About this topic
Summary Genetic ethics is the study of the moral and political implications of (A) discoveries in the field of genetics (B) advances in genetic technology. For example, a study of the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of (A) and (B) was funded as part of the Human Genome Project, started in 1986 and concluded in 2003, whose main goal was to identify all the genes in the human DNA and determine the sequence of all DNA chemical bases of a human being. Genes are units of biological hereditary information, which can be coded by different molecules (sharing similar characteristics), the most stable of which is the DNA. Since the information stored in genes influences the development of a whole organism, it is often regarded as having special importance, thus raising issues of privacy protection or discrimination. It is also apt to be used in controversial ways, e.g. deciding whether a future human person ought to exist or not (such as in selective preimplantation genetic diagnosis or abortion).  
Key works Harris 1992 argues that it is mandatory to use advances in gene therapy to remove vulnerability to infections and pollutants or to radiation damage. It advances an argument that, beside removing the genetic causes of what we regard today as "disability", it is equally mandatory to retard the ageing process, remove predispositions to heart disease, destroy carcinogens and permit human beings to tolerate other environmental pollutants.  Buchanan et al 2001 focuses on justice in the access to human genetic technology, but considers a broad range of themes and arguments: the moral heredity of eugenics, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, constrains and permissions on parental choices of genetic selection, and the disability critique of liberal eugenics. It maintains a position that is liberal, in that it permits individuals a wide range of choices concerning the genetic endowments of their future children, yet constrains it by blocking interventions which would harm the future person (by reducing future options) or society (by causing an unfair distribution of social goods). Fukuyama 2002 regards genetic technology the practice that will radically change human nature with irreversible moral implications. Genetic technology is thus objectionable, in that undermines the natural presuppositions of egalitarian liberalism. Habermas 2003 defends a principled distinction between gene-therapy to cure disease and genetic manipulation allowing parents to select the traits of future children. The latter is seen as incompatible with egalitarian relationships between human beings and their freedom of choice. 
Introductions Buchanan et al manuscript; Brock 2003.
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  1. Ethical Considerations in the Prevention and Management of Genetic Disorders with Special Emphasis on Religious Considerations.Mohammed Ali Albar - 2002 - In Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed (ed.), Bioethics: Ethics in the Biotechnology Century. Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia.
  2. Genetics and Human Malleability.W. French Anderson - 1990 - Hastings Center Report 20 (1):21-24.
  3. We Are the Genes We've Been Waiting For: Rational Responses to the Gathering Storm of Personal Genomics.Misha Angrist - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):30-31.
  4. The Wonderful World of Genetics.George J. Annas - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (4):67-68.
  5. Who's Afraid of the Human Genome?George J. Annas - 1989 - Hastings Center Report 19 (4):19-21.
  6. The Treatment of Ethics in a Swedish Government Commission on Gene Technology.J. Arlebrink - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (6):388-389.
  7. Ethical Issues Arising From Human Genetics.A. Arnold & R. Moseley - 1976 - Journal of Medical Ethics 2 (1):12-17.
    Advances in understanding genetic disorders have been rapid in the last few years and with them the need and desire for genetic counselling have grown. Almost simultaneously, particularly in the USA, several large screening programmes have been initiated to screen large numbers of people who may be carriers of such deleterious genes as those of Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anaemia. The authors of this paper, clinical medical students at University College Hospital, London, spent some time studying the ethical issues (...)
  8. Monica Arruda is a Candidate for the BSN/MSN in the University of Penn-Sylvania School of Nursing and Senior Research Assistant in the Center for Bioethics at Penn. Her Previous Work has Focused on the Commercialization of Genetic Testing.Adrienne Asch, Erika Blacksher, David A. Buehler, Ellen L. Csikai, Francesco Demartis, Joseph J. Fins, Nina Glick Schiller, Mark J. Hanson, H. Eugene Hern Jr & Kenneth V. Iserson - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7:7-8.
  9. Genetic Databases and Pharmacogenetics: Introduction.Richard E. Ashcroft & Adam M. Hedgecoe - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (3):499-502.
    Since the inception of the Human Genome Project, human genetics has frequently been conducted through big science projects, combining academic, state and industrial methods, interests and resources. The legitimacy of such projects has been linked to national prestige and images of the nation, the purity of scientific endeavour, the entrepreneurial spirit, medical progress and the public health. A key complication in these discourses is that large-scale genetic research has yet to show major results when considered in terms of the objectives (...)
  10. The Regulation of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in the Netherlands and the UK: A Comparative Study of the Regulatory Frameworks and Outcomes for PGD.E. C. A. Asscher - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (4):176-179.
    Developments in biotechnology present difficult social and ethical challenges that need to be resolved by regulators among others. One crucial problem for regulators of new technologies is to ensure that regulation is both clear and sufficiently flexible to respond to new developments. This is particularly difficult to achieve in contentious fields such as medical biotechnology. In the European Union there is a divergence in the solutions to this problem which has lead to different regulatory frameworks for medical biotechnology. This paper (...)
  11. Human Genetics Choice and Responsibility.British Medical Association - 1998
  12. Genetic Diversity as a Value: Imposing Fairness.Diana Aurenque - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (6):18-20.
  13. Dimensions and Classification of Genetic Interventions in the Human Genome.Matthew D. Bacchetta & Gerd Richter - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (3):450-457.
  14. Responses and Dialogue: Response to “Germ-Line Therapy to Cure Mitochondrial Disease: Protocol and Ethics of In Vitro Ovum Nuclear Transplantation” by Donald S. Rubenstein, David C. Thomasma, Eric A. Schon, and Michael J. Zinaman. [REVIEW]Matthew D. Bacchetta & Gerd Richter - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (3):450.
  15. Risky Business.James Bachman - 1989 - Hastings Center Report 19 (3):4-4.
  16. Some Causal Limitations of Pharmacogenetic Concepts.David Badcott - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (3):307-316.
    Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are related facets of cutting edge therapeutic research in a field that relates pharmacological properties to the genetic characteristics of human beings. An optimistic interpretation suggests that “One-Size-Fits-All” therapeutics, whose effects can only be predicted in probabilistic terms, will give way eventually to individual tailor-made therapies with entirely predictable properties in each patient. Yet the concept of anticipating individual pharmacotherapeutic response appears to disregard some of the fundamental limitations of causal understanding in the biological world of structure–action (...)
  17. Social Control and Medical Models in Genetics.R. Baker - 1978 - In John L. Buckley (ed.), Genetics Now. University Press of America. pp. 75.
  18. Genetic Theory of Reality, by E. L. Hinman. [REVIEW]James Mark Baldwin - 1915 - Ethics 26:564.
  19. Genetics, Ethics and Human Values Human Genome Mapping, Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy : Proceedings of the Xxivth Cioms Conference, Tokyo and Inuyama City, Japan, 22-27 July 1990. [REVIEW]Z. Bankowski, Alexander Morgan Capron, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, Nihon Gakujutsu Kaigi & Unesco - 1991
  20. Who is a Parent? Parenthood in Islamic Ethics.M. K. Banu Az-Zubair - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (10):605-609.
    The ethical and legal challenges posed by assisted reproduction techniques are both profound and breathtaking, with most societies unable to fully comprehend one technique before another one, even more daring, emerges. The wrongful implantation of embryos in two women undergoing in vitro fertilisation treatments at two separate clinics in the UK seriously vitiates the traditional concept of who is a parent. In one case, a patient’s embryos were wrongly implanted into another woman seeking similar treatment, and in the second, a (...)
  21. Review of E. N. Dorff and L. Zoloth, Eds., Jews and Genes: The Genetic Future in Contemporary Jewish Thought1. [REVIEW]Y. M. Barilan - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (4):10-11.
  22. Designing Humans.Archana Barua - 2006 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 16 (5):154-157.
    It is said that the present situation in human history is a challenge to philosophy to vindicate its traditional claim to the possession of a vision of humans that can help, integrate, and enrich human experience. Standing on the threshold of the biological century, we find that more than physics or mathematics, it is now biology that has turned aggressively useful, and that bio-thinking will shape our vision of ourselves in the years to come. If all our distinctive human traits, (...)
  23. Biotechnology - the Making of a Global Controversy.M. W. Bauer & G. Gaskell (eds.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Biotechnology is one of the fastest-growing areas of scientific, technical and industrial innovation and one of the most controversial. As developments have occurred such as genetic test therapies and the breeding of genetically modified food crops, so the public debates have become more heated and grave concerns have been expressed about access to genetic information, labelling of genetically modified foods and human and animal cloning. Across Europe, public opinion has become a crucial factor in the ability of governments and biotech (...)
  24. Engineering and Ethics.Robert J. Baum - 1977 - Hastings Center Report 7 (6):14-16.
  25. Human Nuclear Genome Transfer : Clearing the Underbrush.Françoise Baylis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):7-19.
    In this article, I argue that there is no compelling therapeutic ‘need’ for human nuclear genome transfer to prevent mitochondrial diseases caused by mtDNA mutations. At most there is a strong interest in this technology on the part of some women and couples at risk of having children with mitochondrial disease, and perhaps also a ‘want’ on the part of some researchers who see the technology as a useful precedent – one that provides them with ‘a quiet way station’ in (...)
  26. Reconsidering Genetic Antidiscrimination Legislation.Jon Beckwith & Joseph S. Alper - 1998 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 26 (3):205-210.
  27. Teaching About Ethical Aspects in Human Genetics to Medical Professionals-Experience in Croatia.Biserka Belicza - forthcoming - Ethics.
  28. Biotechnology, Ethics, and Society: The Case of Genetic Manipulation.Vicente Bellver Capella - 1st ed. 2015 - In Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (ed.), New Perspectives on Technology, Values, and Ethics. Springer Verlag.
  29. On the Assessment of Genetic Technology: Reaching Ethical Judgments in the Light of Modern Technology.Wolfgang Bender, Katrin Platzer & Kristina Sinemus - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (1):21-32.
    The “Model for Reaching Ethical Judgments in the context of Modern Technologies — the Case of Genetic Technology”, which is presented here, has arisen from the project “Ethical Criteria bearing upon Decisions taken in the field of Biotechnology”. This project has been pursued since 1991 in the Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Technikforschung (ZIT) of the Technical University of Darmstadt, with the purpose of examining decision-making in selected activities involving the production of transgenic plants that have a useful application. The model is (...)
  30. Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops.Shayla Bhuiya - 2012 - Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy 3 (1):G60 - G65.
  31. What Is Human in Humans? Responses From Biology, Anthropology, and Philosophy.G. Bibeau - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (4):354-363.
    Genomics has brought biology, medicine, agriculture, psychology, anthropology, and even philosophy to a new threshold. In this new context, the question about "what is human in humans" may end up being answered by geneticists, specialists of technoscience, and owners of biotech companies. The author defends, in this article, the idea that humanity is at risk in our age of genetic engineering, biotechnologies, and market-geared genetic research; he also argues that the values at the very core of our postgenomic era bring (...)
  32. Genethics.Leslie G. Biesecker, Francis S. Collins, Evan G. DeRenzo, Christine Grady & Charles R. MacKay - 1995 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (3):387.
  33. But is He Genetically Diseased?P. Billings, M. A. Rothstein & A. Lippmann - 1992 - Hastings Center Report 22 (4 Suppl):S18.
  34. Beneficence, Determinism and Justice: An Engagement with the Argument for the Genetic Selection of Intelligence.Kean Birch - 2005 - Bioethics 19 (1):12–28.
    ABSTRACTIn 2001, Julian Savulescu wrote an article entitled ‘Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children’, in which he argued for the genetic selection of intelligence in children. That article contributes to a debate on whether genetic research on intelligence should be undertaken at all and, if so, should intelligence selection be available to potential parents. As such, the question of intelligence selection relates to wider issues concerning the genetic determination of behavioural traits, i.e. alcoholism. This article is designed (...)
  35. The Emergence of Genetic Counseling in Sweden: Examples From Eugenics and Medical Genetics.Maria Björkman - 2015 - Science in Context 28 (3):489-513.
  36. Human Genetics in Hungary.Bela Blasszauer - 1990 - Hastings Center Report 20 (6):39-40.
  37. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990--A British Case History for Legislation on Bioethical Issues.Virginia Bolton, John Osborn & D. Servante - 1992 - Journal International de Bioethique= International Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):95-101.
  38. Genetic Diagnosis of Human Embryos.Andrea Bonnicksen - 1992 - Hastings Center Report 22 (4):5-11.
  39. Parental Procreative Obligation and the Categorisation of Disease: The Case of Cystic Fibrosis.Gabriel T. Bosslet - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (5):280-284.
    The advent of prenatal genetic diagnosis has sparked debates among ethicists and philosophers regarding parental responsibility towards potential offspring. Some have attempted to place moral obligations on parents to not bring about children with certain diseases in order to prevent harm to such children. There has been no rigorous evaluation of cystic fibrosis in this context. This paper will demonstrate cystic fibrosis to have unique properties that make it difficult to categorise among other diseases with the goal of promulgating a (...)
  40. Genetic Dilemmas: Reproductive Technology, Parental Choices, and Children's Futures, by Dena Davis. London: Routledge, 2000. 224 Pp. $22.95. [REVIEW]Jeffrey R. Botkin - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (1):102-105.
    Imagine a genetic counselor working with a young couple pregnant with their first child. The explosion of genetic knowledge and technology in recent years is complicating this professional relationship as a host of new choices brings a few clients with atypical needs. This couple is deaf. They seek not to avoid a child with their disability but rather to assure that the child too will be deaf—a child to share their culture and perspectives on the world. If prenatal diagnosis indicates (...)
  41. Life Beyond the Genetic Blueprint.Ann Boyd - 2007 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 17 (5):138-141.
  42. Genetics and Social Justice.Ann Boyd - 2002 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 12 (5):167-170.
    As the wealth of information streams in from research on the human genome project , the challenge to individuals and societies increases regarding ethical applications. The scientific achievement is impressive and provides a blueprint of the human genome. How shall we use the information as moral agents? The Socratic question, “What is good?” has haunted philosophers for thousands of years and seems the appropriate place to begin thinking through all the choices within genetic medicine. On the one hand, individuals or (...)
  43. Genetic Grammar.Philip J. Boyle - 1992 - Hastings Center Report 22 (4):1-20.
  44. A New Liberal Identity?Gerard V. Bradley - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (2):47-47.
  45. Genetic Aspects of the Genitive in the Semitic Languages.Meïr M. Bravmann & Meir M. Bravmann - 1961 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 81 (4):386.
  46. Next Generation DNA Sequencing: Always Allow an Opt Out.Annelien L. Bredenoord, Rhodé M. Bijlsma & Hans van Delden - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (7):28-30.
  47. Gene Patents.Kerri Anne Brussen - 2011 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 16 (3):9.
    Brussen, Kerri Anne A patent provides the exclusive legal right to a person or company to regulate the distribution, manufacture or use of their invention. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding Gene Patents. Although there is a drive to abolish Gene Patents, we argue that refined and clearly defined regulation would continue to support medical research, avoid exploitation, and be of benefit to public health.
  48. The Ultimate Arrogance: Genetic Engineering and the Human Future.Keith Buchanan - 1988 - New Blackfriars 69 (812):35-44.
  49. Discussions and Reports: The Genetic Method: Some Characteristics of the Genetic Method.Edward Franklin Buchner - 1902 - Psychological Review 9 (5):490-507.
  50. Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control.A. J. Burfoot - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):105-105.
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