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  1. Peter Achinstein (1968). Concepts of Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  2. Agustín Adúriz-Bravo (2014). Revisiting School Scientific Argumentation From the Perspective of the History and Philosophy of Science. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1443-1472.
    This chapter aims to revisit the notion of argumentation that is currently used in science education. After acknowledging a consolidated tendency of linguistics-based approaches to the study of ‘school scientific argumentation’, the chapter proposes to shift the interest towards an examination of the epistemic aspects of argumentation, i.e. those that derive from its central participation in science as a process and as a product. The premise of the chapter is that the contributions of the philosophy and history of science and (...)
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  3. Joseph Agassi (1974). Announcement: Fifth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese 26 (3/4):516.
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  4. Evandro Agazzi (1972). Recent Developments of the Philosophy of Science in Italy. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 3 (2):359-371.
    Summary Philosophy of science is, in Italy, a relatively young field of research. The foreword of the paper gives some explanation of this fact, which is the consequence of a particular situation of Italian culture between the two world wars. When problems in this field began to be studied after the war, they were practically imported matter, and a rather long time was necessary before an original research started in this country. The beginning of it was marked by a profound (...)
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  5. Neil McK Agnew (1969). The Science Game. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
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  6. S. Alexander (1930). Science and Art. Philosophy 5 (19):331-.
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  7. S. Alexander (1930). Science and Art: Science and Art. Philosophy 5 (19):331-352.
    My object in these lectures is to show that Science is a form of Art, though not of fine art; in other words, that it is one example of a process of which fine art is the most obvious example, the process of making out of certain materials a result into which the mind itself enters. Clearly enough the material of the artist, whatever it be, marble or paints or tones or words, is moulded by the artist into a shape (...)
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  8. Anna Alexandrova (2015). Well‐Being and Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Compass 10 (3):219-231.
    This article is a mutual introduction of the science of well-being to philosophy of science and an explanation of how the two disciplines can benefit each other. In the process, I argue that the science of well-being is not helpfully viewed as a social or a natural, but rather as a mixed, science. Hence, its methodology will have to attend to its specific features. I discuss two of its methodological problems: justifying the role of values, and validating measures. I suggest (...)
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  9. Leslie Allan, Imre Lakatos: A Critical Appraisal.
    Imre Lakatos holds a well-deserved primary place in current philosophy of science. In this essay, Leslie Allan critically examines Lakatos' theory of knowledge in two key areas. The first area of consideration is Lakatos' notion that knowledge is gained through a process of competition between rival scientific research programmes. Allan identifies and discusses four problems with Lakatos' characterization of a research programme. Next, Allan considers Lakatos' proposed test of adequacy for theories of rationality using his methodology of historiographical research programmes. (...)
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  10. Robert Almeder (1986). The Limits of Science. Idealistic Studies 16 (3):259-260.
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  11. Eva Álvarez, Roger Bosch & Lorena Villamil (eds.) (2003). Volume of Abstracts: 12th International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Oviedo, August 7-13, 2003. [REVIEW] Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Oviedo.
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  12. Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker & Xiang Chen (1996). Kuhn's Mature Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):347 – 363.
    Drawing on the results of modem psychology and cognitive science we suggest that the traditional theory of concepts is no longer tenable, and that the alternative account proposed by Kuhn may now be seen to have independent empirical support quite apart from its success as part of an account of scientific change. We suggest that these mechanisms can also be understood as special cases of general cognitive structures revealed by cognitive science. Against this background, incommensurability is not an insurmountable obstacle (...)
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  13. Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.) (2013). New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag.
    This fourth volume of the Programme “The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective” deals with new challenges in this field. In this regard, it seeks to broaden the scope of the philosophy of science in two directions. On the one hand, ...
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  14. Holly Andersen (2014). A Field Guide to Mechanisms: Part II. Philosophy Compass 9 (4):284-293.
    In this field guide, I distinguish five separate senses with which the term ‘mechanism’ is used in contemporary philosophy of science. Many of these senses have overlapping areas of application but involve distinct philosophical claims and characterize the target mechanisms in relevantly different ways. This field guide will clarify the key features of each sense and introduce some main debates, distinguishing those that transpire within a given sense from those that are best understood as concerning two distinct senses. The ‘new (...)
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  15. Holly Andersen (2013). When to Expect Violations of Causal Faithfulness and Why It Matters. Philosophy of Science (5):672-683.
    I present three reasons why philosophers of science should be more concerned about violations of causal faithfulness (CF). In complex evolved systems, mechanisms for maintaining various equilibrium states are highly likely to violate CF. Even when such systems do not precisely violate CF, they may nevertheless generate precisely the same problems for inferring causal structure from probabilistic relationships in data as do genuine CF-violations. Thus, potential CF-violations are particularly germane to experimental science when we rely on probabilistic information to uncover (...)
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  16. Holly Andersen (2008). Unlocking the Philosophy of Science. Metascience 17 (3):407-410.
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  17. John Anderson (1933). The Science of Logic. Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 11 (4):308-314.
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  18. John Anderson (1933). The Science of Logic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):308 – 314.
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  19. Daniel Andler (2006). Federalism in Science — Complementarity Vs Perspectivism: Reply to Harré. Synthese 151 (3):519 - 522.
  20. Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad (2009). Alternativt Eller Etablert? Hva Er Forskjellen? Www.Nifab.No.
    Hva er vitenskap og hva anser vi som vitenskaplighet? Dette er spørsmål som kan være verdt å se nøyere på før vi aksepterer at det er et klart skille mellom den etablerte skolemedisinen og alt det vi kaller ”alternativ medisin” eller ”alternativ behandling”. For hva er det egentlig som gjør noe til etablert og noe annet til et alternativ? Er den etablerte medisin mer vitenskapelig enn den alternative, ved at den for eksempel benytter seg av mer vitenskapelige metoder? Er resultatene (...)
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  21. Theodore Arabatzis & Jutta Schickore (2012). Ways of Integrating History and Philosophy of Science. Perspectives on Science 20 (4):395-408.
  22. A. B. Arons (1964). Science & Ideas. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
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  23. A. B. Arons & Alfred M. Bork (1964). Science & Ideas Selected Readings. Prentice-Hall.
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  24. Peter D. Asquith & Henry Ely Kyburg (eds.) (1979). Current Research in Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the P.S.A. Critical Research Problems Conference. Philosophy of Science Association.
  25. Robin Attfield & Andrew Belsey (1994). Introduction. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 36:1-12.
    The philosophy of nature is at least as old as the presocratics, but has undergone comparative neglect in philosophical circles this century until recently, at least in English-speaking lands. The philosophy of science concentrates on scientific concepts and methods and the interpretation of scientific theories, rather than on the concept of nature itself, while, with significant exceptions , aesthetics focuses on the experience of art rather than on that of nature. Meanwhile moral, political and social philosophy has focused on the (...)
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  26. Bruce Aune (1971). Two Theories of Scientific Knowledge. Critica 5 (13):3 - 20.
  27. R. J. B. (1969). Between Science and Philosophy. Review of Metaphysics 22 (4):765-766.
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  28. R. J. B. (1963). Logic, Methodology and the Philosophy of Science. Review of Metaphysics 16 (4):809-809.
  29. Babette Babich (2007). Continental Philosophy of Science. In Constantin Boundas (ed.), The Edinburgh Companion to the Twentieth Century Philosophies. Edinburgh. University of Edinburgh Press. pp. 545--558.
    Continental philosophies of science tend to exemplify holistic themes connecting order and contingency, questions and answers, writers and readers, speakers and hearers. Such philosophies of science also tend to feature a fundamental emphasis on the historical and cultural situatedness of discourse as significant; relevance of mutual attunement of speaker and hearer; necessity of pre-linguistic cognition based in human engagement with a common socio-cultural historical world; role of narrative and metaphor as explanatory; sustained emphasis on understanding questioning; truth seen as horizonal, (...)
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  30. Gaston Bachelard (1968). The Philosophy of No. New York: Orion Press.
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  31. Dominic J. Balestra (1978). Scientific Man. International Philosophical Quarterly 18 (1):107-109.
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  32. Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino (2014). From Corpuscles to Elements: Chemical Ontologies From Van Helmont to Lavoisier. In Lee McIntyre & Eric Scerri (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Springer. pp. 141-154.
  33. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (ed.) (1965). Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
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  34. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel & Universitah Ha- Ivrit Bi-Yerushalayim (1965). Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Proceedings of the 1964 International Congress. Edited by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel. North-Holland Pub. Co.
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  35. Eric Barnes (1996). Social Predictivism. Erkenntnis 45 (1):69 - 89.
    Predictivism holds that, where evidence E confirms theory T, E confirms T more strongly when E is predicted on the basis of T and subsequently confirmed than when E is known in advance of T's formulation and used, in some sense, in the formulation of T. Predictivism has lately enjoyed some strong supporting arguments from Maher (1988, 1990, 1993) and Kahn, Landsberg, and Stockman (1992). Despite the many virtues of the analyses these authors provide it is my view that they (...)
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  36. Rodney Bartlett, Humans and Their Universes.
    This communicates to you my vision of exploring the whole universe. What if you had a plausible method (based on today's science and technology) of going anywhere you wanted in the entire universe? Wouldn't that be a radical breakthrough in exploration? I'll first summarise the steps leading up to (and beyond) exploration of all space then write a detailed essay showing how those paragraphs are consistent with the plausible nature of the universe and are therefore not science fiction.
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  37. Steven James Bartlett (1981). Philosophy of Geometry From Riemann to Poincare. By Roberto Torretti. Modern Schoolman 58 (2):136-136.
    A review of Roberto Torretti's book, "Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincare.".
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  38. Ann-Sophie Barwich (2014). A Sense So Rare: Measuring Olfactory Experiences and Making a Case for a Process Perspective on Sensory Perception. Biological Theory 9 (3):258-268.
    Philosophical discussion about the reality of sensory perceptions has been hijacked by two tendencies. First, talk about perception has been largely centered on vision. Second, the realism question is traditionally approached by attaching objects or material structures to matching contents of sensory perceptions. These tendencies have resulted in an argumentative impasse between realists and anti-realists, discussing the reliability of means by which the supposed causal information transfer from object to perceiver takes place. Concerning the nature of sensory experiences and their (...)
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  39. Ann-Sophie Barwich (2014). Fiction in Science? Exploring the Reality of Theoretical Entities. In Javier Cumpa, Greg Jesson & Guido Bonino (eds.), Defending Realism: Ontological and Epistemological Investigations. De Gruyter. pp. 291-310.
    This paper revisits the concept of fiction employed in recent debates about the reality of theoretical entities in the philosophy of science. From an anti-realist perspective the dependence of evidence for some scientific entities on mediated forms of observation and modelling strategies reflects a degree of construction that is argued to closely resemble fiction. As a realist’s response to this debate, this paper provides an analysis of fictional entities in comparison to real ones. I argue that the distinction between fictional (...)
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  40. Jon Barwise & Yiannis N. Moschovakis (1978). Global Inductive Definability. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):521-534.
    We show that several theorems on ordinal bounds in different parts of logic are simple consequences of a basic result in the theory of global inductive definitions.
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  41. J. D. Bastable (1955). Philosophico-Scientific Problems. Philosophical Studies 5:160-160.
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  42. Michael Baumgartner (2010). Causal Slingshots. Erkenntnis 72 (1):111-133.
    Causal slingshots are formal arguments advanced by proponents of an event ontology of token-level causation which, in the end, are intended to show two things: (i) The logical form of statements expressing causal dependencies on token level features a binary predicate ‘‘... causes ...’’ and (ii) that predicate takes events as arguments. Even though formalisms are only revealing with respect to the logical form of natural language statements, if the latter are shown to be adequately captured within a corresponding formalism, (...)
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  43. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Uncovering Deterministic Causal Structures: A Boolean Approach. Synthese 170 (1):71-96.
    While standard procedures of causal reasoning as procedures analyzing causal Bayesian networks are custom-built for (non-deterministic) probabilistic struc- tures, this paper introduces a Boolean procedure that uncovers deterministic causal structures. Contrary to existing Boolean methodologies, the procedure advanced here successfully analyzes structures of arbitrary complexity. It roughly involves three parts: first, deterministic dependencies are identified in the data; second, these dependencies are suitably minimalized in order to eliminate redundancies; and third, one or—in case of ambiguities—more than one causal structure is (...)
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  44. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Interdefining Causation and Intervention. Dialectica 63 (2):175-194.
    Non-reductive interventionist theories of causation and methodologies of causal reasoning embedded in that theoretical framework have become increasingly popular in recent years. This paper argues that one variant of an interventionist account of causation, viz. the one presented, for example, in Woodward (2003 ), is unsuited as a theoretical fundament of interventionist methodologies of causal reasoning, because it renders corresponding methodologies incapable of uncovering a causal structure in a finite number of steps. This finding runs counter to Woodward's own assessment (...)
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  45. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Inferring Causal Complexity. Sociological Methods & Research 38:71-101.
    In "The Comparative Method" Ragin (1987) has outlined a procedure of Boolean causal reasoning operating on pure coincidence data that has meanwhile become widely known as QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) among social scientists. QCA -- also in its recent form as presented in Ragin (2000) -- is designed to analyze causal structures featuring one effect and a possibly complex configuration of mutually independent direct causes of that effect. The paper at hand presents a procedure of causal reasoning that operates on (...)
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  46. Michael Baumgartner (2008). The Causal Chain Problem. Erkenntnis 69 (2):201-226.
    This paper addresses a problem that arises when it comes to inferring deterministic causal chains from pertinent empirical data. It will be shown that to every deterministic chain there exists an empirically equivalent common cause structure. Thus, our overall conviction that deterministic chains are one of the most ubiquitous (macroscopic) causal structures is underdetermined by empirical data. It will be argued that even though the chain and its associated common cause model are empirically equivalent there exists an important asymmetry between (...)
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  47. Michael Baumgartner & Isabelle Drouet (2013). Identifying Intervention Variables. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):183-205.
    The essential precondition of implementing interventionist techniques of causal reasoning is that particular variables are identified as so-called intervention variables. While the pertinent literature standardly brackets the question how this can be accomplished in concrete contexts of causal discovery, the first part of this paper shows that the interventionist nature of variables cannot, in principle, be established based only on an interventionist notion of causation. The second part then demonstrates that standard observational methods that draw on Bayesian networks identify intervention (...)
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  48. Michael Baumgartner & Alexander Gebharter (2016). Constitutive Relevance, Mutual Manipulability, and Fat-Handedness. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):731-756.
    The first part of this paper argues that if Craver’s ([2007a], [2007b]) popular mutual manipulability account (MM) of mechanistic constitution is embedded within Woodward’s ([2003]) interventionist theory of causation--for which it is explicitly designed--it either undermines the mechanistic research paradigm by entailing that there do not exist relationships of constitutive relevance or it gives rise to the unwanted consequence that constitution is a form of causation. The second part shows how Woodward’s theory can be adapted in such a way that (...)
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  49. H. Heath Bawden (1910). Art and Science. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 7 (22):602-608.
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  50. Gail Belaief (1977). Philosophy and the Special Sciences. Journal of Critical Analysis 6 (4):101-109.
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