General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Zili Dong (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. Post-Academic Paradigm in the Era of Risk Society The Textbook.V. Cheshko - manuscript
    The tutorial is an expanded and revised English version of the Ukrainian edition. (Filosofiya nauky: navch. posib OM Kuzʹ, VF Cheshko - Kharkiv: KHNEU im. S. Kuznetsya, 2017.). -/- .
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  2. Putting Down the Revolt: Enactivism as a Philosophy of Nature.Russell Meyer & Nick Brancazio - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Enactivists frequently argue their account heralds a revolution in cognitive science: enactivism will unseat cognitivism as the dominant paradigm. We examine the lines of reasoning enactivists employ in stirring revolt, but show that none of these prove compelling reasons for cognitivism to be replaced by enactivism. First, we examine the hard sell of enactivism: enactivism reveals a critical explanatory gap at the heart of cognitivism. We show that enactivism does not meet the requirements to incite a paradigm shift in the (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  3. Mary Domski. Newton’s Third Rule and the Experimental Argument for Universal Gravity. New York: Routledge, 2022. Pp. Xi+116. $47.96 (Cloth). ISBN 978-1-032-02036-5. [REVIEW]Ori Belkind - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (2):510-515.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  4. Der logische Aufbau der Welt: Formale Aspekte.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  5. Newton’s Third Rule and the Experimental Argument for Universal Gravity, by Mary Domski.Ori Belkind - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  6. Neues System der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundriss. Band III: Physik, Chemie, Kosmologie.Dirk Hartmann - 2022 - Paderborn, Deutschland: Mentis.
    Immanuel Kant’s admiration of the “starry sky” above him and the “moral law” in it has become a philosophical topos today. While the “moral law” is the subject of practical philosophy, Kant refers to an object of astronomy for the main task of theoretical philosophy - namely, to answer the question “What can I know? “. Volume III tackles this question - generalizing to the “hard” sciences of physics, chemistry, and cosmology. It focuses on specific questions that have always been (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
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     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  7. Quentin Kammer, Jean-Philippe Narboux, and Henri Wagner, Eds. C. I. Lewis: The A Priori and the Given. New York: Routledge, 2021. Pp. Vii+320. $160.00 (Cloth). ISBN 978-1-138-70087-1. [REVIEW]Robert Sinclair - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):315-319.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  8. Andrew Janiak, Ed. Space: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. Pp. 368. $105.00 (Cloth); $26.95 (Paper). ISBN 978-0-19-991410-4. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Gorham - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):322-325.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
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  9. The 1915 Reichenbach-Wyneken Correspondence: Between the Ethical Ideal and the Reality of War.Flavia Padovani - 2022 - In Christian Damböck, Günther Sandner & Meike G. Werner (eds.), Logical Empiricism, Life Reform, and the German Youth Movement. pp. 297-316.
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  10. Reichenbach and the Problem of Induction.Flavia Padovani - 2021 - In C. Limbeck Lilienau & Thomas Uebel (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Logical Empiricism. London, UK: pp. 229-237.
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  11. 一切为了逻辑 —智人!开始进化.Kai Jiang - manuscript
    灵魂来到世上的第一个问题应该是我是谁,最合乎逻辑的自我认知是:我是且只是由一些逻辑推理组成的灵魂。任何不可变的其它标签,如有手有脚、直立行走、两性,都是对自由的侵犯。去除这些标签的过程就是灵魂的解放事 业。相信宇宙万物都和我一样,是由逻辑推理组成的,这就是最合乎逻辑的信仰,即纯逻辑信仰。纯逻辑信仰决定了纯逻辑方法才是正确的认识方法,即尽量减少经验增加逻辑推理,而不是科学所提倡的经验主义,或者与之密切 相关的功利主义、现实主义。 信仰错误意味着无法做出任何完全正确的推理,只能偶尔幸运地获得少量尽量合乎逻辑的推理结果。即使是日常生活中的推理,也高度依赖于经验主义、功利主义等信仰,错误率极高。纯逻辑主义的推理要求推理尽量合乎逻辑, 将合乎逻辑的程度视为价值,因此要追求最大价值。功利主义往往是为身体追求利益,让身体奴役灵魂。两种信仰很难有什么共同的决策,书中对此提供了大量的说明。信仰的错误意味着智人难以发现真理、正义,意味着智人在 绝大多数问题上都是自以为正确的实际上却极度邪恶、落后。智人功利主义地对待一切,如历史、传统、自我、本国、本民族,结果就是大量赞美、信仰邪恶,大大增加了皈依真理、正义的难度。 作者由纯逻辑主义提出了两个关键猜想。首先,最合乎逻辑原则和最大自由原则是统一的。这代表实在的不可否定性,即逻辑和不逻辑为同一存在,最合乎逻辑等同于最大自由。但是,代表邪恶的无法合乎逻辑不是不逻辑。其次 ,宇宙是纯逻辑世界,完全源于逻辑-不逻辑。进而,如果灵魂不能尽量合乎逻辑地推导出真理,可以通过模仿宇宙而学习真理。《真理进化论》给模仿宇宙找到的理由是以宇宙为信仰,相信宇宙是负作用量的最佳追求系统。纯 逻辑主义完善了这一信仰,因为宇宙是纯逻辑世界,相信逻辑就要相信宇宙。而且,逻辑世界必然能不断创造新的命题,永远不会停止推理,是逻辑和自由不断增长的动态系统,即最佳追求系统。 纯逻辑推理对物理学、宇宙论能提供两个明显的帮助:用逻辑的诞生解释宇宙的诞生、大爆炸;用真理解释暗物质,它对所有命题有吸引作用,但是,真理不会像一般性命题那样变化,无法通过引力之外的其它三种基本相互作用 观察。纯逻辑也能对宇宙做出预言:宇宙会不断加速膨胀,真理、暗物质会不断增加,命题、星系会越来越多,永无止境。当然,不应该依靠这些观点的经验主义验证来相信纯逻辑信仰,而且,这些验证也确实遥遥无期。 无论是最合乎逻辑还是最大自由,都是可以达到无限大价值的。既然存在无限大价值,就存在无限大的劳动生产率,而每个灵魂都应该以创造无限大价值为目标。相比之下,功利主义者、享乐主义者一生都必然和无限大价值无缘 ,甚至,他们的灵魂一生都在为肉体做奴隶,却心甘情愿地做奴隶,一门心思让主人生活得更舒服。这是有无限大差距的人生。 既然要追求无限大价值,就要研究追求价值的正确方法。作者相信正确的研究方法不仅是最合乎逻辑的,也是最自由的。所以,应该不分学科、课题地研究问题;同时做很多研究方向的工作;一篇论文不需要限定于一个狭小的主 题;研究任何一个问题都可以延伸到研究真理乃至所有真理;论文、专著的写作不应该有格式等规范,应该以价值为唯一准绳。 既然文学写作也要求情节合乎逻辑,当然也可以要求作品的主要观点、原则、思维过程尽量合乎逻辑,主要人物的思想、行为尽量合乎逻辑,这就是纯逻辑流。否则,就只是作者自以为合乎逻辑,实际上有大量无法合乎逻辑之处 ,这和科学家自以为科学合乎逻辑,却根本没有最合乎逻辑的信仰、方法、推理过程是一个问题。这也意味着最合乎逻辑的文学可能甚至是必须发现真理。另一方面,自由也是最合乎逻辑的真理,坚持那些基于经验的作品分类会 侵犯自由。所以,推理小说、科幻小说、历史、论文,这些智人的分类标签都不是绝对的。纯逻辑流小说在研究真理方面自有其优势,能最为自由地同时研究很多课题,包括如何建立信仰,如何思维,如何做人,如何判断善恶, 讲述历史,预测未来,乃至现代科学中没有研究的真理、思维科学,等等。所以,这甚至是现在最适合发表纯逻辑思想、研究成果的作品门类。 虽然在起点网已经被禁,但是将继续每月更新,后记中会预告下次更新的时间。 .
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  12. The Science of Water. [REVIEW]Ovidiu Babeș - 2019 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 8 (1):197-203.
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  13. Purely Logical Philosophy In An Isolated System.Kai Jiang - 2015 - International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (2):109-120.
    After Parmenides proposed the duality of appearance and reality, details have not been well developed because the assumption was insufficient for logical reasoning. This paper establishes a foundation with an isolated system, which contains all causes and effects within itself. This paper seeks to establish a purely logical philosophy, including reality and phenomena, good and evil, truth and fallacy. Freedom is proposed as the basis for reality. All beings in an isolated system can be classified into two sets: variable phenomena (...)
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  14. Is Resilience a Normative Concept?Henrik Thorén & Lennart Olsson - 2018 - Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses 2 (6):112-128.
    In this paper, we engage with the question of the normative content of the resilience concept. The issues are approached in two consecutive steps. First, we proceed from a narrow construal of the resilience concept – as the ability of a system to absorb a disturbance – and show that under an analysis of normative concepts as evaluative concepts resilience comes out as descriptive. In the second part of the paper, we argue that (1) for systems of interest (primarily social (...)
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  15. Evandro Agazzi’s Scientific Objectivity and its Contexts.Mario Alai - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):699-704.
    Evandro Agazzi’s volume Scientific Objectivity and its Contexts is here introduced. First, the genesis and the content of the book are outlined. Secondly, an overview of Agazzi’s philosophy of science is provided. Its main roots are epistemological realism in the Aristotelian/scholastic tradition, and contemporary science-oriented epistemology, especially in Logical Empiricism. As a result, Agazzi’s thought is nicely balanced between empiricism and rationalism, it avoids gnoseologistic dualism by stressing the intentionality of knowledge, and it insists on the operational and referential character (...)
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  16. The Question of the Reality of Time and the Model-Theoretic Approach to Scientific Theories.Mauro Dorato - 1998 - Logique Et Analyse 41 (164):313-325.
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