General Philosophy of Science

Edited by Howard Sankey (University of Melbourne)
Assistant editor: Zili Dong
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  1. Essential Tensions in Twenty-First-Century Science.Hanne Andersen - 2024 - In K. Brad Wray (ed.), Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions at 60. Cambridge University Press. pp. 197-214.
    This chapter revisits Thomas Kuhn’s argument about an essential tension between tradition and innovation as a driver of scientific progress. It shows that Kuhn’s argument builds on a number of assumptions about the practices of science that held for past science conducted by individuals working within isolated disciplines, and argues that it does therefore not necessarily hold for the increasingly collaborative and interdisciplinary science we see today. Examining different types of organization into teams, the chapter discusses how changes in the (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
     Incommensurability in Science
     Research Programs
     Science and Values
     Scientific Change, Misc
     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
    Scientific Language
     Cognitive Significance in Science
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
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     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
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  2. Chương trình máy tính bayesvl trong môi trường R: Đóng góp Việt cho khoa học thế giới.Hoàng Phương Hạnh - 2019 - Khoa Học Và Phát Triển (13/06/2019).
    Mới đây, chương trình máy tính ‘bayesvl’ chạy trên môi trường R do TS. Vương Quân Hoàng và kĩ sư Lã Việt Phương (Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Xã hội Liên ngành ISR, Đại học Phenikaa) thiết kế và phát triển chính thức được ra mắt trên CRAN - hệ thống thư viện chuẩn của R...
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
     Confirmation
     Induction
     Probabilistic Reasoning
     Scientific Change
     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
     History of Neuroscience
     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
     History of Science, Misc
    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
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     Scientific Progress
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    Scientific Practice
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  3. Entheogens and Sacred Psychology.Samuel Bendeck Sotillos - 2024 - Spirituality Studies 10 (1):41-68.
    The psychedelic renaissance did not emerge from a void. While a tremendous upswell of interest in psychedelics can be observed today, there is scant acknowledgment of the current spiritual crisis that has led to this burgeoning enthusiasm. Having lost our sense of the sacred, we have—with disastrous consequences—become alienated from ourselves, others, and the natural environment. Secular psychotherapy and psychiatry have failed to address the myriad mental health problems that are prevalent right now, which has compelled people to desperately look (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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     Probabilistic Reasoning
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     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
     Scientific Method, Misc
    Explanation
     Theories of Explanation
     Varieties of Explanation
     Explanation in the Sciences
     Explanation, Misc
    History of Science
     History of Psychology
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     History of Biology
     History of Physics
     History of Cognitive Science
     History of Chemistry
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
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     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
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    Scientific Language
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     Incommensurability in Science
     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
     Scientific Representation
     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
     Experimentation in Science
     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
     Prediction in Science
     Scientific Discovery
     Scientific Instruments
     Simulation in Science
     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
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    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  4. Materialism from Hobbes to Locke by Stewart Duncan. [REVIEW]Patrick J. Connolly - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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     Inference to the Best Explanation
     Theoretical Virtues
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    Explanation
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     Explanation in the Sciences
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    History of Science
     History of Psychology
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     History of Cognitive Science
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
     Laws of Nature, Misc
     Explanation and Laws
     Causation and Laws
     Dispositions and Laws
    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
     Logical Empiricism
     Feminist Phil of Science
     Nature of Science
     Science and Religion
     Empirical Stance
     Phil of Science, General Works
     General Phil of Science, Misc
    Interlevel Relations in Science
     Emergence
     Reduction
     Interlevel Metaphysics
     Metaphysics of Mind
     Physicalism
     Realization
     Supervenience
     Unity of Science
     Interlevel Relations in Biology
     Interlevel Relations in Cognitive Science
     Interlevel Relations in Physical Science
     Interlevel Relations in Science, Misc
    Scientific Change
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Conceptual Change in Science
     Convergent Realism
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     Research Programs
     Science and Values
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     Scientific Progress
     Scientific Revolutions
     Theory Change
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     Operationalism
     Ramsey Sentences
     Reference in Science
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     Scientific Language, Misc
    Scientific Practice
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     Measurement in Science
     Observation in Science
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     Scientific Discovery
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     Thought Experiments
     Science and Values
     Applications of Science
     Scientific Imagination
     Scientific Practice, Misc
    Scientific Realism
     Varieties of Scientific Realism
     Alternatives to Scientific Realism
     Arguments For and Against Scientific Realism
     Truth and Verisimilitude
     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
     Theoretical Virtues
     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
     Idealization
     Theories and Models, Misc
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  5. Thinking about laws in political science (and beyond).Erik Weber, Karina Makhnev, Bert Leuridan, Kristian Gonzalez Barman & Thijs de Connick - 2021 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 52 (1).
    There are several theses in political science that are usually explicitly called ‘laws’. Other theses are generally thought of as laws, but often without being explicitly labelled as such. Still other claims are well-supported and arguably interesting, while no one would be tempted to call them laws. This situation raises philosophical questions: which theses deserve to be called laws and which not? And how should we decide about this? In this paper we develop and motivate a strategy for thinking about (...)
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    Scientific Method
     Evidence
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    Explanation
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    History of Science
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    Laws of Nature
     Anti-Realism about Laws
     Best-Systems Analyses
     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
     Law Statements
     Laws as Relations between Universals
     Necessitarianism about Laws
     Nomological Necessity
     Probabilistic Laws
     Special Science Laws
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    General Phil of Science, Miscellaneous
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    Interlevel Relations in Science
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     Unity of Science
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     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
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  6. Defining Time.Vincent Vesteby - manuscript
    The knowledge of the evident qualities of time, such as its all-encompassing unidirectional relentless change, does not provide answers as to what time is or why it occurs. Those qualities do not identify what it is in the universe that intrinsically has those qualities. Thus, previously it has not been possible to achieve an adequate definition of time that includes the answers to those questions. Now, with the discovery that the continuing-existence of space plays the role of time in the (...)
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     Theoretical Virtues
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    Laws of Nature
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     Ceteris Paribus Laws
     Humeanism and Nonhumeanism about Laws
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     Scientific Realism, Misc
    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
     The Nature of Theories
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     Underdetermination of Theory by Data
     Scientific Models
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     Theories and Models, Misc
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  7. Exploring the epistemic and ontic conceptions of Models and Idealizations in Science.Kristian Gonzalez Barman - 2024 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 74:295-301.
    Book review: Alejandro Cassini & Juan Redmond (eds.), _Models and Idealizations in Science: Artifactual and Fictional Approaches_, Springer Iternational Publishing, Cham 2021, pp.xv+270.
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     Ceteris Paribus Laws
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     Law Statements
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     Necessitarianism about Laws
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    Sociology of ScienceTheories and Models
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  8. Robustness Analysis and Hubble Tension.Marco Forgione - manuscript
    The paper presents and discusses the Hubble tension with respect to recent results in cosmology. I shall argue that the measurements from the James Webb Space Telescope and TRGB stars calibrations allow us to infer that the estimates of H0 with late universe methods are robust. Building on from robustness analysis, I conclude that the resolution of the tension cannot be expected to come from new systematics, but rather from new physics.
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  9. Một số vấn đề an ninh thông tin trọng yếu trong kỷ nguyên AI.Vương Quân Hoàng, Lã Việt Phương, Nguyễn Hồng Sơn & Nguyễn Minh Hoàng - 2024 - Trang Thông Tin Điện Tử Hội Đồng Lý Luận Trung Ương.
    Trong bối cảnh các hoạt động kinh tế và xã hội ngày càng được kết nối tốt hơn thông qua IoT, và sắp tới đây là tiềm năng tích hợp AI vào hầu như mọi mặt của đời sống ở cả thế giới thực và thế giới ảo, thì không chỉ cá nhân, mà cả doanh nghiệp và quốc gia cũng sẽ phải đối mặt với các thách thức chưa từng có tiền lệ đối với rủi ro về an ninh (...)
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  10. The new philosophy: the science of physical phenomena: first explanations of electricity, gravitation, repulsion and the new atomic element rex: new explanations of sound, heat, light, cohesion, magnetism, atmosphere, astronomy, and nervous force.Calvin Samuel Page - 1913 - Chicago: Science Publishing Co..
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.This work is in the public domain in (...)
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  11. The Cost of Prediction.Johannes Lenhard, Simon Stephan & Hans Hasse - manuscript
    This paper examines a looming reproducibility crisis in the core of the hard sciences. Namely, it concentrates on molecular modeling and simulation (MMS), a family of methods that predict properties of substances through computing interactions on a molecular level and that is widely popular in physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering. The paper argues that in order to make quantitative predictions, sophisticated models are needed which have to be evaluated with complex simulation procedures that amalgamate theoretical, technological, and social factors (...)
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  12. Are mathematical explanations causal explanations in disguise?A. Jha, Douglas Campbell, Clemency Montelle & Phillip L. Wilson - 2024 - Philosophy of Science (NA):1-19.
    There is a major debate as to whether there are non-causal mathematical explanations of physical facts that show how the facts under question arise from a degree of mathematical necessity considered stronger than that of contingent causal laws. We focus on Marc Lange’s account of distinctively mathematical explanations to argue that purported mathematical explanations are essentially causal explanations in disguise and are no different from ordinary applications of mathematics. This is because these explanations work not by appealing to what the (...)
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  13. Performing an Appearance. On the Performativity of Images.Emmanuel Alloa - 2023 - Paradigmi. Rivista di Critica Filosofica 41 (3):415–428.
    It is all the rage today to speak about the “powerµ of images. Yet while it seems hardly disputable that images generate fascination or repulsion and that they provoke laughter, tears or delight, it is by no means clear what it entails to grant them an agency of their own. The article sets out to chart the current literature on the topic, and to indicate why it is not the same to ask what it means for images to do things (...)
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  14. Just the facts ma'am: some concerns about the identification of future-proof science: Peter Vickers: Identifying future-proof science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2023, 288 pp, £72 HB. [REVIEW]Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2023 - Metascience 33 (1):5-10.
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  15. "Für sich bestehende Undinge"? Zur Logik von Maßbegriffen.Marcus Elstner, Mathias Gutmann & Julie Schweer - 2024 - In Verena Klappstein & Thomas A. Heiß (eds.), Erklären und Verstehen: Fragen und Antworten in den Wissenschaften. Franz Steiner Verlag. pp. 13-42.
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  16. How the Laws of Logic Lie.Gillian K. Russell - forthcoming - Episteme.
    Nancy Cartwright's 1983 book How the Laws of Physics Lie argued that theories of physics often make use of idealisations, and that as a result many of these theories were not true. The present paper looks at idealisation in logic and argues that, at least sometimes, the laws of logic fail to be true. That might be taken as a kind of skepticism, but I argue rather that idealisation is a legitimate tool in logic, just as in physics, and recognising (...)
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  17. Epistemology Historicized: The French Tradition.Anastasios Brenner - unknown
    Following the standard view, scientific theories are formal systems, which receive empirical content by way of certain correspondence rules. The task of philosophy of science is then to make explicit the structure of such systems. In contrast to this view, one can point to the French tradition in philosophy of science. What characterizes this tradition is recourse to historical study, which has evolved from an attempt to bridge the fields of philosophy of science and history of science by a closer (...)
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  18. The Basic Fault in the Philosophy of Science.Johan Gamper - manuscript
    The basic fault in the philosophy of science is simple enough to put in words and now it is time to do that. This basic fault puts the food on the table for philosophers and scientists, so it is hard to actually get the word out. That is not my problem, though. The basic fault is that we still assume that there is some kind of stuff that ‘everything’ consists of. My aim is to show how we can make it (...)
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  19. Johann Nikolaus Tetens (1736–1807) and the Idea of Phoneme: A Chapter in the History of Linguistic Thought.Pierluigi D’Agostino - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    In this article, I focus on Johann Nikolaus Tetens’s linguistic theory to make three arguments: (a) this linguistic theory endorses a phonological (contra phonetic) approach to the acoustic sphere of language; (b) the phonological approach is based on the idea that sounds can turn into phonemes (of a properly human language) only when a minimally rational reflection on them is made; and (c) the phonological approach allows us to understand the phoneme as a differential unity, as being composed of structure (...)
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  20. Conceptual Analysis and the Analytic Method in Kant’s Prize Essay.Gabriele Gava - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    Famously, in the essay Inquiry Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality (Prize Essay), Kant attempts to distance himself from the Wolffian model of philosophical inquiry. In this respect, Kant scholars have pointed out Kant’s claim that philosophy should not imitate the method of mathematics and his appeal to Newton’s “analytic method.” In this article, I argue that there is an aspect of Kant’s critique of the Wolffian model that has been neglected. Kant presents a powerful (...)
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  21. Toward an ontology of scientific concepts.Olin M. Robus - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Washington
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  22. Christian Damböck, Meike G. Werner, Günther Sandner (eds.), Logischer Empirismus, Lebensreform und die deutsche Jugendbewegung. [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science: 1 - 7.
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  23. A Solution to the Paradox of Causation.John-Michael Kuczynski - 1997 - Philosophy in Science 8 (1):81-182.
    It is shown (i) that causation exists, since we couldn't even ask whether causation existed unless it did; (ii) that any given case of causation is a case of persistence; and (iii) that spatiotemporal relations supervene on causal relations. (ii) is subject to the qualification that we tend not to become aware of instances of causation as such except when two different causal lines---i.e. two different cases of persistence---intersect, resulting in a breakdown of some other case of persistence, this being (...)
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  24. The Practice-Based Approach to the Philosophy of Logic.Ben Martin - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook for the Philosophy of Logic. Oxford University Press.
    Philosophers of logic are particularly interested in understanding the aims, epistemology, and methodology of logic. This raises the question of how the philosophy of logic should go about these enquires. According to the practice-based approach, the most reliable method we have to investigate the methodology and epistemology of a research field is by considering in detail the activities of its practitioners. This holds just as true for logic as it does for the recognised empirical and abstract sciences. If we wish (...)
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  25. New experts on the web?Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Philosophische Digitalisierungsforschung (I). Verständigung Verantwortung Vernunft.
    During the Covid-19 pandemic, a considerable amount of people seem to have been lured into believing in conspiracy theories. These people deliberately disregard expert advice by virologists and physicians concerning social behaviour that is aimed at reducing the number of new infections. Disregarding traditional experts and their advice is just one example of what, in the philosophy of science, is referred to as a crisis of expertise – the phenomenon whereby people seem to have lost their trust in traditional expert (...)
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  26. Exploring the boundaries: an epistemology of interactions at the fringes of experimental practice.Daniele Pizzocaro - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  27. An idealised account of mechanistic computation.Luke Kersten - 2024 - Synthese 203 (99):1-23.
    The mechanistic account of computation offers one promising and influential theory of computational implementation. The aim of this paper is to shore up its conceptual foundations by responding to several recent challenges. After outlining and responding to a recent proposal from Kuokkanen (2022a), I suggest that computational description should be conceptualised as a form of idealisation (selectively attending to modified subsets of model features) rather than abstraction (selectively attending to subsets of features within a target system). I argue that this (...)
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  28. «Filosofía de la ciencia. Historia y práctica» de Mauricio Suárez. [REVIEW]David Rojas Lizama - 2023 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 28 (1).
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  29. Anthropocène. Technique. Deux points de contact entre science et pensée partisane.Dominique Raynaud - 2018 - Zilsel 3:263-277.
    Ce texte est une exploration des manifestations de la « pensée partisane » aux marges de la science. La science répondant à une norme d’objectivité et l’objectivité étant incompatible avec l’esprit partisan, repérer la présence d’une pensée partisane en science revient à pointer une contradictio in adjecto. Par suite, les éléments partisans qui auront été identifiés devront être placés à la limite ou au-delà du domaine de la science. L’expression « pensée partisane » se trouvant dans le voisinage immédiat de (...)
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