About this topic
Summary This category is about the possibility of altering the characteristics of non human animals and plants through genetic engineering. Among those who believe that genetic engineering is wrong, some regard genetic engineering to be wrong per se and some focus on its consequences. If it is wrong per se, it might be because (1) it violates the rights of animals, (2) it fails to accord to animals the respect that is their due, (3) it is unnatural, i.e. it violates the "telos" of animals. 
Key works Rollin 1995 rejects genetic engineering based on consequentialist considerations. Rifkin 1985, Fox 1990, Fox 1992, and Dobson 1995 argue, from a biocentric perspective, that genetic engineering is wrong per se.
Introductions Burgess & Walsh 1998
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263 found
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1 — 50 / 263
  1. added 2018-12-22
    Commentary: Setting the Bar Higher.Nicolas Delon - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):40-45.
    Commentary on Neuhaus and Parent, 'Gene doping--In Animals?' (2019).
  2. added 2018-12-17
    Homesteading the Noosphere: The Ethics of Owning Biological Information.Robert R. Wadholm - 2018 - Northern Plains Ethics Journal 6 (1):47-63.
    The idea of homesteading can be extended to the realm of biological entities, to the ownership of information wherein organisms perform artifactual functions as a result of human development. Can the information of biological entities be ethically “homesteaded”: should humans (or businesses) have ownership rights over this information from the basis of mere development and possession, as in Locke’s theory of private property? I offer three non-consequentialist arguments against such homesteading: the information makeup of biological entities is not commonly owned, (...)
  3. added 2018-12-14
    Review of Colin Farrelly, Genetic Ethics. [REVIEW]Jonathan Anomaly - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:X-Y.
  4. added 2018-12-03
    Changing Kinds: Aristotle and the Aristotelians.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2015 - Diametros 45:19-34.
    Aristotle is routinely blamed for several errors that, it is supposed, held 'science' back for centuries - among others, a belief in distinct, homogenous and unchanging species of living creatures, an essentialist account of human nature, and a suggestion that 'slavery' was a natural institution. This paper briefly examines Aristotle's own arguments and opinions, and the perils posed by a contrary belief in changeable species. Contrary to received opinion even amongst some of his followers, Aristotle was not a species essentialist (...)
  5. added 2018-11-14
    Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, I shall (...)
  6. added 2018-10-16
    Enhancement & Desert.Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy and Economics.
    It is sometimes claimed that those who succeed with the aid of enhancement technologies deserve the rewards associated with their success less, other things being equal, than those who succeed without the aid of such technologies. This claim captures some widely held intuitions, has been implicitly endorsed by participants in social-psychological research, and helps to undergird some otherwise puzzling philosophical objections to the use of enhancement technologies. I consider whether it can be provided with a rational basis. I examine three (...)
  7. added 2018-09-13
    Genetically Modifying Livestock for Improved Welfare: A Path Forward.Adam Shriver & Emilie McConnachie - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):161-180.
    In recent years, humans’ ability to selectively modify genes has increased dramatically as a result of the development of new, more efficient, and easier genetic modification technology. In this paper, we argue in favor of using this technology to improve the welfare of agricultural animals. We first argue that using animals genetically modified for improved welfare is preferable to the current status quo. Nevertheless, the strongest argument against pursuing gene editing for welfare is that there are alternative approaches to addressing (...)
  8. added 2018-09-13
    Disabled Bodies and Norms of Flourishing in the Human Engineering Debate.Tom Sparrow - 2018 - Ijfab: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 11 (2):36-62.
    The debate over human genetic engineering and enhancement has evolved to the point where dismissive critics have yielded some ground to proponents of engineering programs and their vision of our posthuman future. This is not to say that either human engineering programs or posthumanism has become mainstream but that we have reached a point in history where it is not genetic engineering that conjures dystopian futures in our moral imaginations but the absence of human genetic enhancement. As Ingmar Persson and (...)
  9. added 2018-09-04
    When the Milk of Human Kindness Becomes a Luxury (and Untested) Good. A Reply to Harris’ Unconditional Embrace of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):159-165.
    A new reprogenetic technology, mitochondrial replacement, is making its appearance and, unsurprisingly given its promise to wash off our earthly stains --or at least the scourges of sexual reproduction--, John Harris finds only reasons to celebrate this new scientific feat.1 In fact, he finds mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) so “unreservedly welcome” that he believes those who reject them suffer from “a large degree of desperation and not a little callousness.”2 Believing myself to be neither desperate nor callous, but finding myself (...)
  10. added 2018-08-17
    Genetic Enhancement and Parental Obligation.Larry A. Herzberg - 2007 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 14 (2):98-111.
    Among moral philosophers, general disapproval of genetic enhancement has in recent years given way to the view that the permissibility of a eugenic policy depends only on its particular features. Buchanan, Brock, Daniels, and Wikler have extensively defended such a view. However, while these authors go so far as to argue that there are conditions under which parents are not only permitted but also obligated to proeure genetic treatments for their intended child, they stop short of arguing that there are (...)
  11. added 2018-06-08
    Well-Ordered Science: The Case of GM Crops.Matthew J. Lister - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):127-139.
    The debate over the use of genetically-modified crops is one where the heat to light ratio is often quite low. Both proponents and opponents of GM crops often resort more to rhetoric than argument. This paper attempts to use Philip Kitcher’s idea of a “well-ordered science” to bring coherence to the debate. While I cannot, of course, here decide when and where, if at all, GM crops should be used I do show how Kitcher’s approach provides a useful framework in (...)
  12. added 2018-05-01
    Conservation in a Brave New World.Douglas Ian Campbell & Patrick Michael Whittle - 2017 - In Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1-28.
    This chapter introduces the two main philosophical questions that are raised by the prospect of extinct species being brought back from the dead—namely, the ‘Authenticity Question’ and the ‘Ethical Question’. It distinguishes different types of de-extinction, and different methods by which de-extinction can be accomplished. Finally, it examines the aims of wildlife conservation with a view to whether they are compatible with de-extinction, or not.
  13. added 2018-04-13
    Wild Animal Suffering is Intractable.Nicolas Delon & Duncan Purves - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):239-260.
    Most people believe that suffering is intrinsically bad. In conjunction with facts about our world and plausible moral principles, this yields a pro tanto obligation to reduce suffering. This is the intuitive starting point for the moral argument in favor of interventions to prevent wild animal suffering. If we accept the moral principle that we ought, pro tanto, to reduce the suffering of all sentient creatures, and we recognize the prevalence of suffering in the wild, then we seem committed to (...)
  14. added 2018-03-23
    The Harms of Enhancement and the Conclusive Reasons View.Thomas Douglas - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):23-36.
    Many critics of bioenhancement go to considerable lengths to establish the existence of reasons against pursuing bioenhancements but do little to establish the absence of reasons in favor. This suggests that they accept what Allen Buchanan has called the conclusive reasons view . According to this view, our reasons against bioenhancement are obviously decisive, so there is no need to balance them against countervailing reasons. Buchanan criticizes the CRV by showing that the reasons most commonly adduced against bioenhancement are not (...)
  15. added 2018-03-15
    Germline Edits: Trust Ethics Review Process.Julian Savulescu, Chris Gyngell & Thomas Douglas - 2015 - Nature 520.
  16. added 2018-03-06
    Identità e determinismo genetico. Bioetica e filosofia delle scienze genetiche.Gregory Tranchesi - 2013 - Edizioni Nuova Prhomos.
  17. added 2018-02-17
    Chimeras, Moral Status, and Public Policy: Implications of the Abortion Debate for Public Policy on Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research.Robert Streiffer - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):238-250.
    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role (...)
  18. added 2018-02-09
    Design Under Randomness: How Variation Affects the Engineering of Biological Systems.Tero Ijäs - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (3):153-163.
    Synthetic biology offers a powerful method to design and construct biological devices for human purposes. Two prominent design methodologies are currently used. Rational design adapts the design methodology of traditional engineering sciences, such as mechanical engineering. Directed evolution, in contrast, models its design principles after natural evolution, as it attempts to design and improve systems by guiding them to evolve in a certain direction. Previous work has argued that the primary difference between these two is the way they treat variation: (...)
  19. added 2018-01-12
    Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement.Walter Veit - 2018 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):75-92.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful albeit unrealistic. However, recent scienti c breakthroughs in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally. In 2001, when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), enabled parents to select between multiple embryos, Julian Savulescu introduced the principle of procreative bene cence (PPB), stating that parents have the obligations to choose (...)
  20. added 2017-10-22
    The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their func- tionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adapta- tions, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important respects. In (...)
  21. added 2017-08-15
    Arguments for and Against Germline Intervention: A Critical Review of Ronald Green’s Babies by Design.Marvin J. H. Lee & Sophia Lozowski - 2017 - Journal of Healthcare Ethics and Administration 3 (1).
    It seems certain that one day we will allow the genetic technology which will enhance our offspring. A highly effective new tool, called CRISPR, which allows for carving out genes, is already being used to edit the genomes of animals. In July 2017, the FDA legalized that germline drugs for therapeutic purposes could be sold in the market. It is a high time, now, that we need engage in discussions about the ethics of germline intervention. To contribute to the discussion (...)
  22. added 2017-08-08
    Future Life Will Be Synthetic: About the Emergence of Engineered Life, its Promises, Prophecies and the Formal Causalities Needed to Make Sense of Them.T. Bardini - 2016 - Social Science Information 55 (3):369-384.
  23. added 2017-08-02
    Driven to Extinction? The Ethics of Eradicating Mosquitoes with Gene-Drive Technologies.Jonathan Pugh - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):578-581.
    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in ‘gene-drive’ technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been (...)
  24. added 2017-08-02
    The Moral Imperative to Continue Gene Editing Research on Human Embryos.Julian Savulescu, Jonathan Pugh, Thomas Douglas & Chris Gyngell - 2015 - Protein Cell 6 (7):476–479.
    The publication of the first study to use gene editing techniques in human embryos (Liang et al., 2015) has drawn outrage from many in the scientific community. The prestigious scientific journals Nature and Science have published commentaries which call for this research to be strongly discouraged or halted all together (Lanphier et al., 2015; Baltimore et al., 2015). We believe this should be questioned. There is a moral imperative to continue this research.
  25. added 2017-07-19
    Age of Genetics and the age of biotechnology on the way to editing of, human genome.Valentin Teodorovich Cheshko (ed.) - 2016 - Moscow Russia: Kurs-INFRA-M.
    The book discusses some of the stages in the development of genetics, biotechnology in terms of basic strategy of humanity towards the formation of a modern agrarian civilization. Agricultural civilization is seen as part of the biosphere and primary user of its energy flows. Consistently a steps of creation of management tools for live objects to increasing the number of food security of mankind are outlines. The elements of the biosphere degradation started in the results of human activities, and the (...)
  26. added 2017-07-16
    Application of Genetic Algorithms to Transmit Code Problem of Synthetic Aperture Radar.Fernando Palacios Soto, James M. Stiles & Arvin Agah - 2009 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 18 (1-2):105-122.
  27. added 2017-07-08
    Designing Babies: Morally Permissible Ways to Modify the Human Genome1.Nicholas Agar - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):1-15.
    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does (...)
  28. added 2017-02-15
    Genetic Alchemy. The Social History of the Recombinant DNA Controversy. [REVIEW]Robert Olby - 1985 - British Journal for the History of Science 18 (2):241-243.
  29. added 2017-02-14
    Academic Chimeras?Henry T. Greely - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):13-14.
  30. added 2017-02-14
    Human–Animal Chimeras: Not Only Cell Origin Matters.Gisela Badura-Lotter & Heiner Fangerau - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):21-22.
  31. added 2017-02-14
    The Case of Recombinant DNA.Daniel Callahan - 1978 - In John Richards (ed.), Recombinant Dna: Science, Ethics, and Politics. Academic Press. pp. 135.
  32. added 2017-02-13
    The Evolving Bioethical Landscape of Human–Animal Chimeras.John Loike - 2012 - In Stephen Dilley & Nathan J. Palpant (eds.), Human Dignity in Bioethics: From Worldviews to the Public Square. Routledge. pp. 13--282.
  33. added 2017-02-13
    Chimera or Solution?Martin Dillon - 2005 - In Nico Stehr & Reiner Grundmann (eds.), Knowledge: Critical Concepts. Routledge. pp. 3--2.
  34. added 2017-02-11
    An Overview of Chimeras and Hybrids.Tara L. Seyfer - 2006 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (1):37-49.
  35. added 2017-02-11
    Is It Ethical to Generate Human-Animal Chimeras?Sr Renée Mirkes - 2006 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (1):109-130.
  36. added 2017-02-11
    Genetic Engineering: Less Than Fully Adequate Arguments.Paul Ramsey - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (6):46-47.
  37. added 2017-02-11
    The Moral Career of Genetic Engineering.Daniel Callahan - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (2):9-9.
  38. added 2017-02-11
    Engineering and Ethics.Robert J. Baum - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (6):14-16.
  39. added 2017-02-11
    Recombinant DNA: The Argument Shifts.Tabitha M. Powledge - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (2):18-19.
  40. added 2017-02-11
    Recombinant DNA: Science and the Public.Daniel Callahan - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (2):20-23.
  41. added 2017-02-11
    Recombinant DNA: A Proposal for Regulation.Key Dismukes - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (2):25-30.
  42. added 2017-02-11
    Industry, Society and Genetic Engineering.James F. Danielli - 1972 - Hastings Center Report 2 (6):5-7.
  43. added 2017-02-09
    Paul Paon's Sur-Surreal Chimera.Monique Yaari - 1994 - Utopian Studies 5 (1):108 - 127.
  44. added 2017-02-08
    Metaphysical and Ethical Perspectives on Creating Animal-Human Chimeras.J. T. Eberl & R. A. Ballard - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):470-486.
    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards (...)
  45. added 2017-02-08
    What Bugs Genetic Engineers About Bioethics.Peter Wheale & Ruth McNally - unknown
  46. added 2017-02-08
    Proceed with Caution: Predicting Genetic Risks in the Recombinant DNA Era.S. Raeburn - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (4):221-222.
  47. added 2017-02-07
    Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age.F. Chessa - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):8-8.
    Bill McKibben’s book, Enough, is about cloning, genetic enhancement, and nanotechnology. His thesis is that these things are bad—nay, they are downright evil. In vivid and readable prose, McKibben explains what will soon be possible with these technologies and provides a dystopian portrait of the future. His alarmist tone is effective. Despite having read several similar works and remaining unmoved, McKibben’s images struck home with me. I began to feel, in my gut, anxiety about the genetically engineered future. McKibben is (...)
  48. added 2017-02-07
    Genetic Biotechnology and Evolutionary Theory: Some Unsolicited Advice to Rhetors.David Depew - 2001 - Journal of Medical Humanities 22 (1):15-28.
    In his book The Biotech Century Jeremy Rifkin makes arguments about the dangers of market-driven genetic biotechnology in medical and agricultural contexts. Believing that Darwinism is too compromised by a competitive ethic to resist capitalist depredations of the genetic commons, and perhaps hoping to pick up anti-Darwinian allies, he turns for support to unorthodox non-Darwinian views of evolution. The Darwinian tradition, more closely examined, contains resources that might better serve his argument. The robust tradition associated with Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, (...)
  49. added 2017-02-03
    Exercising Restraint in the Creation of Animal-Human Chimeras.Jason T. Eberl & Rebecca A. Ballard - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (6):45 – 46.
  50. added 2017-02-02
    Bioethics: The Ethics of Evolution and Genetic Interference.Herbert F. Mataré - 1999 - Bergin & Garvey.
    From a scientific approach, this work explores the moral implications of genetic engineering and argues for corrective genetic interference.
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