versöhnung. Festschrift für Myriam Bienenstock, Freiburg/München: Verlag Karl Alber, 2018, 270 S. [REVIEW]Martin Arndt - 2020 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 72 (1):98-99.
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  3. The Philosophy of Nature of Kant, Schelling and Hegel.Dieter Wandschneider - 2010 - In Dean Moyar (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy: London, New York. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 64—‘l03.
    The present investigation brings into view the philosophy of nature of German Idealism, a philosophical movement which emerged around the beginning of the nineteenth century. German Idealism appro- priated certain motivations of the Kantian philosophy and developed them further in a "speculative" manner (Engelhardt 1972, 1976, 2002). This powerful philosophical movement, associated above all with the names of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel - and moreover having nothing whatsoever to do with the "subjective idealism" of George Berkeley - was replaced by (...)
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  4. Hegel’s Critique of Kant’s Concept of Reason: The Problem of Different Demands.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Hegel Jahrbuch 2019 (1):146-153.
    I analyze the demands Hegel puts on the concept of reason in the first part of the Encyclopedia, which are of (1) epistemological, (2) functional and (3) methodological nature, and show how the critique of “subjective idealism” and Kant’s concept of reason emerges from them. Afterwards I outline two possible problems with Hegel’s demands and suggest that he overlooks the broad functional structure of the Kantian concept of reason as the faculty of principles.
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  5. Alan Brudner. The Owl and the Rooster: Hegel’s Transformative Political Science.Igor Shoikhedbrod - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):96-101.
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  6. Nahum Brown. Hegel’s Actuality Chapter of the Science of Logic: A Commentary.Mert Can Yirmibeş - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):101-109.
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  7. History and the International Order in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right.Davide Barile - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):35-57.
    For a long time, the sections of the Philosophy of Right dedicated to the relations among states have been neglected by contemporary International Relations theories. However, especially since the end of the Cold War, this discipline has finally reconsidered Hegel’s theory, in particular by stressing two aspects: the thesis of an ”end of history” implied in it; and, more generally, the primacy of the state in international politics. This paper suggests a different interpretation. It argues that, in order to really (...)
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  8. More Than Recognition.Thom Brooks - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):59-86.
    Hegel’s project of reconciliation is central to his Philosophy of Right. This article argues that scholars have understood this project in one of two ways, as a form of rational reconciliation or a kind of endorsement. Each is incomplete and their inability to capture the kind of reconciliation Hegel has in mind is made apparent when we consider the kind of problem that the rabble creates for modern society, which reconciliation is meant to address. The article concludes that more than (...)
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  9. Todd McGowan. Emancipation After Hegel: Achieving a Contradictory Revolution.Kenneth Lambert - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):87-96.
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  10. Aphorisms on the Absolute: Editorial Introduction.Kenneth R. Westphal - 2020 - The Owl of Minerva 51 (1):1-10.
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  11. Amílcar Cabral’s Modernist Philosophy of Culture and Cultural Liberation.Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2020 - Journal of African Cultural Studies 32 (2):231-250.
    This article argues that Amílcar Cabral adhered to some of the essential elements of the philosophical discourse of modernity. This commitment led Cabral to endorse an anti-essentialist, historicized conception of culture, and this in turn led him to conceive of cultural liberation in terms of cultural autonomy as opposed to the preservation of indigenous culture(s). Cabral’s attitude towards languages is employed as a case study in order to demonstrate how emphasis on Cabral’s commitment to the philosophical discourse of modernity can (...)
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  12. Kant and Rödl on the Identity of Self-Consciousness and Objectivity.Addison Ellis - forthcoming - Studi Kantiani.
    Sebastian Rödl’s 2018 book articulates and unfolds the thought that judgment’s self-consciousness is identical with its objectivity. This view is laid forth in a Hegelian spirit, against the spirit of Kant’s merely formal or transcendental idealism. I review Rödl’s central theses and then offer a criticism of his reading of Kant. I hold that we can agree with Rödl that self-consciousness is identical with objectivity (though only in a ‘formal’ sense). We can also agree with Rödl that this identity enables (...)
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  13. Comments on Knowledge and Ideology: The Epistemology of Social and Political Critique. [REVIEW]Miles Hentrup - 2020 - Florida Philosophical Review 19:67-72.
    Michael Morris' Knowledge and Ideology is an original and valuable contribution to the philosophical debate concerning the meaning and validity of the concept of ideology critique. While the concept of ideology has occupied a pivotal role within the tradition of critical social theory, as Terry Eagleton had already pointed out in his 1994 study, the term nevertheless has "a whole range of useful meanings, not all of which are compatible with one another." Morris takes Eagleton's analysis as his point of (...)
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  14. Slavoj Žižek, "Sex and the Failed Absolute". [REVIEW]Jakub Mácha - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (2):88-90.
  15. Spirit's Embeddedness in Nature.Heikki Ikäheimo - forthcoming - Hegel Bulletin.
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  16. Natural Impurities in Spirit - Hegel Between Kant and Hobbes.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2011 - Parrhesia: A Journal of Critical Philosophy 1 (11):84-88.
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  17. Reading German Idealism.Gregory Moss - 2016 - The Owl of Minerva (1/2).
    Rockmore’s book German Idealism as Constructivism is an ambitious attempt to show that German Idealism is a tradition characterized by the project of perfecting constructivism. On the one hand, Rockmore offers good evidence that this is the case, and it seems indisputable that the German Idealists are preoccupied with this issue. In addition, the text offers deep insights and is particularly strong as concerns the relation of the various Idealists to natural science and the history of science. On the other (...)
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  18. The Beginning of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.Kenneth R. Westphal - 2015 - The Owl of Minerva (1/2).
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  19. Lydia L. Moland, Hegel on Political Identity: Patriotism, Nationality, Cosmopolitanism.Michael Baur - 2013 - The Owl of Minerva 45 (1):112-115.
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  20. Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part I.Oliva Blanchette - 1976 - The Owl of Minerva 8 (2):3-6.
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  21. Das Anfangsproblem bei Karl Leonhard Reinhold.Rolf Ahlers - 2000 - The Owl of Minerva 31 (2):218-221.
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  22. Knowledge Vs. Inquiry.James Blachowicz - 1999 - The Owl of Minerva 31 (1):45-52.
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  23. Das Korper-Seele-Problem.Murray Greene - 1995 - The Owl of Minerva 27 (1):67-77.
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  24. Hegel in Japan.Norbert Waszek - 1991 - The Owl of Minerva 22 (2):252-254.
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  25. In Memoriam, Gustav Earl Mueller (May 12, 1898–July 10, 1987.Ingrid H. Shafer - 1987 - The Owl of Minerva 19 (1):125-126.
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  26. Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part II.Ardis B. Collins - 1985 - The Owl of Minerva 16 (2):215-221.
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  27. Schelling, seine Bedeutung für eine Philosophie der Natur und der Geschichte.Michael G. Vater - 1984 - The Owl of Minerva 15 (2):231-235.
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  28. G.W.F. Hegel.Quentin Lauer - 1982 - The Owl of Minerva 13 (4):7-9.
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  29. Book Review of "Hegel in the Arab World: Modernity, Colonialism, and Freedom" by Lorella Ventura. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2019 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books.
    The choice of tracking Hegel’s reception in the Arab world in order to explore the connections between modernity and colonialism is an excellent one, since it was Hegel himself who inaugurated the explicit philosophical discourse of modernity (Habermas 1990: 4-5). Ventura’s book is divided into three parts of roughly equal length of around fifty pages each. The first part provides an overview of Hegel’s philosophy of history, and of the place of Arab peoples and Islam in his philosophy of history. (...)
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  30. Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures.Michael Quante & Armando Manchisi (eds.) - 2020 - Padova PD, Italia: Padova University Press.
    What does it mean to be a person? And in what way is this connected to our finitude, i.e. to the properly human aspect of our existence? By analyzing some of the core features of our form of life (personal identity, self-consciousness, freedom, autonomy, responsibility), Michael Quante answers these questions arguing that it is possible to be a person and lead an authentically human life only within social relationships of recognition: only in these relationships, it is possible to know oneself (...)
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  31. «Il lato attivo dell'esistenza umana». La riflessione etica di Michael Quante tra filosofia classica tedesca e pragmatismo.Armando Manchisi - 2020 - In Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures. Padova PD, Italia: pp. 17-35.
    The essay introduces Michael Quante's pragmatistic anthropology, focusing on three main ethical issues, namely: (1) the problem of realism, (2) the problem of particularism, and (3) the question about personal identity and its social conditions. By also emphasizing Quante's historical-philosophical debts, the essay thus aims to present the project of the pragmatistic anthropology as a worthwhile alternative to some of the fundamental assumptions of modern ethics. The essay is the Editor's Introduction to the volume: Michael Quante, "Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures" (...)
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  32. Lukács 1933-1942. L'irrazionalismo nell'età del fascismo.Matteo Gargani - 2020 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 75 (1):81-106.
    "Lukács 1933-1942. Irrationalism in the Age of Fascism". This essay reconstructs the philosophical and historiographical premises to Georg Lukács’ research on irrationalism conducted during the period of Nazi rule in Germany. To this end, the Author focuses chiefly on two posthumous works: How Did Fascist Philosophy Arise in Germany? (1933) and How Did Germany Become the Centre of reactionary Ideology? (1941-1942). After a brief historical contextualization, the Author illustrates the main purpose of these texts: to free German philosophy and culture (...)
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  33. Circularity in Searle’s Social Ontology: With a Hegelian Reply.José Luis Fernández - 2020 - International Journal of Society, Culture and Language 8 (1):16-24.
    John Searle’s theory of social ontology posits that there are indispensable normative components in the linguistic apparatuses termed status functions, collective intentionality, and collective recognition, all of which, he argues, make the social world. In this paper, I argue that these building blocks of Searle’s social ontology are caught in a petitio of constitutive circularity. Moreover, I note how Searle fails to observe language in reciprocal relation to the institutions which not only are shaped by it but also shape language’s (...)
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  34. Spirit and Utopia: (German) Idealism as Political Theology.Kirill Chepurin - 2015 - Crisis and Critique 2 (1):326-348.
    Can we understand (German) idealism as emancipatory today, after the new realist critique? In this paper, I argue that we can do so by identifying a political theology of revolution and utopia at the theoretical heart of German Idealism. First, idealism implies a certain revolutionary event at its foundation. Kant’s Copernicanism is ingrained, methodologically and ontologically, into the idealist system itself. Secondly, this revolutionary origin remains a “non-place” for the idealist system, which thereby receives a utopian character. I define the (...)
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  35. Christ and Revelatory Community in Bonhoeffer’s Reception of Hegel by David S. Robinson , Xv + 260 Pp.Joshua T. Mauldin - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (1):211-213.
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  36. Demystifying the Negative René Girard’s Critique of the “Humanization of Nothingness”.Andreas Wilmes - 2019 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 24 (1):91-126.
    This paper will address René Girard’s critique of the “humanization of nothingness” in modern Western philosophy. I will first explain how the “desire for death” is related to a phenomenon that Girard refers to as “obstacle addiction.” Second, I will point out how mankind’s desire for death and illusory will to self-divinization gradually tend to converge within the history of modern Western humanism. In particular, I will show how this convergence between self-destruction and self-divinization gradually takes shape through the evolution (...)
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  37. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Hanbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  38. Wittgenstein and Hegel: Reevaluation of Difference.Jakub Mácha & Alexander Berg (eds.) - 2019 - De Gruyter.
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  39. Hegel's Logic as Presuppositionless Science.Miles Hentrup - 2019 - Idealistic Studies 49 (2):145-165.
    In this article, I offer a critical interpretation of Hegel’s claims regarding the presuppositionless status of the Logic. Commentators have been divided as to whether the Logic actually achieves the status of presuppositionless science, disagreeing as to whether the Logic succeeds in making an unmediated beginning. I argue, however, that this understanding of presuppositionless science is misguided, as it reflects a spurious conception of immediacy that Hegel criticizes as false. Contextualizing Hegel’s remarks in light of his broader approach to the (...)
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  40. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism.Philip T. Grier - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):1-45.
    As a young Victoria Scholar from South Africa studying at Oxford from 1931–33, Errol Harris encountered most of the prominent representatives of “Oxford Idealism” there. He discovered that, predominantly under the influence of Bradley, they were uniformly convinced that Hegel’s Naturphilosophie was a superfluous “addition” to his system, accomplishing nothing not already provided by the Science of Logic, and that, moreover, to treat Nature as a reality would introduce a fundamental contradiction into Hegel’s thought. In this general attitude they were (...)
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  41. The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature.Martin Krahn - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):47-68.
    In this article, I argue that species are mutable in Hegel’s philosophy of biology. While scholars have argued for the compatibility of Hegel’s philosophy and Darwin’s theory of evolution, none have dealt with the ontological status of species in their respective accounts. In order to make the case that for Hegel species are mutable, I first deal with a textual problem that in the 1827 edition of the Encyclopedia, the species concept appears after the sexual relationship, whereas in the 1830 (...)
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  42. Thom Brooks and Sebastian Stein, Eds. Hegel’s Political Philosophy: On the Normative Significance of Method and System.Filip Niklas - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):106-116.
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  43. Hegel's Analysis of Egyptian Art and Architecture as a Form of Philosophical Anthropology.Jon Stewart - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):69-90.
    In his different analyses of ancient Egypt, Hegel underscores the marked absence of writings by the Egyptians. Unlike the Chinese with the I Ching or the Shoo king, the Indians with the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Persians with the Avesta, the Jews with the Old Testament, and the Greeks with the poems of Homer and Hesiod, the Egyptians, despite their developed system of hieroglyphic writing, left behind no great canonical text. Instead, he claims, they left their mark by means (...)
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  44. Molly Farneth. Hegel’s Social Ethics: Religion, Conflict, and Rituals of Reconciliation.Eric von der Luft - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):101-105.
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  45. Paolo Diego Bubbio. God and the Self in Hegel: Beyond Subjectivism.Philip T. Grier - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):91-100.
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  46. The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature in Advance.Martin Krahn - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  47. Jacques Derrida in Agamben's Philosophy.Virgil W. Brower - 2017 - In Adam Kotsko & Carl Salzani (eds.), Agamben's Philosophical Lineage. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 252-261.
  48. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism in Advance.Philip T. Grier - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  49. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism.Philip T. Grier - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  50. Idealism - New Dictionary of the History of Ideas Entry.Michael Baur - 2005 - In Maryanne Cline Horowitz (ed.), New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI, USA: pp. 1078-1082.
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