About this topic
Summary This category is about the possibility of altering the characteristics of non human animals and plants through genetic engineering. Among those who believe that genetic engineering is wrong, some regard genetic engineering to be wrong per se and some focus on its consequences. If it is wrong per se, it might be because (1) it violates the rights of animals, (2) it fails to accord to animals the respect that is their due, (3) it is unnatural, i.e. it violates the "telos" of animals. 
Key works Rollin 1995 rejects genetic engineering based on consequentialist considerations. Rifkin 1985, Fox 1990, Fox 1992, and Dobson 1995 argue, from a biocentric perspective, that genetic engineering is wrong per se.
Introductions Burgess & Walsh 1998
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  1. Editing the Genome of the Human Germline: May Cool Heads Prevail.Eli Y. Adashi & I. Glenn Cohen - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):40-42.
  2. Designing Babies: Morally Permissible Ways to Modify the Human Genome1.Nicholas Agar - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):1-15.
    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does (...)
  3. Assumptions of the Deficit Model Type of Thinking: Ignorance, Attitudes, and Science Communication in the Debate on Genetic Engineering in Agriculture. [REVIEW]Marko Ahteensuu - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (3):295-313.
    This paper spells out and discusses four assumptions of the deficit model type of thinking. The assumptions are: First, the public is ignorant of science. Second, the public has negative attitudes towards (specific instances of) science and technology. Third, ignorance is at the root of these negative attitudes. Fourth, the public’s knowledge deficit can be remedied by one-way science communication from scientists to citizens. It is argued that there is nothing wrong with ignorance-based explanations per se. Ignorance accounts at least (...)
  4. Biomedical Ethics: Muslim Perspectives on Genetic Modification.Fatima Agha Al-Hayani - 2007 - Zygon 42 (1):153-162.
    Technology pertaining to genetically modified foods has created an abundance of food and various methods to protect new products and enhance productivity. However, many scientists, economists, and humanitarians have been critical of the application of these discoveries. They are apprehensive about a profit-driven mentality that, to them, seems to propel the innovators rather than a poverty-elimination mentality that should be behind such innovations. The objectives should be to afford the most benefit to those in need and to prevent hunger around (...)
  5. Defending Eugenics.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review:1-12.
  6. Genetic Engineering, Post-Genomic Ethics, and the Catholic Tradition.Rev Nicanor Austriaco - 2001 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (4):497-506.
  7. The Hope, Hype and Reality of Genetic Engineering: Remarkable Stories From Agriculture, Industry, Medicine, and the Environment (Review).Eric Baack & Loren Rieseberg - 2006 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (1):150-152.
  8. Human–Animal Chimeras: Not Only Cell Origin Matters.Gisela Badura-Lotter & Heiner Fangerau - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):21-22.
  9. Genetic Prospects: Essays on Biotechnology, Ethics, and Public Policy.Harold W. Baillie, William A. Galston, Sara Goering, Deborah Hellman, Mark Sagoff, Paul B. Thompson, Robert Wachbroit, David T. Wasserman & Richard M. Zaner - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The essays in this volume apply philosophical analysis to address three kinds of questions: What are the implications of genetic science for our understanding of nature? What might it influence in our conception of human nature? What challenges does genetic science pose for specific issues of private conduct or public policy?
  10. Genetic Engineering: The Standardization of Teacher Education.L. A. Baines, W. Carpenter & G. Stanley - 2000 - Journal of Thought 35 (2):35-44.
  11. Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, by Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan; Birth to Death: Science and Bioethics, Edited by David C. Thomasma and Thomasine Kushner. [REVIEW]Brian Balmer - 1999 - Minerva 37 (1):95-97.
  12. Two Concepts of Dignity for Humans and Non-Human Organisms in the Context of Genetic Engineering.Philipp Balzer, Klaus Peter Rippe & Peter Schaber - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):7-27.
    The 1992 incorporation of an article by referendum in the SwissConstitution mandating that the federal government issue regulations onthe use of genetic material that take into account the dignity ofnonhuman organism raises philosophical questions about how we shouldunderstand what is meant by ``the dignity of nonhuman animals,'' andabout what sort of moral demands arise from recognizing this dignitywith respect to their genetic engineering. The first step in determiningwhat is meant is to clarify the difference between dignity when appliedto humans and (...)
  13. Future Life Will Be Synthetic: About the Emergence of Engineered Life, its Promises, Prophecies and the Formal Causalities Needed to Make Sense of Them.T. Bardini - 2016 - Social Science Information 55 (3):369-384.
  14. Engineering and Ethics.Robert J. Baum - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (6):14-16.
  15. Meddling with Medusa: On Genetic Manipulation, Art and Animals. [REVIEW]Lynda Birke - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (1):103-117.
    Turning animals into art through genetic manipulation poses many questions for how we think about our relationship with other species. Here, I explore three rather disparate sets of issues. First, I ask to what extent the production of such living “artforms” really is as transgressive as advocates claim. Whether or not it counts as radical in terms of art I cannot say: but it is not at all radical, I argue, in terms of how we think about our human place (...)
  16. Dr. Frankenstein Meets Lord Devlin: Genetic Engineering and the Principle of Intangible Harm.Russell Blackford - 2006 - The Monist 89 (4):526-547.
  17. Genetic Engineering and Contemporary Democratic Theory.Robert Blank - 1981 - World Futures 18 (3):239-267.
  18. Ethik Leiblicher Existenz: Über Unseren Moralischen Umgang Mit der Eigenen Natur.Gernot Böhme - 2008 - Suhrkamp.
  19. Bad Axioms in Genetic Engineering.C. Keith Boone - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (4):9-13.
  20. The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their func- tionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adapta- tions, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In (...)
  21. Panorama Internacional En Salud y Derecho: Culturas y Sistemas Jurídicos Comparados.Ingrid Brena Sesma (ed.) - 2007 - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  22. The Good Life of Creatures with Dignity Some Comments on the Swiss Expert Opinion.Frans W. A. Brom - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 13 (1):53-63.
    The notion of Dignity of Creatures has been voted into the Swiss Federal Constitution by a plebiscite. Philipp Balzer, Klaus-Peter Rippe, and Peter Schaber have given an expert opinion for the Swiss government to clarify the notion of Dignity of Creatures. According to them, by voting this notion into the Swiss constitution, the Swiss have chosen for a limited biocentric approach towards biotechnology. In such an approach genetic engineering of non-human beings is only allowed insofar that their own good is (...)
  23. The Image of God: Theological Ethics for Human Creative Genetic Engineering.Richard Geoffrey Brown - 1989 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The dissertation deals with the protestant doctrine of the Imago Dei as espoused by Karl Barth, Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich. The dissertation seeks to answer the question whether or not there will be an harmonious ethical approach arising from their diverse formulations of the Imaqo Dei from which to address human creative genetic engineering, or more specifically, the scientific likelihood of the chimera and the specialized human mutant. ;The opening two chapters are spent in establishing the legitimacy of this (...)
  24. Biotechnology and the Control of Life.Robert A. Brungs - 1979 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 54 (1):37-57.
  25. Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan, Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering.Eva M. Buccioni - 1998 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):49-55.
  26. From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice.Allen Buchanan, Dan W. Brock, Norman Daniels & Daniel Wikler - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book, written by four internationally renowned bioethicists and first published in 2000, was the first systematic treatment of the fundamental ethical issues underlying the application of genetic technologies to human beings. Probing the implications of the remarkable advances in genetics, the authors ask how should these affect our understanding of distributive justice, equality of opportunity, the rights and obligations as parents, the meaning of disability, and the role of the concept of human nature in ethical theory and practice. The (...)
  27. Molecular Politics: Developing American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic Engineering, 1972–1982. [REVIEW]Glenn Bugos - 1996 - British Journal for the History of Science 29 (1):118-119.
  28. Is Genetic Engineering Wrong, Per Se?J. A. Burgess & Adrian Walsh - 1998 - Journal of Value Inquiry 32 (3):393-406.
  29. Genetic Engineering of Food.Derek Burke - forthcoming - Christians and Bioethics.
  30. Essay Reviews-Genetic Engineering and Ethical Arithmetic.Jeremy Caddick - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 30 (4):545.
  31. From the Civiliation of Prometheus to Genetic Engineering: The Role of Technology and the Uses of Metaphor.Claude Calame - 2005 - Arion 13 (2).
  32. Arguing the Morality of Genetic Engineering.Daniel Callahan - 1981 - In Marc D. Hiller (ed.), Medical Ethics and the Law: Implications for Public Policy. Ballinger Pub. Co..
  33. The Moral Career of Genetic Engineering.Daniel Callahan - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (2):9-9.
  34. The Case of Recombinant DNA.Daniel Callahan - 1978 - In John Richards (ed.), Recombinant Dna: Science, Ethics, and Politics. Academic Press. pp. 135.
  35. Recombinant DNA: Science and the Public.Daniel Callahan - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (2):20-23.
  36. Conservation in a Brave New World.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-28.
    This chapter introduces the two main philosophical questions that are raised by the prospect of extinct species being brought back from the dead—namely, the ‘Authenticity Question’ and the ‘Ethical Question’. It distinguishes different types of de-extinction, and different methods by which de-extinction can be accomplished. Finally, it examines the aims of wildlife conservation with a view to whether they are compatible with de-extinction, or not.
  37. A Dark Side of Glowing Fish? More Oversight of Genetic Engineering Needed.A. Caplan - forthcoming - Bioethics on Msnbc.
  38. Biotechnology, Law and Bioethics Comparative Perspectives.Carlos María Romeo Casabona - 1999
  39. Opinions of Mexican Physicians on the Use of Genetic Engineering.Esther Casanueva, Ruben Lisker, Alessandra Carnevale & Elisa Alonso - 1998 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (1):6-9.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the opinion on matters related to genetic engineering among Mexican physicians with different specialties. Physicians from four of Mexico City's National Health Institutes were selected for the study. The following specialties were sampled: internists ; pediatricians ; gynecologists and obstetricians and neurologists . The questionnaires designed by Macer were used. Even when 8 out of 10 physicians questioned responded they were interested or very interested in science, their knowledge on science (...)
  40. The Double-Edged Helix: Science in the Real World.Liebe F. Cavalieri - 1981 - Columbia University Press.
  41. The Double-Edged Helix: Genetic Engineering in the Real World.Liebe F. Cavalieri - 1981 - Praeger.
  42. Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering. [REVIEW]T. Chappell - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (5):329-331.
  43. Age of Genetics and the age of biotechnology on the way to editing of, human genome.Valentin Teodorovich Cheshko (ed.) - 2016 - Moscow Russia: Kurs-INFRA-M.
    The book discusses some of the stages in the development of genetics, biotechnology in terms of basic strategy of humanity towards the formation of a modern agrarian civilization. Agricultural civilization is seen as part of the biosphere and primary user of its energy flows. Consistently a steps of creation of management tools for live objects to increasing the number of food security of mankind are outlines. The elements of the biosphere degradation started in the results of human activities, and the (...)
  44. Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age.F. Chessa - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):8-8.
    Bill McKibben’s book, Enough, is about cloning, genetic enhancement, and nanotechnology. His thesis is that these things are bad—nay, they are downright evil. In vivid and readable prose, McKibben explains what will soon be possible with these technologies and provides a dystopian portrait of the future. His alarmist tone is effective. Despite having read several similar works and remaining unmoved, McKibben’s images struck home with me. I began to feel, in my gut, anxiety about the genetically engineered future. McKibben is (...)
  45. Genetic Research as Therapy: Implications of "Gene Therapy" for Informed Consent.Larry R. Churchill, Myra L. Collins, Nancy M. R. King, Stephen G. Pemberton & Keith A. Wailoo - 1998 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (1):38-47.
  46. Creating Human-Nonhuman Chimeras: Of Mice and Men.Cynthia B. Cohen - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):3 – 5.
  47. Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5-7):436 – 443.
    Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses Homo Sapiens might mount. The tasks to relate two species (systems) constitutes a postformal, Metasystematic task. Developing a system of discourse (...)
  48. Considering Chimeras: The Confluence of Genetic Engineering and Ethics.Marilyn E. Coors - 2006 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (1):75-87.
  49. Genetic Engineering, Moral Autonomy, and Equal Treatment.Stéphane Courtois - 2006 - The Monist 89 (4):442-465.
  50. Controlling Technology: Genetic Engineering and the Law.Yvonne M. Cripps - 1980 - Praeger.
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