General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Zili Dong
Contents
215 found
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1 — 50 / 215
  1. added 2024-07-18
    Ultimate-Humeanism.Samuel John Andrews - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Super-Humeans argue that the most parsimonious ontology of the natural world compatible with our best physical theories consists exclusively of particles and the distance relations between them. This paper argues by contrast that Super-Humean reduction goes insufficiently far, by showing there to be a more parsimonious ontology compatible with physics: Ultimate-Humeanism. This novel view posits an ontology consisting solely of the particles and distance relations required for the existence of a single brain. Super-Humeans impose conditions on what counts as an (...)
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  2. added 2024-07-18
    Selfless Agency and the Cultivation of a Moral Character: Insights from Vasubandhu and Derek Parfit.Oren Hanner - 2025 - In Jonathan A. Jacobs & Heinz-Dieter Meyer (eds.), Moral agency in Eastern and Western thought: perspectives on crafting character. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 216-235.
    The present chapter examines the philosophical problem of how it is possible, metaphysically and practically speaking, to develop a good moral character when one adheres to the view that a persisting self does not exist. It extracts answers from two thinkers who reject the concept of enduring identity, the Indian philosopher Vasubandhu (4th to 5th centuries CE) and the Western philosopher Derek Parfit (1942–2017). The first section of the chapter outlines some of Vasubandhu’s and Parfit’s shared assumptions concerning the nature (...)
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  3. added 2024-07-18
    Probabilistic Situations for Goodmanian N-universes.Paul Franceschi - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Research 31:123-141.
    I will now describe several applications of the theory of n-universes across different probabilistic scenarios. First, I will explain how n-universes can extend the probability spaces used in traditional probability theory. These extended probability spaces enable more refined modelling of complex probabilistic situations and align more intuitively with our perceptions of the physical universe. Next, I will demonstrate the use of n-universes as a methodological tool through two thought experiments described by John Leslie. Finally, I will model Goodman's paradox within (...)
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  4. added 2024-07-17
    Dismantling the deficit model of science communication using Ludwik Fleck’s theory of thinking collectives.Victoria M. Wang - forthcoming - In Jonathan Y. Tsou, Shaw Jamie & Carla Fehr (eds.), Values, Pluralism, and Pragmatism: Themes from the Work of Matthew J. Brown. Cham: Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer.
    Numerous societal issues, from climate change to pandemics, require public engagement with scientific research. Such engagement reveals challenges that can arise when experts communicate with laypeople. One of the most common frameworks for framing these communicative interactions is the deficit model of science communication, which holds that laypeople lack scientific knowledge and/or positive attitudes towards science, and that imparting knowledge will fill knowledge gaps, lead to desirable attitude/behavior changes, and increase trust in science. §1 introduces the deficit model in more (...)
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  5. added 2024-07-17
    On non-ideal individual epistemology.Brett Karlan - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophical Studies.
    Robin McKenna’s excellent Non-Ideal Epistemology is, among other things, a testament to restraint. McKenna does not want to unnecessarily inflame tensions between ideal and non-ideal theorists in epistemology. Often ideal and non-ideal projects are aimed at different target domains and not in tension with one another (though not always; e.g. McKenna 2023, ch. 6, especially pp. 112-21). In this commentary, I will have much less tact. I sketch a route by which the non-ideal epistemologist might become more belligerent towards their (...)
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  6. added 2024-07-17
    Objectivity as Independence.Alexander Reutlinger - 2024 - Episteme 21 (1):119-126.
    Building on Nozick's invariantism about objectivity, I propose to define scientific objectivity in terms of counterfactual independence. I will argue that such a counterfactual independence account is (a) able to overcome the decisive shortcomings of Nozick's original invariantism and (b) applicable to three paradigmatic kinds of scientific objectivity (that is, objectivity as replication, objectivity as robustness, and objectivity as Mertonian universalism).
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  7. added 2024-07-17
    Methodological Individualism and Agent-based Computational Simulation: A Reply to Kincaid and Zahle.Francesco Di Iorio - 2024 - Social Science Information.
    This study reflects on Harold Kincaid and Jule Zahle’s view that there is no necessary association between methodological individualism and agent-based models because the analysis of social phenomena in terms of the latter cannot always be regarded as an implementation of the former. Their view remains in contention with the standpoint of several philosophers of science and social scientists, including Chen and Di Iorio. Kincaid and Zahle’s main argument against such a standpoint is that agent-based simulation is compatible with holistic (...)
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  8. added 2024-07-16
    Inferring to the Best Explanation from Uncertain Evidence.Finnur Dellsén - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    This paper presents a new problem for the inference rule commonly known as Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE). The problem is that uncertainty about parts of one’s evidence may undermine the inferrability of a hypothesis that would provide the best explanation of that evidence, especially in cases where there is an alternative hypothesis that would provide a better explanation of only the more certain pieces of evidence. A potential solution to the problem is sketched, in which IBE is generalized (...)
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  9. added 2024-07-16
    Scientific Representation. [REVIEW]Cory Wright - 2024 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 55 (2).
  10. added 2024-07-16
    Paradigma lui Kuhn ca idee transcendentală kantiană.Dragos Grusea - 2022 - Studii de Epistemologie Și de Teorie a Valorilor 7 (1):25-35.
    Thomas Kuhn explicitly states that the paradigm shift implies a change of the world. This is because the paradigm is seen as constitutive of nature itself. In this paper, I will try to interpret this thesis by inscribing Kuhn's theory in the larger Kantian theoretical framework. As the last chapter of the „Critique of pure reason” shows, Kant thought that reason is inherently historical and evolves through revolutions. This dynamical perspective on reason comes clearly to light especially in the „Appendix” (...)
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  11. added 2024-07-15
    The Environmental Counter-History of Liberalism: A Formidable Challenge?Fred Matthews - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences.
    In the view of the Marxist philosopher Domenico Losurdo, liberalism is ‘the most dogged enemy of freedom’. This surprising statement runs contrary to the received wisdom amongst liberal thinkers, who often believe that ‘the liberal rarely needs to be ashamed of the realities created in his name as the socialist has to be much of the time,’ as Ralf Dahrendorf put it (1979: 9). Losurdo and other ‘counter-historians’ of liberalism are very effective at exposing the historical atrocities that liberal states (...)
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  12. added 2024-07-15
    Naturalizing skepticism.Marc Jiménez-Rolland - 2024 - Metaphilosophy:1-15.
    Naturalism, construed as the idea that philosophy should be continuous with science, is a highly influential view. Its consequences for epistemology, however, are rather odd. Many believe that naturalized epistemology allows eschewing traditional skeptical challenges. This is often seen as an advantage; but it also calls into question its claim of belonging to the philosophical inquiry into knowledge. This paper argues that skeptical challenges can be stated to defy epistemic optimism within naturalized epistemology, and that there are distinctively naturalistic forms (...)
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  13. added 2024-07-13
    Verschwörungstheorien und skeptische Hypothesen: immun gegen Gegenbelege?Romy Jaster & Geert Keil - forthcoming - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung.
    Verschwörungstheorien (VTn) sind in der erkenntnistheoretischen Literatur wiederholt mit skeptischen Hypothesen verglichen worden: Beide entzögen sich der empirischen Überprüfung, indem sie sich gegen Gegenbelege immunisierten. Im Falle von VTn bestehe die Immunisierung darin, dass vermeintliche Gegenbelege ungeprüft auf Vertuschungs- oder Täuschungshandlungen der Verschwörer zurückgeführt würden. Eine genauere Rekonstruktion der Täuschungsthese und ein genauerer Blick auf die Immunisierungsthese fördern aber eine Reihe von Disanalogien zutage: Im Unterschied zu skeptischen Hypothesen behaupten VTn das eigene Szenario als real und schreiben die Täuschung nur (...)
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  14. added 2024-07-13
    Lewontin (1972).Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2021 - In Ludovica Lorusso & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (eds.), Remapping Race in a Global Context. Routledge. pp. 9-47.
  15. added 2024-07-11
    Immanuel Kant Und Die Medizin - Der Philosoph ALS Anthropologe, Arzt Und Patient.Hans Förstl - forthcoming - Heidelberg: Springer.
    Kant and Medicine - the Philosopher as Anthropologist, Physician and Patient. It remains uncertain whether the student Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) truly wanted to become a physician or only said this in order to please a sponsor. Due to his narrow chest and other typical weaknesses of a scholar he considered himself a hypochondriac and cautiously kept his distance from dangerous illnesses, especially those of the mind. He inspired his students - including Herder, Herz, Lenz and Hoffmann - far less with (...)
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  16. added 2024-07-11
    Mark Yakovlevich Vygodsky's Anniversary: Key Facts of the Biography and the List of His Key Publications.Oleg Gurov - 2023 - Artificial Societies 18 (3).
    The year 2023 celebrates the 125th anniversary of the birth of Mark Yakovlevich Vygodsky, a famous Soviet mathematician and pedagogue, one of the founders of the Soviet school of the history of mathematics. Not only the scientist's scientific achievements, but also his significant contribution to pedagogical theory and practice, allow us to describe him as a significant scientific figure of the twentieth century. His mathematics textbooks and reference books are reprinted almost annually, so that his ideas continue to influence educational (...)
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  17. added 2024-07-11
    La filosofía científica y los límites de la ciencia.Gustavo E. Romero - 2017 - Rev. Cient. Estud. Investig 6 (1):97-103.
    La filosofía científica es filosofía informada por la ciencia, que usa herramientas exactas como la lógica y la matemática, y proporciona a la actividad científica de un marco donde dirimir las cuestiones más generales sobre la naturaleza, el lenguaje que usamos para describirla, y el conocimiento que de ella obtenemos. Muchas teorías de la filosofía científica pueden ser contrastadas y evaluadas utilizando evidencia científica. En este artículo me concentro en caracterizar a la filosofía científica y en discutir los límites de (...)
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  18. added 2024-07-10
    The Adequacy of purposes for data: a paleoecological case study.Aja Watkins - 2024 - Synthese 203 (5):1-28.
    According to the “adequacy-for-purpose” view of data evaluation, data should be evaluated as better or worse relative to a given research purpose and corresponding research context. In this paper, I apply the adequacy-for-purpose view to a novel case study—concerning the use of paleoecological data to make predictions about coral reef response to contemporary climate change—and then use the case study to suggest two extensions to the adequacy-for-purpose view. First, I argue that we can evaluate research purposes according to their productivity (...)
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  19. added 2024-07-10
    The Bridgman-Tolman-Warburton Correspondence on Dimensional Analysis, 1934.Mahmoud Jalloh - 2024 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    A supplement to "Metaphysics and Convention in Dimensional Analysis, 1914-1917" in HOPOS. Includes a transcription of the correspondence along with an editorial introduction and expository notes.
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  20. added 2024-07-10
    Metaphysics and Convention in Dimensional Analysis, 1914-1917.Mahmoud Jalloh - 2024 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    This paper recovers an important, century-old debate regarding the methodological and metaphysical foundations of dimensional analysis. Consideration of Richard Tolman's failed attempt to install the principle of similitude---the relativity of size---as the founding principle of dimensional analysis both clarifies the method of dimensional analysis and articulates two metaphysical positions regarding quantity dimensions. Tolman's position is quantity dimension fundamentalism. This is a commitment to dimensional realism and a set of fundamental dimensions which ground all further dimensions. The opposing position, developed primarily (...)
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  21. added 2024-07-10
    Onwards, My Friend! A Reply to De Regt.Kareem Khalifa - 2022 - In Insa Lawler, Kareem Khalifa & Elay Shech (eds.), Scientific Understanding and Representation: Modeling in the Physical Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 56-61.
    I reply to Henk de Regt's "Can Scientific Understanding be Reduced to Knowledge?," which appears in the same volume.
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  22. added 2024-07-09
    The grounding conception of governance.Ashley Coates - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    According to the governing conception of the laws of nature, laws, in some sense, determine concrete goings-on. Just how to understand the sort of determination at play in governance is, however, a substantial question. One potential answer to this question, which has recently received some attention, is that laws govern by grounding what happens in the concrete world. If this account succeeded, it would show that governance can be understood in terms of an independently motivated and widely accepted notion. Thus (...)
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  23. added 2024-07-08
    Mismatch Resistance and the Problem of Evolutionary Novelty.Jonathan Egeland - forthcoming - Biological Theory:1-13.
    In evolutionary medicine and other related fields, the concept of evolutionary mismatch is used to explain phenomena whereby traits reduce in adaptive value and eventually become maladaptive as the environment changes. This article argues that there is a similar problem of persistent adaptivity—what has been called the problem of evolutionary novelty—and it introduces the concept of mismatch resistance in order to explain phenomena whereby traits retain their adaptive value in novel environments that are radically different from the organisms’ environment of (...)
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  24. added 2024-07-08
    Calibrating The Theory of Model Mediated Measurement: Metrological Extension, Dimensional Analysis, and High Pressure Physics.Mahmoud Jalloh - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    I argue that dimensional analysis provides an answer to a skeptical challenge to the theory of model mediated measurement. The problem arises when considering the task of calibrating a novel measurement procedure, with greater range, to the results of a prior measurement procedure. The skeptical worry is that the agreement of the novel and prior measurement procedures in their shared range may only be apparent due to the emergence of systematic error in the exclusive range of the novel measurement procedure. (...)
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  25. added 2024-07-08
    Constructive Empiricism and Logical Positivism: The Return of the Prodigal Son.Ragnar van der Merwe - forthcoming - Filozofia Nauki.
    Bas van Fraassen’s Constructive Empiricism (CE) has been much discussed. There is, however, a curious feature of van Fraassen’s writings that has been overlooked up until now. This is that he sometimes capitalises certain key terms, notably “Induction”. This is done to differentiate a pragmatic small ‘i’ induction (which has epistemic import) from a rule-bound capital ‘I’ induction (which does not). In this paper, I argue that van Fraassen’s small letter/capital letter distinction reveals an underlying dualism, one that is reminiscent (...)
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  26. added 2024-07-08
    Journalism and Public Trust in Science.Vanessa Schipani - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Journalists are often the adult public’s central source of scientific information, which means that their reporting shapes the relationship the public has with science. Yet philosophers of science largely ignore journalistic communication in their inquiries about trust in science. This paper aims to help fill this gap in research by comparing journalistic norm conflicts that arose when reporting on COVID-19 and tobacco, among other policy-relevant scientific topics. I argue that the public’s image of scientists – as depositories of indisputable, value-free (...)
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  27. added 2024-07-06
    A Fictionalist Social Ontology.Erim Bakkal - 2024 - Dissertation, Bilkent University
    In this thesis, I explore how a fictionalist approach can be applied to social ontology, especially for conferred kinds, in the context of action explanation and prediction by comparing this view with various realist views. Chapter 1 is concerned with clarifying constitution accounts and the criteria for comparison. Chapter 2 gives three different kinds of problems against this realist view, which makes this view less credible. Chapter 3 introduces conferralist accounts. Chapter 4 will deal with the question of whether conferralist (...)
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  28. added 2024-07-06
    Making sense of the modularity debate.Jonathan Egeland - 2024 - New Ideas in Psychology 75:101108.
    For several decades scientists and philosophers studying how the mind works have debated the issue of modularity. Their main disagreements concern the massive modularity hypothesis, according to which all (or most) of our cognitive mechanisms are modular in nature. Pietraszewski and Wertz (2022) have recently suggested that the modularity debate is based on a confusion about the levels of analysis at which the mind can be explained. This article argues that their position suffers from three major problems: (1) the argument (...)
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  29. added 2024-07-05
    Abductive Reasoning in Science.Finnur Dellsén - 2024 - New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    In abductive reasoning, scientific theories are evaluated on the basis of how well they would explain the available evidence. There are a number of subtly different accounts of this type of reasoning, most of which are inspired by the popular slogan 'Inference to the Best Explanation.' However, these accounts disagree about exactly how to spell out the slogan so as to avoid various problems for abductive reasoning. This Element aims, firstly, to give an opinionated overview both of the many accounts (...)
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  30. added 2024-07-04
    Vers un modèle unitaire de la scientificité.Jeremy Attard - manuscript
  31. added 2024-07-04
    Primitive Governance.Noga Gratvol - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Laws of nature are sometimes said to govern their instances. Spelling out what governance is, however, is an important task that has only recently received sustained philosophical attention. In the first part of this paper, I argue against the two prominent reductive views of governance—modal views and grounding views. Ruling out the promising candidates for reduction supports the claim that governance is sui generis. In the second part of this paper, I argue that governance is subject to a contingency requirement. (...)
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  32. added 2024-07-04
    Vers un modèle unitaire de la scientificité.Jeremy Attard - 2024 - Dissertation, University of Mons
    Le présent travail s'inscrit à l'intersection de deux problèmes épistémologiques majeurs. D'une part, le problème de la démarcation scientifique, qui consiste à identifier ce qui distingue intrinsèquement un système (un énoncé, une théorie, ...) scientifique d'un système non scientifique ou pseudo-scientifique. D'autre part, le problème de l'unité épistémologique des sciences, qui consiste à se demander si toutes les disciplines à vocation scientifique peuvent être vues comme des instanciations d'une notion unique de la scientificité. Ces deux problèmes ont soulevé de nombreux (...)
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  33. added 2024-07-03
    Explanatory Power and Explanatory Justice.Jonah N. Schupbach & Jan Sprenger - manuscript
    Crupi and Tentori (2012) propose a condition of adequacy for any Bayesian measure of explanatory power, which they call Explanatory Justice. They criticize a measure recently defended by Schupbach and Sprenger(2011) for failing to satisfy this condition, and they offer a new explanatorily just measure of explanatory power. In this paper, we investigate Explanatory Justice’s merits as a condition of adequacy. We offer three arguments against this condition, thus supporitng the idea that a measure of explanatory power should rather be (...)
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  34. added 2024-07-03
    Phenomenology, Perspectivalism and (Quantum) Physics.Steven French - 2024 - Foundations of Physics 54 (3):1-18.
    It has been claimed that Massimi’s recent perspectival approach to science sits in tension with a realist stance. I shall argue that this tension can be defused in the quantum context by recasting Massimi’s perspectivalism within a phenomenological framework. I shall begin by indicating how the different but complementary forms of the former are manifested in the distinction between certain so-called ‘-epistemic’ and ‘-ontic’ understandings of quantum mechanics, namely QBism and Relational Quantum Mechanics, respectively. A brief consideration of Dieks’ perspectivism (...)
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  35. added 2024-07-03
    How to be a perspectival pluralist.Olla Solomyak - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12980.
    The temporal, first-personal, and modal domains in metaphysics involve a range of perspectives on reality: the perspective of the present as opposed to those of other times, the perspective of one's own self as opposed to those of other subjects, and the perspective of the actual world as opposed to those of other possible worlds. In each case, we can ask about the metaphysical standing of these various perspectives with respect to one another: Is one perspective privileged above the rest? (...)
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  36. added 2024-07-03
    Human-managed soils and soil-managed humans: An interactive account of perspectival realism for soil management.Catherine Kendig - 2024 - Journal of Social Ontology 10 (2).
    What is philosophically interesting about how soil is managed and categorized? This paper begins by investigating how different soil ontologies develop and change as they are used within different social communities. Analyzing empirical evidence from soil science, ethnopedology, sociology, and agricultural extension reveals that efforts to categorize soil are not limited to current scientific soil classifications but also include those based in social ontologies of soil. I examine three of these soil social ontologies: (1) local and Indigenous classifications farmers and (...)
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  37. added 2024-07-03
    Michela Massimi, Perspectival realism, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2022, 432 p. [REVIEW]Grégoire Lefftz - 2024 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 122 (2):267-269.
    Since the pioneering book by R. Giere, who attempted to forge a middle path between realism and constructivism, the philosophy of science has experienced a new interest in the notion of perspectivism. [...] It is this challenge that Michela Massimi takes up in her work, the aim of which is to combine, as the title indicates, perspectivism and realism. // La philosophie des sciences connaît, depuis le livre pionnier de R. Giere, qui tentait de frayer un chemin médian entre réalisme (...)
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  38. added 2024-07-03
    What Is Perspectivism, and Does It Count as Realism?Paul Teller - 2020 - In Michela Massimi & Casey D. McCoy (eds.), Understanding Perspectivism (Open Access): Scientific Challenges and Methodological Prospects. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 49-64.
    Epistemic humility and semantic considerations for perspectival realism are the focus of Chapter 3 by Paul Teller. Teller characterizes perspectivism as the view that human knowledge is always from a particular perspective. Perspectival realism, he argues, is unlike scientific realism, which subsumes a particular kind of semantic realism, which Teller calls “referential realism.” Referential realism fails according to Teller, and his alternative to this general story of reference is pragmatic in character. The upshot of this pragmatic switch is that perspectivism (...)
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  39. added 2024-07-03
    Perspectives, Representation, and Integration.Sandra D. Mitchell - 2020 - In Michela Massimi & Casey D. McCoy (eds.), Understanding Perspectivism (Open Access): Scientific Challenges and Methodological Prospects. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 178-193.
    In Chapter 10, Sandra D. Mitchell addresses the relations between many models that arise from the partiality of representation. She defends the idea that multiple compatible models can be integrated in a way that increases scientific knowledge. To illustrate how her “integrative pluralism” works, she shows how three perspectives on protein folding—the physical, the chemical, and the biological perspective—can “fill out” and correct one another.
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  40. added 2024-07-03
    Perspectivism.Michela Massimi - 2017 - In Juha Saatsi (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Scientific Realism. New York: Routledge. pp. 164-175.
    What is perspectivism? And can perspectivism be made compatible with realism? This chapter maps the ground of recent debates about scientific perspectivism, what is at stake in it, and how the view might relate to wider debates on realism, truth, objectivity, and pluralism.
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  41. added 2024-07-03
    Perspectival Knowing Karl Jaspers and Ronald N. Giere.Osborne Wiggins & Michael Schwartz - 2013 - In Thomas Fuchs, Thiemo Breyer & Christoph Mundt (eds.), Karl Jaspers’ Philosophy and Psychopathology. New York: Springer. pp. 99–105.
    This essay has three aims. We wish to emphasize that (1) one of the main theses of Jaspers’ General Psychopathology is that our knowledge is limited to particular points of view within which alone evidence can be interpreted and assessed; (2) this early position of Jaspers (already present in the 1913 edition) has found indirect support recently in a carefully reasoned book by the prestigious philosopher of natural science, Ronald N. Giere, entitled Scientific Perspectivism (2006); and (3) Jaspers’ conviction regarding (...)
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  42. added 2024-07-01
    Two Approaches to Metaphysical Explanation.Ezra Rubenstein - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Explanatory metaphysics aspires to explain the less fundamental in terms of the more fundamental. But we should recognize two importantly different approaches to this task. According to the generation approach, more basic features of reality generate (or give rise to) less basic features. According to the reduction approach, less perspicuous ways of representing reality reduce to (or collapse into) more perspicuous ways of representing reality. The main goals of this paper are to present the core differences between the two approaches (...)
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  43. added 2024-07-01
    On van Fraassen, IBE and the essence of the controversy between realism and antirealism in the philosophy of science, again.Alessio Gava - 2024 - Problemata - International Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):22-30.
    This paper represents a counterreply to “A rejoinder to Alessio Gava’s ‘Van Fraassen, a inferência da melhor explicação e a Matrix realista’”, by Minikoski and Rodrigues da Silva, released in Problemata (v. 12, n. 2, 2021). The authors originally published an essay in the same journal, “Van Fraassen and inference to the best explanation” (2016), the object of critic - ‘friendly and gentle’ - in a work of mine that also appeared in Problemata, in 2019. In this paper I will (...)
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  44. added 2024-06-30
    Calculus of Qualia 2: Intersubjective and Intrasubjective Verification; Experimental Predictions; Expanding Science.Paul Merriam & M. A. Z. Habeeb - manuscript
    A Calculus of Qualia (CQ) was proposed (on PhilPapers). The key idea is that, for example, blackness is radically different than █. The former term, “blackness” refers to or is about a quale, whereas the latter term, “█” instantiates a quale in the reader's mind and is non-referential, *it does not even refer to itself*. The meaning and behavior of these terms is radically different. In this paper in this series of papers, we discuss verifiability, experimental predictability and expanding science (...)
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  45. added 2024-06-28
    Reliability and Interpretability in Science and Deep Learning.Luigi Scorzato - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (3):1-31.
    In recent years, the question of the reliability of Machine Learning (ML) methods has acquired significant importance, and the analysis of the associated uncertainties has motivated a growing amount of research. However, most of these studies have applied standard error analysis to ML models—and in particular Deep Neural Network (DNN) models—which represent a rather significant departure from standard scientific modelling. It is therefore necessary to integrate the standard error analysis with a deeper epistemological analysis of the possible differences between DNN (...)
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  46. added 2024-06-26
    Disagreement and Progress in Philosophy and in Empirical Sciences.Işık Sarıhan - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    The fact that philosophy has not made much progress in finding answers to its big questions is often demonstrated with a comparison to natural sciences. Some have recently argued that the state of progress in philosophy is not so different than the sciences: there are many unresolved big questions in the sciences too, and philosophy has made progress on its smaller questions just like the sciences. I argue that this comparison is misleading: the situation in the two fields looks similar (...)
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  47. added 2024-06-26
    Reasoning by analogy and the transdisciplinarian’s circle: on the problem of knowledge transfer across cases in transdisciplinary research.Jaana Eigi & Inkeri Koskinen - 2023 - Sustainability Science 18:1343-1353.
    In their 2018 paper, Carolina Adler, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, Thomas Breu, Urs Wiesmann, and Christian Pohl propose that transferability of knowledge across cases in transdisciplinary research should be thought of in terms of arguments by analogy. We aim to advance this discussion about transferability by examining it in the light of recent ideas about knowledge transfer, extrapolation, and external validity in the philosophy of science. We problematise Adler et al.’s proposal by identifying the ‘transdisciplinarian’s circle’, due to which even knowledge (...)
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  48. added 2024-06-25
    Managing values in climate science.Joe Roussos - 2024 - PLoS Climate 3 (6):e0000432.
    Climate science has been deeply affected by social and political values in the last fifty years [1]. If we focus on climate denial and obfuscation, we might see the influence of values as wholly negative and aim instead for objective, value-free climate science. But, perhaps surprisingly, this is at odds with the view of many philosophers who study the influence of values on science. Science cannot and should not be free from values, they argue. Rather, we should be transparent about (...)
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  49. added 2024-06-24
    In Defence of Linguistics as an Empirical Science in Light of Mario Bunge’s Defence of the Scientific Treatment of Biology.Dorota Zielińska - 2024 - Mεtascience: Scientific General Discourse 3:205-251.
    Although few linguists currently embrace the empirical paradigm, there are increasing calls for the development of tools for studying language that resemble those in exact sciences. This trend can be observed even in top mainstream linguistic journals, such as the Journal of Pragmatics, as exemplified by Xiang (2017). Today, however, linguists who adapt the methodologies from more advanced sciences face isolation from the mainstream linguistic community. This is because the majority of linguists in philological and philosophical departments remain convinced that (...)
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  50. added 2024-06-24
    In Defense of Humean Non-Universal Laws.Firdaus Gupte - 2024 - Synthese 204 (1):1-28.
    In this paper, I raise a novel objection to David Lewis’s Humean account of laws. The objection is that non-universal laws are metaphysically possible, but Lewis’s account cannot accommodate them. I then propose and defend an extension of Lewis’s view that gives us an account of Humean non-universal laws.
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