About this topic
Summary General Relativity is our best large-scale physical theory. One often investigates which philosophical consequences follow from the theory. 
Key works Sklar 1974 is an early text. Earman 1995 is the definitive modern survey of philosophical topics. Malament 2012 is a self-contained primer to the mathematical and logical foundations. 
Introductions Glymour 1972, Malament 1984, Earman & Norton 1987, Earman et al 2009, Manchak 2009
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  1. added 2020-05-25
    Heuristique du programme de la relativité générale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La théorie de la relativité spéciale d'Einstein repose sur deux postulats fondamentaux : le postulat de la lumière (la vitesse de la lumière, dans le « cadre de repos », est indépendante de la vitesse de la source), et le principe de la relativité. Cette dernière a été explicitement adoptée par Einstein comme moyen de restreindre la forme des lois, quelle que soit leur structure détaillée. Ainsi, nous avons la différence entre une théorie « constructive » et une théorie « (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-21
    Are the Notions of Past, Present and Future Compatible with the General Theory of Relativity?Daniel David Sega Neuman & Daniel Galviz - manuscript
    The notions of time and causality are revisited, as well as the A- and B-theory of time, in order to determine which theory of time is most compatible with relativistic spacetimes. Using time-orientation as one of the fundamental parameters in our manifold, we describe the concept of time and time-series in Special and General Relativity and their intrinsic differences. The notions of A-theory and B-theory will be given mathematical interpretations within the scheme of General Relativity. As a result, in time-orientable (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-13
    Épistémologie de la relativité générale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les premières interprétations philosophiques de la théorie de la relativité générale sont très diverses, chacune essayant d'identifier Einstein comme un adepte de cette philosophie. Les partisans de Mach ont souligné la tentative d'Einstein de mettre en œuvre une « relativisation de l'inertie » dans la théorie générale, et son approche opérationnaliste de la simultanéité. Les kantiens et les néo-kantiens ont montré l'importance des « formes intellectuelles » synthétiques dans la théorie générale, en particulier le principe de covariance générale. Les empiristes (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-01
    On Curved Spacetime.Sydney Ernest Grimm - manuscript
    Albert Einstein’s theory of General Relativity was once the leading theory in theoretical physics. Unfortunately the theory describes macroscopic reality without a clear link with the the microcosm in respect to the properties of spacetime. However the theory of General Relativity has proved to predict macroscopic phenomena in a very accurate way. Nowadays most theoretical physicists use the conceptual framework of quantum theory. So it is not surprisingly that the question about the “true nature” of spacetime becomes very intrigue.
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  5. added 2020-03-31
    Unified Electromagnetic Fields.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-26
    Anomalies of General Relativity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Over time, the general theory of relativity has accumulated several anomalies and discrepancies, indicating the need for a better theory about gravity or other approaches. The ad-hoc hypotheses introduced in general relativity to explain gravitational singularities based on energy conditions are not very efficient. More detailed assumptions on the content of the subject are needed. Many scientists and philosophers have come to the conclusion that singularities must be associated with reaching the limits of the physical validity of general relativity, and (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-25
    Cosmological Tests of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The current cosmological models are built based on general relativity. The solutions of the specific equations, Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker, allow to model the evolution of the universe starting from the Big Bang. Some of the parameters of the universe have been established by observations. Based on these, and other observational data, the models can be tested. Predictions include the initial abundance of chemical elements formed in a period of nucleosynthesis during the Big Bang period, the subsequent structure of the universe, cosmic background (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-21
    Strong Field Gravitational Tests.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    When the density of the body becomes large enough, general relativity predicts the formation of a black hole. The neutron stars of about 1.4 solar masses and the black holes are the final stage for the evolution of the massive stars. Usually a black hole in a galaxy has played an important role in its formation and related cosmic structures. Such bodies provide an efficient mechanism for the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the formation of microquasars. Accretion can lead to (...)
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  9. added 2020-03-18
    Modern Tests of Relativistic Gravitational Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dicke and Schiff established a framework for testing general relativity, including through null experiments and using the physics of space exploration, electronics and condensed matter, such as the Pound-Rebka experiment and laser interferometry. The gravitational lens tests and the temporal delay of light are highlighted by parameter γ of the PPN formalism, equal to 1 for general relativity and with different values in other theories. The BepiColombo mission aims to test the general theory of relativity by measuring the gamma and (...)
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  10. added 2020-03-16
    Classic Gravitational Tests of Post-Einsteinian Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Albert Einstein proposed three tests of general relativity, later named the classic tests of general relativity, in 1916: the precession of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, sun light deflection, and the gravitational redshift of the light. For gravitational testing, the indirect effects of gravity are always used, usually particles that are influenced by gravity. In the presence of gravity, the particles move along curved geodesic lines. The sources of gravity that cause the curvature of spacetime are material bodies, depending on (...)
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  11. added 2020-03-13
    Testing the Relativistic Theories of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In developing general relativity, Einstein was led by theoretical criteria of elegance and simplicity. His theory initially encountered "three classic tests": perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit, deflection of light by the Sun, and gravitational redshift of light. There are large differences in predictions between general relativity and classical physics, such as gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, gravitational redshift of light, and so on. And there are many relativistic theories of gravity, bifurcated or independent, but Einstein's general theory of relativity has (...)
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  12. added 2020-03-10
    Evaluation of Post-Einsteinian Gravitational Theories Through Parameterized Post-Newtonian Formalism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Right after the elaboration and success of general relativity (GR), alternative theories for gravity began to appear. In order to verify and classify all these theories, specific tests have been developed, based on self-consistency and on completeness. In the field of experimental gravity, one of the important applications is formalism. For the evaluation of gravity models, several sets of tests have been proposed. Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism considers approximations of Einstein's gravity equations by the lowest order deviations from Newton's law for (...)
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  13. added 2020-03-04
    Heuristics of the General Relativity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The general theory of relativity was developed using as a nucleus a principle of symmetry: the principle of general covariance. Initially, Einstein saw the principle of general covariance as an extension of the principle of relativity in classical mechanics, and in SR. For Einstein, the principle of general covariance was a crucial postulate in the development of GR. The freedom of the GR diffeomorphism (the invariance of the form of the laws under transformations of the coordinates depending on the arbitrary (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-26
    Epistemology of General Relativity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    For Einstein, simplicity is the main criterion in the theoretical choice when the experiments and observations do not give sufficiently clear indications . Univocity in the theoretical representation of nature should not be confused with a denial of the underdetermination thesis. The principle of univocality played a central role in Einstein's formulation of general relativity. According to Einstein, a constructive theory offers a constructive model for phenomena of interest. A principle theory consists of a set of well-substantiated individual empirical generalizations. (...)
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  15. added 2020-02-10
    Expanding Theory Testing in General Relativity: LIGO and Parametrized Theories.Lydia Patton - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    The multiple detections of gravitational waves by LIGO (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), operated by Caltech and MIT, have been acclaimed as confirming Einstein's prediction, a century ago, that gravitational waves propagating as ripples in spacetime would be detected. Yunes and Pretorius (2009) investigate whether LIGO's template-based searches encode fundamental assumptions, especially the assumption that the background theory of general relativity is an accurate description of the phenomena detected in the search. They construct the parametrized post-Einsteinian (ppE) framework in response, (...)
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  16. added 2020-01-25
    L'ontologie des singularités.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    La relativité générale permet les singularités et nous devons comprendre l'ontologie si nous voulons comprendre la nature de l'espace et du temps dans l'univers d'aujourd'hui. Bien que certains physiciens pensent que les singularités indiquent un échec de la relativité générale, d'autres pensent que les singularités ouvrent un nouvel horizon dans la cosmologie, avec de réels phénomènes physiques pouvant contribuer à un progrès profond dans notre compréhension du monde. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24491.18728 .
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  17. added 2020-01-16
    What We Cannot Learn From Analogue Experiments.Karen Crowther, Niels S. Linnemann & Christian Wüthrich - 2019 - Synthese:1-26.
    Analogue experiments have attracted interest for their potential to shed light on inaccessible domains. For instance, ‘dumb holes’ in fluids and Bose–Einstein condensates, as analogues of black holes, have been promoted as means of confirming the existence of Hawking radiation in real black holes. We compare analogue experiments with other cases of experiment and simulation in physics. We argue—contra recent claims in the philosophical literature—that analogue experiments are not capable of confirming the existence of particular phenomena in inaccessible target systems. (...)
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  18. added 2020-01-13
    Ontologia relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Relativitatea generală a generat diverse interpretări filosofice timpurii. Adepții lui au evidențiat "relativizarea inerției" și conceptul de simultaneitate, kantienii și neo-kantienii au subliniat abordarea anumitor "forme intelectuale" sintetice (în special principiul covarianței generale, iar empiriștii logici au accentuat semnificația filozofică metodologică a teoriei. Reichenbach a abordat relativitatea generală prin prisma tezei "relativității geometriei", încercând o "axiomatizare constructivă" a teoriei relativității pe baza "problemelor elementare de fapt" (Elementaratbestande) cu privire la comportamentul observabil al razelor de lumină, a tijelor și a ceasurilor. (...)
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  19. added 2020-01-12
    Singularités gravitationnelles.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les singularités gravitationnelles dans la relativité générale sont des emplacements dans l'espace-temps où le champ gravitationnel devient infini. Les courbes scalaires invariantes de l'espace-temps incluent une mesure de la densité de la matière. Certains physiciens et philosophes estiment que, du fait que la densité de la matière tend vers l'infini dans la singularité, les lois de l'espace-temps ne sont plus valables là-bas. Le Big Bang est une singularité gravitationnelle acceptée presque unanimement en astrophysique et en cosmologie, en tant que premier (...)
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  20. added 2020-01-04
    Ontologia singularităților gravitaționale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Relativitatea generală permite singularități. Trebuie să înțelegem ontologia singularităților gravitaționale dacă vrem să înțelegem natura spațiului și a timpului în universul actual. Deșii unii fizicieni consideră că singularitățile indică un eșec al relativității generale, alții cred că singularitățile deschid în fapt un orizont nou în cosmologie, cu fenomene fizice reale care pot ajuta la un progres profund în înțelegerea noastră a lumii. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31766.50242.
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  21. added 2020-01-03
    Dependence relations in general relativity.Antonio Vassallo - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-28.
    The paper discusses from a metaphysical standpoint the nature of the dependence relation underpinning the talk of mutual action between material and spatiotemporal structures in general relativity. It is shown that the standard analyses of dependence in terms of causation or grounding are ill-suited for the general relativistic context. Instead, a non-standard analytical framework in terms of structural equation modeling is exploited, which leads to the conclusion that the kind of dependence encoded in the Einstein field equations is a novel (...)
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  22. added 2019-12-05
    Learning the Physics of Einstein with Georges Lemaître : Before the Big Bang Theory.Georges Lemaître, Jean-François Stoffel & Jan Govaerts - 2019 - Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    This book presents the first English translation of the original French treatise “La Physique d’Einstein” written by the young Georges Lemaître in 1922, only six years after the publication of Albert Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. It includes an historical introduction and a critical edition of the original treatise in French supplemented by the author’s own later additions and corrections. -/- Monsignor Georges Lemaître can be considered the founder of the “Big Bang Theory” and a visionary architect of modern Cosmology. (...)
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  23. added 2019-12-01
    Singularități gravitaționale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Singularitățile gravitaționale în relativitatea generală sunt locații în spațiu-timp unde câmpul gravitațional devine infinit. Curburile invariabile scalare ale spațiu-timpului includ o măsură a densității materiei. Unii fizicieni și filosofi consideră că, deoarece densitatea materiei tinde spre infinit în singularitate, legile spațiu-timpului nu mai sunt valabile acolo. O singularitățile gravitațională aproape unanim acceptată în astrofizică și cosmologie, ca cea mai timpurie stare a universului, este Big Bang. Nici în acest caz legile cunoscute ale fizicii nu mai sunt valabile. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27271.75681.
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  24. added 2019-11-28
    The Constraints General Relativity Places on Physicalist Accounts of Causality.Erik Curiel - 2000 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 15 (1):33-58.
    All accounts of causality that presuppose the propagation or transfer or some physical stuff to be an essential part of the causal relation rely for the force of their causal claims on a principle of conservation for that stuff. General Relativity does not permit the rigorous formulation of appropriate conservation principles. Consequently, in so far as General Relativity is considered and fundamental physical theory, such accounts of causality cannot be considered fundamental. The continued use of such accounts of causality ought (...)
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  25. added 2019-11-23
    Singularities and Black Holes.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philsophy.
  26. added 2019-11-23
    The Many Definitions of a Black Hole.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Nature Astronomy 3:27-34.
    Although black holes are objects of central importance across many fields of physics, there is no agreed upon definition for them, a fact that does not seem to be widely recognized. Physicists in different fields conceive of and reason about them in radi- cally different, and often conflicting, ways. All those ways, however, seem sound in the relevant contexts. After examining and comparing many of the definitions used in practice, I consider the problems that the lack of a universally accepted (...)
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  27. added 2019-09-19
    Einstein's Redshift Derivations: Its History From 1907 to 1921.Mário Bacelar Valente - 2018 - Circumscribere: International Journal for the History of Science 22:1-16.
    Einstein's gravitational redshift derivation in his famous 1916 paper on general relativity seems to be problematic, being mired in what looks like conceptual difficulties or at least contradictions or gaps in his exposition. Was this derivation a blunder? To answer this question, we will consider Einstein’s redshift derivations from his first one in 1907 to the 1921 derivation made in his Princeton lectures on relativity. This will enable to see the unfolding of an interdependent network of concepts and heuristic derivations (...)
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  28. added 2019-09-14
    A Primer on Energy Conditions.Erik Curiel - 2017 - In Dennis Lehmkuhl, Gregor Schiemann & Erhard Scholz (eds.), Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories. Birkhäuser. pp. 43-104.
    An energy condition, in the context of a wide class of spacetime theories, is, crudely speaking, a relation one demands the stress-energy tensor of matter satisfy in order to try to capture the idea that "energy should be positive". The remarkable fact I will discuss in this paper is that such simple, general, almost trivial seeming propositions have profound and far-reaching import for our understanding of the structure of relativistic spacetimes. It is therefore especially surprising when one also learns that (...)
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  29. added 2019-09-13
    About Fuzzy Time-Particle Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (It is Not an Innocent One!) Version One.Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    The major point in [1] chapter 2 is the following claim: “Any formalized system for the Theory of Computation based on Classical Logic and Turing Model of Computation leads us to a contradiction.” So, in the case we wish to save Classical Logic we should change our Computational Model. As we see in chapter two, the mentioned contradiction is about and around the concept of time, as it is in the contradiction of modified version of paradox. It is natural to (...)
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  30. added 2019-09-12
    Schrodinger's Cat Meets McTaggart and the Problem of Other Minds.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that is an 'A-theory' in that it incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series. The A-series characteristics are supposed to be 'ontologically private' analogous to qualia in the problem of other minds and is given a definition. The main idea is that the experimenter and the cat do not share the same A-series characteristics, e.g the same 'now'. So there is no single time at which the cat gets ascribed different states. It is (...)
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  31. added 2019-09-10
    McTaggart Saves Schrodinger's Cat?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that is an 'A-theory' in that it incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series. The A-series characteristics are supposed to be 'ontologically private' analogous to qualia in the Inverted Spectrum thought experiment and is given a definition. The main idea is that the experimenter and the cat do not share the same A-series characteristics. So there is no single time at which the cat gets ascribed different states. It is proposed one may define (...)
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  32. added 2019-09-09
    McTaggart Saves Schrodinger's Cat?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that is an 'A-theory' in that it incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series. The A-series characteristics are supposed to be 'ontologically private' analogous to qualia in the Inverted Spectrum thought experiment and is given a definition. It is proposed one may define a 'unit of becoming' that coordinatizes the future/present/past spectrum as well as allowing one to calculate the rates of becoming. We give a picture of this interpretation and discuss how it (...)
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  33. added 2019-09-02
    Ontology of Gravitational Singularities.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    General relativity allows singularities, and we need to understand the ontology of singularities if we want to understand the nature of space and time in the present universe. Although some physicists believe that singularities indicate a failure of general relativity, others believe that singularities open a new horizon in cosmology, with real physical phenomena that can help deepen our understanding of the world. From the definitions of singularities, most known are the possibility that some spacetimes contain incomplete paths (most accepted), (...)
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  34. added 2019-08-22
    Les singularités comme limites ontologiques de la relativité générale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les singularités de la relativité générale résultant de la résolution des équations d'Einstein ont été et font encore l'objet de nombreux débats scientifiques : existe-t-il des singularités dans l'espace-temps ou pas ? Big Bang a été une singularité initiale ? Si les singularités existent, quelle est leur ontologie ? La théorie générale de la relativité est-elle une théorie qui a montré ses limites dans ce cas ? Dans cet essai, je soutiens qu'il existe des singularités et que la théorie de (...)
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  35. added 2019-08-08
    Ernst Mach and the Theory of Relativity.Gereon Wolters - 1984 - Philosophia Naturalis 21 (2/4):630-341.
    This article shows that those texts, attributed to Ernst Mach, that reject relativity theory are posthumous forgeries.
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  36. added 2019-08-06
    From McTaggart to AdS_5 Geometry V. 3.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The purpose of this note is to show how an 'AB-series' interpretation of time leads, surprisingly, apparently, to AdS_5 geometry. This is not a theory of 2 time dimensions. Rather, it is a theory of 1 time dimension that has both A-series and B-series characteristics. To summarize the result, a spacetime in terms of (1) the earlier-to-later aspect of time, and (2) the (related) future-present-past aspect of time, and (3) 3-d space, it would seem, gives us the AdS_5 geometry.
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  37. added 2019-08-05
    2. Programming Relativity as the Mathematics of Perspective in a Planck Unit Simulation Hypothesis.Malcolm Macleod - manuscript
    The Simulation Hypothesis proposes that all of reality is in fact an artificial simulation, analogous to a computer simulation. Outlined here is a method for programming relativistic mass, space and time at the Planck level as applicable for use in Planck Universe-as-a-Simulation Hypothesis. For the virtual universe the model uses a 4-axis hyper-sphere that expands in incremental steps (the simulation clock-rate). Virtual particles that oscillate between an electric wave-state and a mass point-state are mapped within this hyper-sphere, the oscillation driven (...)
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  38. added 2019-08-01
    Anomalii ale relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În timp, teoria generală a relativității a acumulat mai multe anomalii și discrepanțe, indicând necesitatea unor teorii mai bune despre gravitație sau alte moduri de abordare. Ipotezele ad-hoc introduse în relativitatea generală pentru a explica singularitățile gravitaționale pe baza condițiilor energetice nu sunt foarte eficiente. Sunt necesare ipoteze mai detaliate asupra conținutului materiei. Mulți oameni de știință și filosofi au ajuns la concluzia că singularitățile trebuie să fie asociate cu atingerea limitelor valabilității fizice a relativității generale, fiind nevoie să se (...)
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  39. added 2019-07-30
    Teste gravitaționale cosmologice.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Modelele cosmologice actuale sunt construite pe baza relativității generale. Soluțiile ecuațiilor specifice, Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker permit modelarea evoluției universului pornind de la Big Bang. O parte din parametrii universului au fost stabiliți prin observații. Pe baza acestora, și altor date observaționale, se pot testa modelele. Predicțiile includ abundența inițială de elemente chimice formate într-o perioadă de nucleosinteză în perioada Big Bang, structura ulterioară a universului, radiația cosmică de fond, etc. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22204.59525.
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  40. added 2019-07-29
    Teoria generală a relativității.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Book preview -/- Relativitatea generală este o teorie metrică a gravitației. La baza ei sunt ecuațiile lui Einstein, care descriu relația dintre geometria unei varietăți patrudimensionale, pseudo-Riemanniene, reprezentând spațiu-timpul și energia-impulsul conținut în acel spațiu-timp. Fenomenele care în mecanica clasică sunt atribuite acțiunii forței gravitaționale (cum ar fi mișcarea liberă, mișcarea orbitală și traiectoriile navelor spațiale), corespund mișcării inerțiale într-o geometrie curbată a spațiu-timpului în relativitatea generală; nu există nici o forță gravitațională care să deviexe obiecte de pe căile lor (...)
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  41. added 2019-07-27
    Teste gravitaționale în câmp puternic.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Când densitatea corpului devine suficient de mare, relativitatea generală prezice formarea unei găuri negre. Stelele neutronice de circa 1,4 mase solare și găurile negre sunt starea finală pentru evoluția stelelor masive. De obicei o gaură neagră într-o galaxie a jucat un rol important în formarea acesteia și a structurilor cosmice aferente. Astfel de corpuri oferă un mecanism eficient pentru emisia de radiații electromagnetice și formarea de microquasari. Accreția poate duce la jeturi relativiste. Relativitatea generală permite modelarea acestor fenomene, confirmate prin (...)
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  42. added 2019-07-26
    Teste clasice și moderne ale teoriilor relativiste ale gravitației.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Cu ajutorul formalismului PPN se confruntă teoriile gravitației cu rezultatele experimentelor din sistemul solar. Parametrul γ din acest formalism evidențiază deformarea luminii și întârzierea luminii. Prin calcule în conformitate cu PPN se obține deformarea luminii în raport cu liniile drepte locale, comparativ cu tije rigide; din cauza curburii spațiului în jurul Soarelui, determinată de parametrul γ, liniile locale drepte sunt îndoite în raport cu liniile drepte asimptotice departe de Soare. Dezvoltarea interferometriei radio de bază foarte lungi (VLBI) a îmbunătățit măsurarea (...)
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  43. added 2019-07-24
    Teste gravitaționale ale relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Perioada dintre 1960 și 1980 a fost perioada de maturitate a relativității generale: s-au dezvoltat noi metode de testare de mare precizie care au inclus teste noi, precum precesiunea giroscopică, întârzierea luminii și "efectul Nordtvedt" în mișcarea lunară, utilizând inclusiv observații astrofizice și sateliții artificiali. Există diferențe mari de predicții între relativitatea generală și fizica clasică, precum dilatarea timpului gravitațional, lentila gravitațională, deplasarea spre roșu gravitațională a luminii, etc. Și există multe teorii relativiste ale gravitației, bifurcate sau independente, dar teoria (...)
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  44. added 2019-07-23
    Teorii alternative la relativitatea generală – Formalismul PPN.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Imediat după elaborarea și succesul relativității generale, au început să apară teorii alternative pentru gravitație. În dezvoltarea acestor teorii s-au încercat multe strategii (euristici pozitive) diferite, prin adăugarea de noi ipoteze la TGR, utilizarea unui spațiu-timp pentru care universul este static, ipoteze care elimină singularitățile gravitaționale, etc. Pentru evaluarea modelelor de gravitație, au fost propuse mai multe seturi de teste. Formalismul post-newtonian ia în considerare aproximări ale ecuațiilor de gravitație ale lui Einstein prin abaterile de ordinul cel mai scăzut de (...)
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  45. added 2019-07-23
    From McTaggart to AdS_5 Geometry 2.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The purpose of this note is to show how an 'AB-series' interpretation of time, given in a companion paper, leads, surprisingly, to AdS_5 geometry. This is not a theory of 2 time dimensions. Rather, it is a theory of 1 time dimension that has both A-series and B-series characteristics.
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  46. added 2019-07-22
    Geons - candidates for the role of the initial microblack holes and their importance for the Planck physics.Alexander Klimets - 2000 - FIZIKA B (Zagreb) 9 (1):23-42.
    The article describes exotic objects, the geons, which emerge as the result of gravitational attraction among massless energy quanta. It is shown that the formation of geons occurs at the energy Epl = 10^19 GeV and leads to the rise of microscopic black holes of a Planck dimension, Planck mass and two horizon events. It is shown that the formation of Planck geons is energetically more likely in 3-dimensional space than with ``physics" of geons in a space of a different (...)
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  47. added 2019-07-21
    Euristica relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Principiul esențial de coordonare în teoria generală a relativității este principiul echivalenței, incluzând o euristică negativă în conformitate cu metodologia programelor științifice de cercetare a lui Imre Lakatos. Argumentul ”nu este acela că toate cadrele de referință sunt echivalente, ci că coordonarea clasică a mișcării uniforme în linie dreaptă cu căile particulelor fără forță aplicată nu poate fi realizată fără nicio ambiguitate sau inconssistență.” Principiul echivalenței afirmă că descompunerea mișcării gravitaționale într-o mișcare uniformă și o accelerație gravitațională nu poate fi (...)
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  48. added 2019-07-17
    Epistemologia relativității generale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Empirismul logic al filosofiei științei a apărut în cea mai mare parte ca urmare a celor două teorii ale relativității lui Einstein, favorizând convenționalismul à la Poincaré față de neo-kantianism și pozitivismul machian. Filosofia empirismului logic al științei în sine se consideră că a fost formată din învățăturile extrase din teoria relativității. Câteva dintre cele mai caracteristice doctrine ale acestei filosofii (interpretarea elementelor a priori în teoriile fizice ca niște convenții, tratarea rolului necesar al convențiilor în dezvoltarea conceptelor teoretice din (...)
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  49. added 2019-07-05
    Екокритичний аспект дикості у поетичному циклі Олега Лишеги «Снігові і вогню».Tetiana Hanzha - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:62-65.
    У статті проаналізовано категорію дикості в поезії Олега Лишеги. Екокритична категорія дикості – як протилежність до цивілізованого, обжитого, людського – дає змогу окреслити основні ознаки лісу у поезії Лишеги як дикого, непередбачуваного, тваринного, магічного простору. Близька взаємодія суб’єкта лірики із лісовим ландшафтом створює глибшу ідентичність дикого лісу, який, отримавши голос, промовляє у тексті. Надзвичайно важливим для поета є збереження неприрученості, гармонійне співіснування світу природи і світу людей.
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  50. added 2019-07-04
    Топос печери як модель множинного простору в середньовічній літературі (на основі Києво-Печерського патерика).Tetyana Kalytenko - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:9-13.
    Середньовічний світогляд бачить всесвіт як двоїсту систему духовного та земного. Така структурна особливість реалізується у літературних текстах за допомогою різних видів топосів. Острів, пустеля, місто, а також печера – всі вони виконують у тексті роль множинних просторів. -/- Києво-Печерський патерик не лише відобразив світоглядну парадигму XI–XVII ст., а й зберіг художні функції простору печери, що були успадковані від античності й трансформувались з огляду на запити середньовічної ідеології.
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