General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Zili Dong (University of Western Ontario)
37 found
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  1. Causes with Material Continuity.Lauren N. Ross - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
    Recent philosophical work on causation has focused on distinctions across types of causal relationships. This paper argues for another distinction that has yet to receive attention in this work. This distinction has to do with whether causal relationships have “material continuity,” which refers to the reliable movement of material from cause to effect. This paper provides an analysis of material continuity and argues that causal relationships with this feature (1) are associated with a unique explanatory perspective, (2) are studied with (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
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     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
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     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
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     History of Cognitive Science
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    Laws of Nature
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     Law Statements
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     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
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     Scientific Progress
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     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
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     Operationalism
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     Reference in Science
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    Scientific Practice
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  2. Revising Fiction, Fact, and Faith: A Philosophical Account.Nathaniel Goldberg & Chris Gavaler - 2021 - New York: Routledge.
    This book addresses how our revisionary practices account for relations between texts and how they are read. It offers an overarching philosophy of revision concerning works of fiction, fact, and faith, revealing unexpected insights about the philosophy of language, the metaphysics of fact and fiction, and the history and philosophy of science and religion. It will be of interest to a wide range of scholars and advanced students working in philosophy of language, metaphysics, philosophy of literature, literary theory and criticism, (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
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     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
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     History of Chemistry
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
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    Scientific Change
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     Scientific Progress
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     Theory Change
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    Scientific Practice
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  3. Are Scientific Models of Life Testable? A Lesson From Simpson's Paradox.Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay, Don Dcruz, Nolan Grunska & Mark Greenwood - 2020 - Sci 1 (3).
    We address the need for a model by considering two competing theories regarding the origin of life: (i) the Metabolism First theory, and (ii) the RNA World theory. We discuss two interrelated points, namely: (i) Models are valuable tools for understanding both the processes and intricacies of origin-of-life issues, and (ii) Insights from models also help us to evaluate the core objection to origin-of-life theories, called “the inefficiency objection”, which is commonly raised by proponents of both the Metabolism First theory (...)
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    Explanation
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    History of Science
     History of Psychology
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
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     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
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     Scientific Progress
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    Scientific Practice
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     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  4. Verklaringspluralisme in de sociale wetenschappen : een wetenschapsfilosofische verdediging met toepassingen in de geschiedsbeoefening, de theorie van internationale relaties en de economische wetenschappen.Jeroen Van Bouwel - 2003 - Dissertation,
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
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     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
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     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
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     Simulation in Science
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     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  5. 'I Love Women': An Explicit Explanation of Implicit Bias Test Results.Reis-Dennis Samuel & Vida Yao - 2021 - Synthese.
    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in implicit bias. Driving this concern is the thesis, apparently established by tests such as the IAT, that people who hold egalitarian explicit attitudes and beliefs, are often influenced by implicit mental processes that operate independently from, and are largely insensitive to, their explicit attitudes. We argue that implicit bias testing in social and empirical psychology does not, and without a fundamental shift in focus could not, establish this startling thesis. We suggest (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
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     Scientific Progress
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     Theory Change
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     Reference in Science
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    Scientific Practice
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  6. Schopenhauer-Lexikon.Jens Lemanski & Daniel Schubbe - 2021 - Paderborn, Deutschland: Fink.
    The encyclopaedia presents Arthur Schopenhauer's work and explains the basic concepts of his philosophy. It offers 200 entries by 76 authors from 18 countries. Beside an overview of works and central concepts, a history of Schopenhauer's influence is given. The Schopenhauer encyclopaedia can be read as a complete introduction or used as a reference work and compendium. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Das Lexikon stellt Arthur Schopenhauers Werk vor und erläutert die Grundbegriffe seiner Philosophie. Es bietet 200 Einträge von 76 Autorinnen und Autoren aus (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
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     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
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     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
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     History of Cognitive Science
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    Laws of Nature
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     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
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     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
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     Convergent Realism
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     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
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    Scientific Practice
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  7. Econophysics: Making Sense of a Chimera.Adrian K. Yee - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (4):1-34.
    The history of economic thought witnessed several prominent economists who took seriously models and concepts in physics for the elucidation and prediction of economic phenomena. Econophysics is an emerging discipline at the intersection of heterodox economics and the physics of complex systems, with practitioners typically engaged in two overlapping but distinct methodological programs. The first is to export mathematical methods used in physics for the purposes of studying economic phenomena. The second is to export mechanisms in physics into economics. A (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
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     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
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     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
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     Reference in Science
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    Scientific Practice
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     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
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     Simulation in Science
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     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  8. Wissen, Wissenschaft, Wissenschaftslehre.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - In Nora Schleich (ed.), Philosophie als Wissenschaft. Hildesheim, Deutschland: Olms. pp. 113-133.
    The paper entitled "Knowledge, Science, and Science of Knowledge" uses two relevant texts from German idealism to ask whether philosophy is a science. It is first argued that science presupposes knowledge, but that the concept of knowledge has long been subject to strong scepticism due to Fitch's paradox of knowability and especially the Gettier problem. Only in recent years have historians of philosophy made it clear that the so-called standard analysis of knowledge was not even advocated by many classical authors. (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
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    Laws of Nature
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     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
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     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
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    Interlevel Relations in Science
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  9. Constructivist Learning Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Investigating Students’ Perceptions of Biology Self-Learning Modules.Aaron Funa & Frederick Talaue - 2021 - International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research 20 (3):250-264.
    Modes of teaching and learning have had to rapidly shift amid the COVID-19 pandemic. As an emergency response, students from Philippine public schools were provided learning modules based on a minimized list of essential learning competencies in Biology. Using a cross-sectional survey method, we investigated students’ perceptions of the Biology self-learning modules (BSLM) that were designed in print and digitized formats according to a constructivist learning approach. Senior high school STEM students from grades 11 (n = 117) and 12 (n (...)
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  10. Sobre a Formalização Lógica de Mudança de Teorias e Anomalias Científicas.Ricardo Silvestre - 2017 - ARGUMENTOS - Revista de Filosofia 1 (17):72-91.
    Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma investigação do que poderia ser chamado de formalização lógica do processo de mudança de teorias devido a anomalias. Por anomalia entende-se um fato observado que faz parte do escopo explanatório de uma teoria, mas que vai de encontro à previsão da mesma. Uma abordagem clássica para restaurar o poder explicativo de uma teoria ameaçada por uma anomalia é a postulação de hipóteses novas e provisórias que, em conjunto com as demais hipóteses auxiliares originais, sejam capazes (...)
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  11. Logical Maximalism in the Empirical Sciences.Brîncuș Constantin C. - 2021 - In Parusniková Zuzana & Merritt David (eds.), Karl Popper's Science and Philosophy. Springer. pp. 171-184.
    K. R. Popper distinguished between two main uses of logic, the demonstrational one, in mathematical proofs, and the derivational one, in the empirical sciences. These two uses are governed by the following methodological constraints: in mathematical proofs one ought to use minimal logical means (logical minimalism), while in the empirical sciences one ought to use the strongest available logic (logical maximalism). In this paper I discuss whether Popper’s critical rationalism is compatible with a revision of logic in the empirical sciences, (...)
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  12. Mill's Social Epistemic Rationale for the Freedom to Dispute Scientific Knowledge: Why We Must Put Up with Flat-Earthers.Ava Thomas Wright - 2021 - Philosophers' Imprint 21 (14).
    Why must we respect others’ rights to dispute scientific knowledge such as that the Earth is round, or that humans evolved, or that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are warming the Earth? In this paper, I argue that in On Liberty Mill defends the freedom to dispute scientific knowledge by appeal to a novel social epistemic rationale for free speech that has been unduly neglected by Mill scholars. Mill distinguishes two kinds of epistemic warrant for scientific knowledge: 1) the positive, direct evidentiary (...)
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  13. The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer and Photon Dualism: With an Analysis of Nonlocality (2021).Paul A. Klevgard - 2020 - SPIE 11481, Light in Nature VIII, 114810B (21 August 2020).
    The Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is chosen to illustrate the long-standing wave-particle duality problem. Why is which-way (welcher weg) information incompatible with wave interference? How do we explain Wheeler’s delayed choice experiment? Most crucially, how can the photon divide at the first beam splitter and yet terminate on either arm with its undiminished energy? The position advanced is that the photon has two identities, one supporting particle features and the other wave features. There is photon kinetic energy that never splits (on (...)
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  14. The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Decoherence.Davide Romano - manuscript
    This paper aims to clarify some conceptual aspects of decoherence that seem largely overlooked in the recent literature. In particular, I want to stress that decoherence theory, in the standard framework, is rather silent with respect to the description of (sub)systems and associated dynamics. Also, the selection of position basis for classical objects is more problematic than usually thought: while, on the one hand, decoherence offers a pragmatic-oriented solution to this problem, on the other hand, this can hardly be seen (...)
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  15. The Liberation of Nature and Knowledge: A Case Study on Hans Reichenbach’s Naturalism.László Kocsis & Adam Tamas Tuboly - forthcoming - Synthese (All Things Reichenbach).
    Our main goal in this paper is to present and scrutinize Reichenbach’s own naturalism in our contemporary context, with special attention to competing versions of the concept. By exploring the idea of Reichenbach’s naturalism, we will argue that he defended a liberating, therapeutic form of naturalism, meaning that he took scientific philosophy (or philosophy of nature, Naturphilosophie) to be a possible cure for bad old habits and traditional ways of philosophy. For Reichenbach, naturalistic scientific philosophy was a well-established form of (...)
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  16. Philosophy of Science as First Philosophy The Liberal Polemics of Ernest Nagel.Eric Schliesser - forthcoming - In Matthias Neubar & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Springer.
    This chapter explores Nagel’s polemics. It shows these have a two-fold character: (i) to defend liberal civilization against all kinds of enemies. And (ii) to defend what he calls ‘contextual naturalism.’ And the chapter shows that (i-ii) reinforce each other and undermine alternative political and philosophical programs. The chapter’s argument responds to an influential argument by George Reisch that Nagel’s professional stance represents a kind of disciplinary retreat from politics. In order to respond to Reisch the relationship between Nagel’s philosophy (...)
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  17. Kuantum Teorisi Absürdizmi (Saçmacılığı) Destekler Mi?Mücahit Özdoğan - 2019 - Sosyal Ve Beşeri Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi 20 (45):39-61.
    Quantum Theory has created new perspectives on reality in the human mind. The fact that the micro-world has different identities than the macro-world, as it emerges with Quantum Theory, has made the subject of reality, which underlies everything, more complex. Quantum Theory has demolished the deterministic world view drawn by classical physics, revealing a reality of reality. In addition, it has brought up new questions about customary laws to date, including logic rules because of the peculiarities of the electrons, which (...)
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  18. Science, Dualities and the Fenomenological Map.H. G. Solari & Mario Natiello - manuscript
    We present an epistemological scheme of natural sciences inspired in Peirce's pragmaticist view, stressing the role of the \emph{phenomenological map}, that connects reality and our ideas about it. The scheme has a recognisable mathematical/logical structure which allows to explore some of its consequences. We show that seemingly independent principles as the requirement of reproducibility of experiments and the Principle of sufficient reason are both implied by the scheme, as well as Popper's concept of falsifiability. We show that the scheme has (...)
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  19. Physics and the Philosophy of Science – Diagnosis and Analysis of a Misunderstanding, as Well as Conclusions Concerning Biology and Epistemology.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    For two reasons, physics occupies a preeminent position among the sciences. On the one hand, due to its recognized position as a fundamental science, and on the other hand, due to the characteristic of its obvious certainty of knowledge. For both reasons it is regarded as the paradigm of scientificity par excellence. With its focus on the issue of epistemic certainty, philosophy of science follows in the footsteps of classical epistemology, and this is also the basis of its 'judicial' pretension (...)
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  20. Hélène Metzger on Precursors: A Historian and Philosopher of Science Confronts Her Evil Demon.Cristina Chimisso & Nick Jardine - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
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  21. Die Physik und die Wissenschaftstheorie – Diagnose und Analyse eines Missverständnisses, sowie Konklusionen in Betreff Biologie und Epistemologie.Rudolf Lindpointner - manuscript
    Die Physik nimmt aus zwei Gründen eine herausragende Stellung unter den Wissenschaften ein. Zum einen aufgrund ihrer anerkannten Stellung als Grundlagenwissenschaft, und zum anderen auch durch das Merkmal ihrer offenkundigen Erkenntnissicherheit. Aus beiden Gründen gilt sie gewissermaßen als Paradigma von Wissenschaftlichkeit schlechthin. Mit ihrem Fokus auf das Thema der Erkenntnissicherheit tritt die Wissenschaftstheorie in die Fußstapfen der klassischen Erkenntnistheorie, und darauf gründet sich auch ihr 'richterlicher' Anspruch gegenüber der Physik. Wohingegen die Physik in puncto ihrer Stellung als Grundlagenwissenschaft – sogar (...)
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  22. Performance Investigation of AC Servomotor Position Control Using Fuzzy Logic and Observer Based Controllers.Mustefa Jibril, Mesay Tadesse & Elias Alemayehu - 2021 - Report and Opinion Journal 13 (1):1-5.
    An AC servomotor which is mostly a two-phase induction motor with two stator field coils placed 90 electrical degrees apart used for controlling position, speed and acceleration in manufacturing industries. In this paper, a two-phase induction motor has been designed with a fuzzy logic and observer based controllers to improve the performance of the system. Comparison of the AC servomotor with the proposed controllers for tracking a step and a square desired position signal input has been done using Matlab/Simulink toolbox (...)
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  23. Running Up the Flagpole to See If Anyone Salutes: A Response to Woodward on Causal and Explanatory Asymmetries.Katrina Elliott & Marc Lange - forthcoming - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science.
    Does smoke cause fire or does fire cause smoke? James Woodward’s “Flagpoles anyone? Causal and explanatory asymmetries” argues that various statistical independence relations not only help us to uncover the directions of causal and explanatory relations in our world, but also are the worldly basis of causal and explanatory directions. We raise questions about Woodward’s envisioned epistemology, but our primary focus is on his metaphysics. We argue that any alleged connection between statistical (in)dependence and causal/explanatory direction is contingent, at best. (...)
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  24. Perspectival QM and Presentism: A New Paradigm.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    We motivate and develop a perspectival A-theory of time (future/present/past) and probe its implied interpretation of quantum mechanics. It will emerge that, as a first take, the time of relativity is a B-series (earlier-times to later-times) and the time of quantum mechanics is an A-series. There is philosophical motivation for the idea that mutual quantum measurement happens when and only when the systems’ A-series become one mutual A-series, as in the way qualia work in the Inverted Spectrum. This seems to (...)
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  25. Introduction: Reimagining Epistemology and Philosophy of Science From a Global Perspective.David Ludwig - 2021 - In Global Epistemologies and Philosophies of Science.
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  26. Was ist gute Wissenschaft? Philip Kitcher.Marie I. Kaiser - 2020 - In Johannes Müller-Salo (ed.), Analytische Philosophie. Eine Einführung. Paderborn, Deutschland: pp. 111-123.
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  27. The Future of Science.Hossein Shirkhani - manuscript
    This article has been written about the explanation of the scientific affair. There are the philosophical circles that a philosopher must consider their approaches. Postmodern thinkers generally refuse the universality of the rational affair. They believe that the experience cannot reach general knowledge. They emphasize on the partial and plural knowledge. Any human being has his knowledge and interpretation. The world is always becoming. Diversity is an inclusive epistemological principle. Naturally, in such a state, the scientific activity is a non-sense (...)
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  28. Science for Loss and Damage. Findings and Propositions.Reinhard Mechler, Elisa Calliari, Laurens M. Bouwer, Thomas Schinko, Swenja Surminski, JoAnne Linnerooth-Bayer & Kian Mintz-Woo - 2019 - In Reinhard Mechler, Laurens M. Bouwer, Thomas Schinko, Swenja Surminski & JoAnne Linnerooth-Bayer (eds.), Loss and Damage from Climate Change. pp. 3-37.
    This introductory chapter summarises key findings of the twenty-two book chapters in terms of five propositions. These propositions, each building on relevant findings linked to forward-looking suggestions for research, policy and practice, reflect the architecture of the book, whose sections proceed from setting the stage to critical issues, followed by a section on methods and tools, to chapters that provide geographic perspectives, and finally to a section that identifies potential policy options. The propositions comprise (1) Risk management can be an (...)
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  29. Eber Die Grundlagen der Erkenntnis in den Exacten Wissenschaften. [REVIEW]Paul du Bois-Reymond - 1890 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 1:608.
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  30. Nduction and Deduction. [REVIEW]Constance C. W. Naden - 1890 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 1:292.
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  31. Ssais Sur la Philosophie Des Sciences. [REVIEW]C. De Freycinet - 1896 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 7:319.
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     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories