Geometry

Edited by Nemi Boris Pelgrom (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
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  1. Why did Fermat believe he had `a truly marvellous demonstration' of FLT?Bhupinder Singh Anand - manuscript
    Conventional wisdom dictates that proofs of mathematical propositions should be treated as necessary, and sufficient, for entailing `significant' mathematical truths only if the proofs are expressed in a---minimally, deemed consistent---formal mathematical theory in terms of: * Axioms/Axiom schemas * Rules of Deduction * Definitions * Lemmas * Theorems * Corollaries. Whilst Andrew Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem FLT, which appeals essentially to geometrical properties of real and complex numbers, can be treated as meeting this criteria, it nevertheless leaves two (...)
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  2. Euclidean Geometry is a Priori.Boris Culina - manuscript
    In the article, an argument is given that Euclidean geometry is a priori in the same way that numbers are a priori, the result of modelling, not the world, but our activities in the world.
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  3. The Point or the Primary Geometric Object.ZERARI Fathi - manuscript
    The definition of a point in geometry is primordial in order to understand the different elements of this branch of mathematics ( line, surface, solids…). This paper aims at shedding fresh light on the concept to demonstrate that it is related to another one named, here, the Primary Geometric Object; both concepts concur to understand the multiplicity of geometries and to provide hints as concerns a new understanding of some concepts in physics such as time, energy, mass….
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  4. Principles and Philosophy of Linear Algebra: A Gentle Introduction.Paul Mayer - manuscript
    Linear Algebra is an extremely important field that extends everyday concepts about geometry and algebra into higher spaces. This text serves as a gentle motivating introduction to the principles (and philosophy) behind linear algebra. This is aimed at undergraduate students taking a linear algebra class - in particular engineering students who are expected to understand and use linear algebra to build and design things, however it may also prove helpful for philosophy majors and anyone else interested in the ideas behind (...)
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  5. Conics and Quadric surfaces.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  6. Cónicas y Superficies Cuádricas.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  7. A Philosopher Looks at Non-Commutative Geometry.Nick Huggett - 2018
    This paper introduces some basic ideas and formalism of physics in non-commutative geometry. My goals are three-fold: first to introduce the basic formal and conceptual ideas of non-commutative geometry, and second to raise and address some philosophical questions about it. Third, more generally to illuminate the point that deriving spacetime from a more fundamental theory requires discovering new modes of `physically salient' derivation.
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  8. Styles of Argumentation in Late 19th Century Geometry and the Structure of Mathematical Modernity.Moritz Epple - forthcoming - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
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  9. Explaining Experience In Nature: The Foundations Of Logic And Apprehension.Steven Ericsson-Zenith - forthcoming - Institute for Advanced Science & Engineering.
    At its core this book is concerned with logic and computation with respect to the mathematical characterization of sentient biophysical structure and its behavior. -/- Three related theories are presented: The first of these provides an explanation of how sentient individuals come to be in the world. The second describes how these individuals operate. And the third proposes a method for reasoning about the behavior of individuals in groups. -/- These theories are based upon a new explanation of experience in (...)
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  10. Greek Mathematics (Arithmetic, Geometry, Proportion Theory) to the Time of Euclid.Ian Mueller - forthcoming - A Companion to Ancient Philosophy.
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  11. Ancient Greek Mathematical Proofs and Metareasoning.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2024 - In Maria Zack & David Waszek (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics. Annals of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics. pp. 15-33.
    We present an approach in which ancient Greek mathematical proofs by Hippocrates of Chios and Euclid are addressed as a form of (guided) intentional reasoning. Schematically, in a proof, we start with a sentence that works as a premise; this sentence is followed by another, the conclusion of what we might take to be an inferential step. That goes on until the last conclusion is reached. Guided by the text, we go through small inferential steps; in each one, we go (...)
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  12. Carnap's Geometrical Methodology: Explication as a Transfer Principle.Matteo De Benedetto - 2023 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 11 (4).
    In this paper, I will offer a novel perspective on Carnapian explication, understanding it as a philosophical analogue of the transfer principle methodology that originated in nineteenth-century projective geometry. Building upon the historical influence that projective geometry exerted on Carnap’s philosophy, I will show how explication can be modeled as a kind of transfer principle that connects, relative to a given task and normatively constrained by the desiderata chosen by the explicators, the functional properties of concepts belonging to different conceptual (...)
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  13. From a Doodle to a Theorem: A Case Study in Mathematical Discovery.Juan Fernández González & Dirk Schlimm - 2023 - Journal of Humanistic Mathematics 13 (1):4-35.
    We present some aspects of the genesis of a geometric construction, which can be carried out with compass and straightedge, from the original idea to the published version (Fernández González 2016). The Midpoint Path Construction makes it possible to multiply the length of a line segment by a rational number between 0 and 1 by constructing only midpoints and a straight line. In the form of an interview, we explore the context and narrative behind the discovery, with first-hand insights by (...)
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  14. Can We Identify the Theorem in Metaphysics 9, 1051a24-27 with Euclid’s Proposition 32? Geometric Deductions for the Discovery of Mathematical Knowledge.Francisco Miguel Ortiz Delgado - 2023 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 33 (66):41-65.
    This paper has two specific goals. The first is to demonstrate that the theorem in MetaphysicsΘ 9, 1051a24-27 is not equiva-lent to Euclid’s Proposition 32 of book I (which contradicts some Aristotelian commentators, such as W. D. Ross, J. L. Heiberg, and T. L. Heith). Agreeing with Henry Mendell’s analysis, I ar-gue that the two theorems are not equivalent, but I offer different reasons for such divergence: I propose a pedagogical-philosoph-ical reason for the Aristotelian theorem being shorter than the Euclidean (...)
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  15. Da Vinci’s Codex Atlanticus, fols. 395r and 686r-686v, refers to Leonardo Pisano volgarizzato, not to Giorgio Valla.Dominique Raynaud - 2023 - Historia Mathematica 64:1-18.
    This article aims at identifying the sources of fols. 395r and 686r-686v of the Codex Atlanticus. These anonymous folios, inserted in Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks, do not deal with the duplication of the cube proper, nor do they derive from Giorgio Valla’s De expetendis et fugiendis rebus (1501), as has been claimed. They deal specifically with the extraction of the cube root by geometric methods. The analysis of the sources by the tracer method reveals that these fragments are taken from (...)
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  16. Mathematical Progress — On Maddy and Beyond.Simon Weisgerber - 2023 - Philosophia Mathematica 31 (1):1-28.
    A key question of the ‘maverick’ tradition of the philosophy of mathematical practice is addressed, namely what is mathematical progress. The investigation is based on an article by Penelope Maddy devoted to this topic in which she considers only contributions ‘of some mathematical importance’ as progress. With the help of a case study from contemporary mathematics, more precisely from tropical geometry, a few issues with her proposal are identified. Taking these issues into consideration, an alternative account of ‘mathematical importance’, broadly (...)
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  17. Idéaux de preuve : explication et pureté.Andrew Arana - 2022 - In Andrew Arana & Marco Panza (eds.), Précis de philosophie de la logique et des mathématiques. Volume 2, philosophie des mathématiques. Paris, France: pp. 387-425.
    Why do mathematics often give several proofs of the same theorem? This is the question raised in this article, introducing the notion of an epistemic ideal and discussing two such ideals, the explanatoriness and purity of proof.
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  18. Objectivity and Rigor in Classical Italian Algebraic Geometry.Silvia De Toffoli & Claudio Fontanari - 2022 - Noesis 38:195-212.
    The classification of algebraic surfaces by the Italian School of algebraic geometry is universally recognized as a breakthrough in 20th-century mathematics. The methods by which it was achieved do not, however, meet the modern standard of rigor and therefore appear dubious from a contemporary viewpoint. In this article, we offer a glimpse into the mathematical practice of the three leading exponents of the Italian School of algebraic geometry: Castelnuovo, Enriques, and Severi. We then bring into focus their distinctive conception of (...)
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  19. An Okapi Hypothesis: Non-Euclidean Geometry and the Professional Expert in American Mathematics.Jemma Lorenat - 2022 - Isis 113 (1):85-107.
    Open Court began publishingThe Monistin 1890 as a journal“devotedto the philosophy of science”that regularly included mathematics. The audiencewas understood to be“cultured people who have not a technical mathematicaltraining”but nevertheless“have a mathematical penchant.”With these constraints,the mathematical content varied from recreations to logical foundations, but every-one had something to say about non-Euclidean geometry, in debates that rangedfrom psychology to semantics. The focus in this essay is on the contested value ofmathematical expertise in legitimating what should be considered as mathematics.While some mathematicians urgedThe (...)
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  20. The Constitution of Weyl’s Pure Infinitesimal World Geometry.C. D. McCoy - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):189–208.
    Hermann Weyl was one of the most important figures involved in the early elaboration of the general theory of relativity and its fundamentally geometrical spacetime picture of the world. Weyl’s development of “pure infinitesimal geometry” out of relativity theory was the basis of his remarkable attempt at unifying gravitation and electromagnetism. Many interpreters have focused primarily on Weyl’s philosophical influences, especially the influence of Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology, as the motivation for these efforts. In this article, I argue both that these (...)
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  21. Case for the Irreducibility of Geometry to Algebra†.Victor Pambuccian & Celia Schacht - 2022 - Philosophia Mathematica 30 (1):1-31.
    This paper provides a definitive answer, based on considerations derived from first-order logic, to the question regarding the status of elementary geometry, whether elementary geometry can be reduced to algebra. The answer we arrive at is negative, and is based on a series of structural questions that can be asked only inside the geometric formal theory, as well as the consideration of reverse geometry, which is the art of finding minimal axiom systems strong enough to prove certain geometrical theorems, given (...)
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  22. La Neutro-Geometría y la Anti-Geometría como Alternativas y Generalizaciones de las Geometrías no Euclidianas.Florentin Smarandache - 2022 - Neutrosophic Computing and Machine Learning 20 (1):91-104.
    In this paper we extend Neutro-Algebra and Anti-Algebra to geometric spaces, founding Neutro/Geometry and AntiGeometry. While Non-Euclidean Geometries resulted from the total negation of a specific axiom (Euclid's Fifth Postulate), AntiGeometry results from the total negation of any axiom or even more axioms of any geometric axiomatic system (Euclidean, Hilbert, etc. ) and of any type of geometry such as Geometry (Euclidean, Projective, Finite, Differential, Algebraic, Complex, Discrete, Computational, Molecular, Convex, etc.), and Neutro-Geometry results from the partial negation of one (...)
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  23. Are Euclid's Diagrams Representations? On an Argument by Ken Manders.David Waszek - 2022 - In Maria Zack & Dirk Schlimm (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics. The CSHPM 2019-2020 Volume. Birkhäuser. pp. 115-127.
    In his well-known paper on Euclid’s geometry, Ken Manders sketches an argument against conceiving the diagrams of the Elements in ‘semantic’ terms, that is, against treating them as representations—resting his case on Euclid’s striking use of ‘impossible’ diagrams in some proofs by contradiction. This paper spells out, clarifies and assesses Manders’s argument, showing that it only succeeds against a particular semantic view of diagrams and can be evaded by adopting others, but arguing that Manders nevertheless makes a compelling case that (...)
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  24. Mathematical Selves and the Shaping of Mathematical Modernism: Conflicting Epistemic Ideals in the Emergence of Enumerative Geometry.Nicolas Michel - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):68-92.
  25. The Homeomorphism of Minkowski Space and the Separable Complex Hilbert Space: The physical, Mathematical and Philosophical Interpretations.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (3):1-22.
    A homeomorphism is built between the separable complex Hilbert space (quantum mechanics) and Minkowski space (special relativity) by meditation of quantum information (i.e. qubit by qubit). That homeomorphism can be interpreted physically as the invariance to a reference frame within a system and its unambiguous counterpart out of the system. The same idea can be applied to Poincaré’s conjecture (proved by G. Perelman) hinting at another way for proving it, more concise and meaningful physically. Furthermore, the conjecture can be generalized (...)
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  26. NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry are alternatives and generalizations of the Non-Euclidean Geometries (revisited).Florentin Smarandache - 2021 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 46 (1):456-477.
    In this paper we extend the NeutroAlgebra & AntiAlgebra to the geometric spaces, by founding the NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry. While the Non-Euclidean Geometries resulted from the total negation of one specific axiom (Euclid’s Fifth Postulate), the AntiGeometry results from the total negation of any axiom or even of more axioms from any geometric axiomatic system (Euclid’s, Hilbert’s, etc.) and from any type of geometry such as (Euclidean, Projective, Finite, Affine, Differential, Algebraic, Complex, Discrete, Computational, Molecular, Convex, etc.) Geometry, and the (...)
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  27. NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry are alternatives and generalizations of the Non-Euclidean Geometries (revisited).Florentin Smarandache - 2021 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 46 (1):456-477.
    In this paper we extend the NeutroAlgebra & AntiAlgebra to the geometric spaces, by founding the NeutroGeometry & AntiGeometry.
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  28. Points as Higher-order Constructs: Whitehead’s Method of Extensive Abstraction.Achille C. Varzi - 2021 - In Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman (eds.), The History of Continua: Philosophical and Mathematical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 347–378.
    Euclid’s definition of a point as “that which has no part” has been a major source of controversy in relation to the epistemological and ontological presuppositions of classical geometry, from the medieval and modern disputes on indivisibilism to the full development of point-free geometries in the 20th century. Such theories stem from the general idea that all talk of points as putative lower-dimensional entities must and can be recovered in terms of suitable higher-order constructs involving only extended regions (or bodies). (...)
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  29. From practical to pure geometry and back.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2020 - Revista Brasileira de História da Matemática 20 (39):13-33.
    The purpose of this work is to address the relation existing between ancient Greek practical geometry and ancient Greek pure geometry. In the first part of the work, we will consider practical and pure geometry and how pure geometry can be seen, in some respects, as arising from an idealization of practical geometry. From an analysis of relevant extant texts, we will make explicit the idealizations at play in pure geometry in relation to practical geometry, some of which are basically (...)
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  30. Continua.Lu Chen - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    The subject of my dissertation is the structure of continua and, in particular, of physical space and time. Consider the region of space you occupy: is it composed of indivisible parts? Are the indivisible parts, if any, extended? Are there infinitesimal parts? The standard view that space is composed of unextended points faces both \textit{a priori} and empirical difficulties. In my dissertation, I develop and evaluate several novel approaches to these questions based on metaphysical, mathematical and physical considerations. In particular, (...)
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  31. Resenha do livro "Variational Approach to Gravity Field Theories - From Newton to Einstein and Beyond".Alessio Gava - 2020 - Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física 42.
    This is a critical review of the book Variational Approach to Gravity Field Theories - From Newton to Einstein and Beyond (2017), written by the Italian astrophysicist Alberto Vecchiato. In his work, Vecchiato shows that physics, as we know it, can be built up from simple mathematical models that become more complex step by step by gradually introducing new principles. The reader is invited to follow the steps that lead from classical physics to relativity and to understand how this happens (...)
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  32. The isomorphism of Minkowski space and the separable complex Hilbert space and its physical interpretation.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier:SSRN) 13 (31):1-3.
    An isomorphism is built between the separable complex Hilbert space (quantum mechanics) and Minkowski space (special relativity) by meditation of quantum information (i.e. qubit by qubit). That isomorphism can be interpreted physically as the invariance between a reference frame within a system and its unambiguous counterpart out of the system. The same idea can be applied to Poincaré’s conjecture (proved by G. Perelman) hinting another way for proving it, more concise and meaningful physically. Mathematically, the isomorphism means the invariance to (...)
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  33. Mathématiques et architecture: le tracé de l’entasis par Nicolas-François Blondel.Dominique Raynaud - 2020 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 74 (5):445-468.
    In Résolution des quatre principaux problèmes d’architecture (1673) then in Cours d’architecture (1683), the architect–mathematician Nicolas-François Blondel addresses one of the most famous architectural problems of all times, that of the reduction in columns (entasis). The interest of the text lies in the variety of subjects that are linked to this issue. (1) The text is a response to the challenge launched by Curabelle in 1664 under the name Étrenne à tous les architectes; (2) Blondel mathematicizes the problem in the (...)
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  34. Geometrical objects and figures in practical, pure, and applied geometry.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2020 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 9 (15):33-51.
    The purpose of this work is to address what notion of geometrical object and geometrical figure we have in different kinds of geometry: practical, pure, and applied. Also, we address the relation between geometrical objects and figures when this is possible, which is the case of pure and applied geometry. In practical geometry it turns out that there is no conception of geometrical object.
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  35. Explicaciones Geométrico-Diagramáticas en Física desde una Perspectiva Inferencial.Javier Anta - 2019 - Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia 38 (19).
    El primer objetivo de este artículo es mostrar que explicaciones genuinamente geométricas/matemáticas e intrínsecamente diagramáticas de fenómenos físicos no solo son posibles en la práctica científica, sino que además comportan un potencial epistémico que sus contrapartes simbólico-verbales carecen. Como ejemplo representativo utilizaremos la metodología geométrica de John Wheeler (1963) para calcular cantidades físicas en una reacción nuclear. Como segundo objetivo pretendemos analizar, desde un marco inferencial, la garantía epistémica de este tipo de explicaciones en términos de dependencia sintáctica y semántica (...)
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  36. Geometry of motion: some elements of its historical development.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2019 - ArtefaCToS. Revista de Estudios de la Ciencia y la Tecnología 8 (2):4-26.
    in this paper we return to Marshall Clagett’s view about the existence of an ancient Greek geometry of motion. It can be read in two ways. As a basic presentation of ancient Greek geometry of motion, followed by some aspects of its further development in landmark works by Galileo and Newton. Conversely, it can be read as a basic presentation of aspects of Galileo’s and Newton’s mathematics that can be considered as developments of a geometry of motion that was first (...)
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  37. Axiomatizing Changing Conceptions of the Geometric Continuum II: Archimedes-Descartes-Hilbert-Tarski†.John T. Baldwin - 2019 - Philosophia Mathematica 27 (1):33-60.
    In Part I of this paper we argued that the first-order systems HP5 and EG are modest complete descriptive axiomatization of most of Euclidean geometry. In this paper we discuss two further modest complete descriptive axiomatizations: Tarksi’s for Cartesian geometry and new systems for adding $$\pi$$. In contrast we find Hilbert’s full second-order system immodest for geometrical purposes but appropriate as a foundation for mathematical analysis.
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  38. Dediche tortuose. La Geometria morale di Vincenzo Viviani e gli imbarazzi dell’eredità galileiana.Sara Bonechi - 2019 - Noctua 6 (1–2):75-181.
    This study of the history and contents of a hitherto unedited work on geometry by Vincenzo Viviani seeks to present a picture of the scientific environment in Italy in the second half of the 17th century, with particular emphasis on Tuscany and the impact the condemnation of Galileo had on ongoing scholarship. Information derived from unedited or less well-known material serves to illuminate a range of prominent and marginal figures who adopted different strategies for the dissemination of Galileo’s thought and (...)
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  39. Geoffrey Hellman and Stewart Shapiro: Varieties of Continua: From Regions to Points and Back.Maureen Donnelly - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (3):174-178.
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  40. The representation selection problem: Why we should favor the geometric-module framework of spatial reorientation over the view-matching framework.Alexandre Duval - 2019 - Cognition 192 (C):103985.
    Many species rely on the three-dimensional surface layout of an environment to find a desired goal following disorientation. They generally do so to the exclusion of other important spatial cues. Two influential frameworks for explaining that phenomenon are provided by geometric-module theories and view-matching theories of reorientation respectively. The former posit a module that operates only on representations of the global geo- metry of three-dimensional surfaces to guide behavior. The latter place snapshots, stored representations of the subject’s two-dimensional retinal stimulation (...)
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  41. Foundations of geometric cognition.Mateusz Hohol - 2019 - London-New York: Routledge.
    The cognitive foundations of geometry have puzzled academics for a long time, and even today are mostly unknown to many scholars, including mathematical cognition researchers. -/- Foundations of Geometric Cognition shows that basic geometric skills are deeply hardwired in the visuospatial cognitive capacities of our brains, namely spatial navigation and object recognition. These capacities, shared with non-human animals and appearing in early stages of the human ontogeny, cannot, however, fully explain a uniquely human form of geometric cognition. In the book, (...)
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  42. Jean-François Niceron: Curious Perspective, being an English translation of his 1652 Treatise La Perspective Curieuse, with a mathematical and historical commentary.James L. Hunt, John Sharp & Dominique Raynaud - 2019 - Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
    To students and practitioners of anamorphic art, the name of Jean-François Niceron is more than preeminent; it has become iconic. La Perspective Curieuse was first published in 1638. An augmented version was then translated into Latin by Mersenne in 1646. A newly amended and augmented version was retranslated into French by Roberval in 1652. This book is an English translation of the 1652 text, with reference to the 1638 and 1646 versions. Considering the continued high reputation of the book, the (...)
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  43. Kant and the Impossibility of Non‐Euclidean Space.Tufan Kıymaz - 2019 - Philosophical Forum 50 (4):485-491.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem raised by the non-Euclidean geometries for the Kantian claim that the axioms of Euclidean geometry are synthetic a priori, and hence necessarily true. Although the Kantian view of geometry faces a serious challenge from non-Euclidean geometries, there are some aspects of Kant’s view about geometry that can still be plausible. I argue that Euclidean geometry, as a science, cannot be synthetic a priori, but the empirical world can still be necessarily Euclidean.
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  44. Andalò di Negro’s De compositione astrolabii: a critical edition with English translation and notes.Bernardo Mota, Samuel Gessner & Dominique Raynaud - 2019 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 73 (6):551-617.
    In this article, we publish the critical edition of Andalò di Negro’s De compositione astrolabii, with English translation and commentary. The mathematician and astronomer Andalò di Negro presumably redacted this treatise on the astrolabe in the 1330s, while residing at the court of King Robert of Naples. The present edition has three purposes: first, to make available a text missing from the previous compilations of works by Andalò di Negro; second, to revise a privately circulated edition of the text; and (...)
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  45. Francesca Biagioli: Space, Number, and Geometry from Helmholtz to Cassirer: Springer, Dordrecht, 2016, 239 pp, $109.99 (Hardcover), ISBN: 978-3-319-31777-9. [REVIEW]Lydia Patton - 2019 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 50 (2):311-315.
    Francesca Biagioli’s Space, Number, and Geometry from Helmholtz to Cassirer is a substantial and pathbreaking contribution to the energetic and growing field of researchers delving into the physics, physiology, psychology, and mathematics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The book provides a bracing and painstakingly researched re-appreciation of the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and Ernst Cassirer, and of their place in the tradition, and is worth study for that alone. The contributions of the book go far beyond that, however. (...)
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  46. Diversity, Simplicity and Selection of Geometric Constructions: The Case of the n-Section of a Straight Line.Dominique Raynaud - 2019 - Nexus Network Journal 21:405-424.
    This article is a study of geometric constructions. We consider, as an illustration, the methods used for dividing the straight line into n equal parts (n-section). Architects and practicioners of classical Europe had at their disposal a broad range of geometric constructions: ancient ones were edited and translated, whereas new solutions were constantly published. The wide variety and reasons for selection of these geometric constructions are puzzling: the most widespread construction was not the simplest one. This article wonders why so (...)
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  47. Fine-structure constant from Sommerfeld to Feynman.Michael A. Sherbon - 2019 - Journal of Advances in Physics 16 (1):335-343.
    The fine-structure constant, which determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction, is briefly reviewed beginning with its introduction by Arnold Sommerfeld and also includes the interest of Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, Richard Feynman and others. Sommerfeld was very much a Pythagorean and sometimes compared to Johannes Kepler. The archetypal Pythagorean triangle has long been known as a hiding place for the golden ratio. More recently, the quartic polynomial has also been found as a hiding place for the golden ratio. The (...)
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  48. Perverted Space-Time Geodesy in Einstein’s Views on Geometry.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2018 - Philosophia Scientiae 22:137-162.
    A perverted space-time geodesy results from the idea of variable rods and clocks, whose length and rates are taken to be affected by the gravitational field. By contrast, what we might call a concrete geodesy relies on the idea of invariable unit-measuring rods and clocks. Indeed, this is a basic assumption of general relativity. Variable rods and clocks lead to a perverted geodesy, in the sense that a curved space-time may be seen as a result of a departure from the (...)
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  49. An Elementary System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry Based on Symmetry Principles.Boris Čulina - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (2):155-180.
    In this article I develop an elementary system of axioms for Euclidean geometry. On one hand, the system is based on the symmetry principles which express our a priori ignorant approach to space: all places are the same to us, all directions are the same to us and all units of length we use to create geometric figures are the same to us. On the other hand, through the process of algebraic simplification, this system of axioms directly provides the Weyl’s (...)
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  50. A Priori Concepts in Euclidean Proof.Peter Fisher Epstein - 2018 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 118 (3):407-417.
    With the discovery of consistent non-Euclidean geometries, the a priori status of Euclidean proof was radically undermined. In response, philosophers proposed two revisionary interpretations of the practice: some argued that Euclidean proof is a purely formal system of deductive logic; others suggested that Euclidean reasoning is empirical, employing concepts derived from experience. I argue that both interpretations fail to capture the true nature of our geometrical thought. Euclidean proof is not a system of pure logic, but one in which our (...)
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