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  1. Euclidean Geometry is a Priori.Boris Culina - manuscript
    In the article, an argument is given that Euclidean geometry is a priori in the same way that numbers are a priori, the result of modelling, not the world, but our activities in the world.
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  2. The Point or the Primary Geometric Object.ZERARI Fathi - manuscript
    The definition of a point in geometry is primordial in order to understand the different elements of this branch of mathematics ( line, surface, solids…). This paper aims at shedding fresh light on the concept to demonstrate that it is related to another one named, here, the Primary Geometric Object; both concepts concur to understand the multiplicity of geometries and to provide hints as concerns a new understanding of some concepts in physics such as time, energy, mass….
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  3. Are the Notions of Past, Present and Future Compatible with the General Theory of Relativity?Daniel David Sega Neuman & Daniel Galviz - manuscript
    The notions of time and causality are revisited, as well as the A- and B-theory of time, in order to determine which theory of time is most compatible with relativistic spacetimes. By considering orientable spacetimes and defining a time-orientation, we formalize the concepts of a time-series in relativistic spacetimes; A-theory and B-theory are given mathematical descriptions within the formalism of General Relativity. As a result, in time-orientable spacetimes, the notions of events being in the future and in the past, which (...)
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  4. Conics and Quadric surfaces.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  5. Cónicas y Superficies Cuádricas.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  6. Figure..Stephen Lester Thompson - manuscript
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  7. Informal and Formal Proofs, Metalogic, and the Groundedness Problem.Mario Bacelar Valente - manuscript
    When modeling informal proofs like that of Euclid’s Elements using a sound logical system, we go from proofs seen as somewhat unrigorous – even having gaps to be filled – to rigorous proofs. However, metalogic grounds the soundness of our logical system, and proofs in metalogic are not like formal proofs and look suspiciously like the informal proofs. This brings about what I am calling here the groundedness problem: how can we decide with certainty that our metalogical proofs are rigorous (...)
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  8. A Philosopher Looks at Non-Commutative Geometry.Nick Huggett - 2018
    This paper introduces some basic ideas and formalism of physics in non-commutative geometry. My goals are three-fold: first to introduce the basic formal and conceptual ideas of non-commutative geometry, and second to raise and address some philosophical questions about it. Third, more generally to illuminate the point that deriving spacetime from a more fundamental theory requires discovering new modes of `physically salient' derivation.
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  9. Explaining Experience In Nature: The Foundations Of Logic And Apprehension.Steven Ericsson-Zenith - forthcoming - Institute for Advanced Science & Engineering.
    At its core this book is concerned with logic and computation with respect to the mathematical characterization of sentient biophysical structure and its behavior. -/- Three related theories are presented: The first of these provides an explanation of how sentient individuals come to be in the world. The second describes how these individuals operate. And the third proposes a method for reasoning about the behavior of individuals in groups. -/- These theories are based upon a new explanation of experience in (...)
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  10. Electromagnetic Field Waves.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  11. Origin of Matter and Time.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  12. Unified Electromagnetic Fields.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  13. Points as Higher-Order Constructs: Whitehead’s Method of Extensive Abstraction.Achille C. Varzi - forthcoming - In Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman (eds.), The History of Continua: Philosophical and Mathematical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Euclid’s definition of a point as “that which has no part” has been a major source of controversy in relation to the epistemological and ontological presuppositions of classical geometry, from the medieval and modern disputes on indivisibilism to the full development of point-free geometries in the 20th century. Such theories stem from the general idea that all talk of points as putative lower-dimensional entities must and can be recovered in terms of suitable higher-order constructs involving only extended regions (or bodies). (...)
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  14. Mathematical Selves and the Shaping of Mathematical Modernism: Conflicting Epistemic Ideals in the Emergence of Enumerative Geometry.Nicolas Michel - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):68-92.
  15. How (and Why) the Conservation of a Circle is the Core (and Only) Dynamic in Nature.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Solving Navier-Stokes and integrating it with Bose-Einstein. Moving beyond ‘mathematics’ and ‘physics.’ And, philosophy. Integrating 'point' 'line' 'circle.' (Euclid with 'reality.').
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  16. From Practical to Pure Geometry and Back.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2020 - Revista Brasileira de História da Matemática 20 (39):13-33.
    The purpose of this work is to address the relation existing between ancient Greek practical geometry and ancient Greek pure geometry. In the first part of the work, we will consider practical and pure geometry and how pure geometry can be seen, in some respects, as arising from an idealization of practical geometry. From an analysis of relevant extant texts, we will make explicit the idealizations at play in pure geometry in relation to practical geometry, some of which are basically (...)
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  17. Continua.Lu Chen - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    The subject of my dissertation is the structure of continua and, in particular, of physical space and time. Consider the region of space you occupy: is it composed of indivisible parts? Are the indivisible parts, if any, extended? Are there infinitesimal parts? The standard view that space is composed of unextended points faces both \textit{a priori} and empirical difficulties. In my dissertation, I develop and evaluate several novel approaches to these questions based on metaphysical, mathematical and physical considerations. In particular, (...)
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  18. Resenha do livro "Variational Approach to Gravity Field Theories - From Newton to Einstein and Beyond".Alessio Gava - 2020 - Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física 42.
    This is a critical review of the book Variational Approach to Gravity Field Theories - From Newton to Einstein and Beyond (2017), written by the Italian astrophysicist Alberto Vecchiato. In his work, Vecchiato shows that physics, as we know it, can be built up from simple mathematical models that become more complex step by step by gradually introducing new principles. The reader is invited to follow the steps that lead from classical physics to relativity and to understand how this happens (...)
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  19. The Isomorphism of Minkowski Space and the Separable Complex Hilbert Space and its Physical Interpretation.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier:SSRN) 13 (31):1-3.
    An isomorphism is built between the separable complex Hilbert space (quantum mechanics) and Minkowski space (special relativity) by meditation of quantum information (i.e. qubit by qubit). That isomorphism can be interpreted physically as the invariance between a reference frame within a system and its unambiguous counterpart out of the system. The same idea can be applied to Poincaré’s conjecture (proved by G. Perelman) hinting another way for proving it, more concise and meaningful physically. Mathematically, the isomorphism means the invariance to (...)
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  20. Mathématiques et architecture: le tracé de l’entasis par Nicolas-François Blondel.Dominique Raynaud - 2020 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 74 (5):445-468.
    In Résolution des quatre principaux problèmes d’architecture then in Cours d’architecture, the architect–mathematician Nicolas-François Blondel addresses one of the most famous architectural problems of all times, that of the reduction in columns. The interest of the text lies in the variety of subjects that are linked to this issue. The text is a response to the challenge launched by Curabelle in 1664 under the name Étrenne à tous les architectes; Blondel mathematicizes the problem in the “style of the Ancients”; The (...)
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  21. Geometrical Objects and Figures in Practical, Pure, and Applied Geometry.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2020 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 9 (15):33-51.
    The purpose of this work is to address what notion of geometrical object and geometrical figure we have in different kinds of geometry: practical, pure, and applied. Also, we address the relation between geometrical objects and figures when this is possible, which is the case of pure and applied geometry. In practical geometry it turns out that there is no conception of geometrical object.
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  22. Explicaciones Geométrico-Diagramáticas en Física desde una Perspectiva Inferencial.Javier Anta - 2019 - Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia 38 (19).
    El primer objetivo de este artículo es mostrar que explicaciones genuinamente geométricas/matemáticas e intrínsecamente diagramáticas de fenómenos físicos no solo son posibles en la práctica científica, sino que además comportan un potencial epistémico que sus contrapartes simbólico-verbales carecen. Como ejemplo representativo utilizaremos la metodología geométrica de John Wheeler (1963) para calcular cantidades físicas en una reacción nuclear. Como segundo objetivo pretendemos analizar, desde un marco inferencial, la garantía epistémica de este tipo de explicaciones en términos de dependencia sintáctica y semántica (...)
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  23. Geometry of Motion: Some Elements of its Historical Development.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2019 - ArtefaCToS. Revista de Estudios de la Ciencia y la Tecnología 8 (2):4-26.
    in this paper we return to Marshall Clagett’s view about the existence of an ancient Greek geometry of motion. It can be read in two ways. As a basic presentation of ancient Greek geometry of motion, followed by some aspects of its further development in landmark works by Galileo and Newton. Conversely, it can be read as a basic presentation of aspects of Galileo’s and Newton’s mathematics that can be considered as developments of a geometry of motion that was first (...)
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  24. Kant and the Impossibility of Non‐Euclidean Space.Tufan Kıymaz - 2019 - Philosophical Forum 50 (4):485-491.
    In this paper, I discuss the problem raised by the non-Euclidean geometries for the Kantian claim that the axioms of Euclidean geometry are synthetic a priori, and hence necessarily true. Although the Kantian view of geometry faces a serious challenge from non-Euclidean geometries, there are some aspects of Kant’s view about geometry that can still be plausible. I argue that Euclidean geometry, as a science, cannot be synthetic a priori, but the empirical world can still be necessarily Euclidean.
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  25. Andalò di Negro’s De Compositione Astrolabii: A Critical Edition with English Translation and Notes.Bernardo Mota, Samuel Gessner & Dominique Raynaud - 2019 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 73 (6):551-617.
    In this article, we publish the critical edition of Andalò di Negro’s De compositione astrolabii, with English translation and commentary. The mathematician and astronomer Andalò di Negro presumably redacted this treatise on the astrolabe in the 1330s, while residing at the court of King Robert of Naples. The present edition has three purposes: first, to make available a text missing from the previous compilations of works by Andalò di Negro; second, to revise a privately circulated edition of the text; and (...)
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  26. Francesca Biagioli: Space, Number, and Geometry From Helmholtz to Cassirer: Springer, Dordrecht, 2016, 239 Pp, $109.99 , ISBN: 978-3-319-31777-9. [REVIEW]Lydia Patton - 2019 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 50 (2):311-315.
    Francesca Biagioli’s Space, Number, and Geometry from Helmholtz to Cassirer is a substantial and pathbreaking contribution to the energetic and growing field of researchers delving into the physics, physiology, psychology, and mathematics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The book provides a bracing and painstakingly researched re-appreciation of the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and Ernst Cassirer, and of their place in the tradition, and is worth study for that alone. The contributions of the book go far beyond that, however. (...)
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  27. Fine-Structure Constant From Sommerfeld to Feynman.Michael A. Sherbon - 2019 - Journal of Advances in Physics 16 (1):335-343.
    The fine-structure constant, which determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction, is briefly reviewed beginning with its introduction by Arnold Sommerfeld and also includes the interest of Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, Richard Feynman and others. Sommerfeld was very much a Pythagorean and sometimes compared to Johannes Kepler. The archetypal Pythagorean triangle has long been known as a hiding place for the golden ratio. More recently, the quartic polynomial has also been found as a hiding place for the golden ratio. The (...)
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  28. Perverted Space-Time Geodesy in Einstein’s Views on Geometry.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2018 - Philosophia Scientiæ. Travaux d'Histoire Et de Philosophie des Sciences 22:137-162.
    A perverted space-time geodesy results from the idea of variable rods and clocks, whose length and rates are taken to be a ected by the gravitational field. By contrast, what we might call a concrete geodesy relies on the idea of invariable unit-measuring rods and clocks. Indeed, this is a basic assumption of general relativity. Variable rods and clocks lead to a perverted geodesy, in the sense that a curved space-time may be seen as a result of a departure from (...)
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  29. An Elementary System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry Based on Symmetry Principles.Boris Čulina - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (2):155-180.
    In this article I develop an elementary system of axioms for Euclidean geometry. On one hand, the system is based on the symmetry principles which express our a priori ignorant approach to space: all places are the same to us, all directions are the same to us and all units of length we use to create geometric figures are the same to us. On the other hand, through the process of algebraic simplification, this system of axioms directly provides the Weyl’s (...)
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  30. A Priori Concepts in Euclidean Proof.Peter Fisher Epstein - 2018 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 118 (3):407-417.
    With the discovery of consistent non-Euclidean geometries, the a priori status of Euclidean proof was radically undermined. In response, philosophers proposed two revisionary interpretations of the practice: some argued that Euclidean proof is a purely formal system of deductive logic; others suggested that Euclidean reasoning is empirical, employing concepts derived from experience. I argue that both interpretations fail to capture the true nature of our geometrical thought. Euclidean proof is not a system of pure logic, but one in which our (...)
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  31. Poincaré on the Foundations of Arithmetic and Geometry. Part 2: Intuition and Unity in Mathematics.Katherine Dunlop - 2017 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 7 (1):88-107.
    Part 1 of this article exposed a tension between Poincaré’s views of arithmetic and geometry and argued that it could not be resolved by taking geometry to depend on arithmetic. Part 2 aims to resolve the tension by supposing not merely that intuition’s role is to justify induction on the natural numbers but rather that it also functions to acquaint us with the unity of orders and structures and show practices to fit or harmonize with experience. I argue that in (...)
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  32. A Survey of Geometric Algebra and Geometric Calculus.Alan Macdonald - 2017 - Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras 27:853-891.
    The paper is an introduction to geometric algebra and geometric calculus for those with a knowledge of undergraduate mathematics. No knowledge of physics is required. The section Further Study lists many papers available on the web.
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  33. Is Geometry Analytic?David Mwakima - 2017 - Dianoia 1 (4):66 - 78.
    In this paper I present critical evaluations of Ayer and Putnam's views on the analyticity of geometry. By drawing on the historico-philosophical work of Michael Friedman on the relativized apriori; and Roberto Torretti on the foundations of geometry, I show how we can make sense of the assertion that pure geometry is analytic in Carnap's sense.
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  34. Fundamental Physics and the Fine-Structure Constant.Michael A. Sherbon - 2017 - International Journal of Physical Research 5 (2):46-48.
    From the exponential function of Euler’s equation to the geometry of a fundamental form, a calculation of the fine-structure constant and its relationship to the proton-electron mass ratio is given. Equations are found for the fundamental constants of the four forces of nature: electromagnetism, the weak force, the strong force and the force of gravitation. Symmetry principles are then associated with traditional physical measures.
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  35. Poincaré on the Foundation of Geometry in the Understanding.Jeremy Shipley - 2017 - In Maria Zack & Dirk Schlimm (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics: The CSHPM 2016 Annual Meeting in Calgary, Alberta. Springer. pp. 19-37.
    This paper is about Poincaré’s view of the foundations of geometry. According to the established view, which has been inherited from the logical positivists, Poincaré, like Hilbert, held that axioms in geometry are schemata that provide implicit definitions of geometric terms, a view he expresses by stating that the axioms of geometry are “definitions in disguise.” I argue that this view does not accord well with Poincaré’s core commitment in the philosophy of geometry: the view that geometry is the study (...)
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  36. Einstein’s Physical Chronogeometry.Mario Bacelar Valente - 2017 - Manuscrito 40 (1):241-278.
    ABSTRACT In Einstein’s physical geometry, the geometry of space and the uniformity of time are taken to be non-conventional. However, due to the stipulation of the isotropy of the one-way speed of light in the synchronization of clocks, as it stands, Einstein’s views do not seem to apply to the whole of the Minkowski space-time. In this work we will see how Einstein’s views can be applied to the Minkowski space-time. In this way, when adopting Einstein’s views, chronogeometry is a (...)
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  37. Universal Intuitions of Spatial Relations in Elementary Geometry.Ineke J. M. Van der Ham, Yacin Hamami & John Mumma - 2017 - Journal of Cognitive Psychology 29 (3):269-278.
    Spatial relations are central to geometrical thinking. With respect to the classical elementary geometry of Euclid’s Elements, a distinction between co-exact, or qualitative, and exact, or metric, spatial relations has recently been advanced as fundamental. We tested the universality of intuitions of these relations in a group of Senegalese and Dutch participants. Participants performed an odd-one-out task with stimuli that in all but one case display a particular spatial relation between geometric objects. As the exact/co-exact distinction is closely related to (...)
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  38. Imagination in Mathematics.Andrew Arana - 2016 - In Amy Kind (ed.), Routledge Handbook on the Philosophy of Imagination. Routledge. pp. 463-477.
    This article will consider imagination in mathematics from a historical point of view, noting the key moments in its conception during the ancient, modern and contemporary eras.
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  39. Review of Poincaré, Philosopher of Science. [REVIEW]Nathan Lackey & Cory Wright - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (4):157–159.
  40. Aristotelian Continua.Øystein Linnebo, Stewart Shapiro & Geoffrey Hellman - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (2):214-246.
    In previous work, Hellman and Shapiro present a regions-based account of a one-dimensional continuum. This paper produces a more Aristotelian theory, eschewing the existence of points and the use of infinite sets or pluralities. We first show how to modify the original theory. There are a number of theorems that have to be added as axioms. Building on some work by Linnebo, we then show how to take the ‘potential’ nature of the usual operations seriously, by using a modal language, (...)
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  41. Empirical Conditions for a Reidean Geometry of Visual Experience.Hannes Matthiessen - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):511-522.
    Thomas Reid's Geometry of Visibles, according to which the geometrical properties of an object's perspectival appearance equal the geometrical properties of its projection on the inside of a sphere with the eye in its centre allows for two different interpretations. It may (1) be understood as a theory about phenomenal visual space – i.e. an account of how things appear to human observers from a certain point of view – or it may (2) be seen as a mathematical model of (...)
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  42. Introduction: The Geometry of the Visual Field—Early Modern and Contemporary Approaches.Hannes Matthiessen - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):461-463.
  43. A Newtonian Tale Details on Notes and Proofs in Geneva Edition of Newton's Principia.Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti - 2016 - BSHM-Journal of the British Society for the History of Mathematics:1-19.
    Based on our research regarding the relationship between physics and mathematics in HPS, and recently on Geneva Edition of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1739–42) by Thomas Le Seur (1703–70) and François Jacquier (1711–88), in this paper we present some aspects of such Edition: a combination of editorial features and scientific aims. The proof of Proposition XLIII is presented and commented as a case study.
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  44. What Is the Validity Domain of Einstein’s Equations? Distributional Solutions Over Singularities and Topological Links in Geometrodynamics.Elias Zafiris - 2016 - 100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: The Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year.
    The existence of singularities alerts that one of the highest priorities of a centennial perspective on general relativity should be a careful re-thinking of the validity domain of Einstein’s field equations. We address the problem of constructing distinguishable extensions of the smooth spacetime manifold model, which can incorporate singularities, while retaining the form of the field equations. The sheaf-theoretic formulation of this problem is tantamount to extending the algebra sheaf of smooth functions to a distribution-like algebra sheaf in which the (...)
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  45. Differential Sheaves and Connections: A Natural Approach to Physical Geometry.Anastasios Mallios & Elias Zafiris - 2015 - World Scientific.
    This unique book provides a self-contained conceptual and technical introduction to the theory of differential sheaves. This serves both the newcomer and the experienced researcher in undertaking a background-independent, natural and relational approach to "physical geometry". In this manner, this book is situated at the crossroads between the foundations of mathematical analysis with a view toward differential geometry and the foundations of theoretical physics with a view toward quantum mechanics and quantum gravity. The unifying thread is provided by the theory (...)
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  46. Géométrie pratique. Géomètres, ingénieurs, architectes, XVIe-XVIIIe siècles.Dominique Raynaud (ed.) - 2015 - Besançon: Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté.
    Actes du colloque de Grenoble (8-9 octobre 2009), avec les contributions de Samuel Gessner (Lisbone), Eberhard Knobloch (Berlin), Jorge Galindo Díaz (Bogotá), Joël Sakarovitch (Paris) et Dominique Raynaud (Grenoble).
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  47. Un fragment du De speculis comburentibus de Regiomontanus copié par Toscanelli et inséré dans les carnets de Leonardo.Dominique Raynaud - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (3):306-336.
    This article studies a fragment on the conic sections that appear in the Codex Atlanticus, fols. 611rb/915ra. Arguments are put forward to assemble these two folios. Their comparison with the Latin texts available before 1500 shows that they derive from the De speculis comburentibus of Alhacen and the De speculis comburentibus of Regiomontanus, joined together in his autograph manuscript. Having identified the sources, and discussed their mathematics, the issue of their transmission is targeted. It is shown that these notes were (...)
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  48. The Nature of Local/Global Distinctions, Group Actions and Phases: A Sheaf=Theoretic Approach to Quantum Geometric Spectra.Elias Zafiris - 2015 - In Vera Bühlmann, Ludger Hovestadt & Vahid Moosavi (eds.), Coding as Literacy - Metalithicum IV. Basel: BIRKHÄUSER. pp. 172-186.
  49. Writing, Embodiment, Deferral: Merleau-Ponty and Derrida on The Origin of Geometry.Emmanuel Alloa - 2014 - Philosophy Today 58 (2):219-239.
    A simplistic image of twentieth century French philosophy sees Merleau-Ponty’s death in 1961 as the line that divides two irreconcilable moments in its history: existentialism and phenomenology, on the one hand, and structuralism on the other. The structuralist generation claimed to recapture the dimension of objectivity and impersonality, which the previous generation was supposedly incapable of. As a matter of fact, in 1962, Derrida’s edition of Husserl’s The Origin of Geometry was taken to be a turning point that announced the (...)
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  50. Hermann Cohen and Alois Riehl on Geometrical Empiricism.Francesca Biagioli - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (1):83-105.
    When non-Euclidean geometry was developed in the nineteenth century, both scientists and philosophers addressed the question as to whether the Kantian theory of space ought to be refurbished or even rejected. The possibility of considering a variety of hypotheses regarding physical space appeared to contradict Kant’s supposition of Euclid’s geometry as a priori knowledge and suggested the view that the geometry of space is a matter for empirical investigation. In this article, I discuss two different attempts to defend the Kantian (...)
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