About this topic
Summary George Berkeley (1685-1753) was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and bishop. He is best known for his immaterialism (denial of the existence of material substances) and anti-abstractionism (denial of abstract ideas). Berkeley is traditionally listed as one of the three British Empiricists, along with Locke and Hume.
Key works Berkeley's most widely-read works are his Treatise on the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous (1713). An earlier work, An Essay Toward a New Theory of Vision (1709) has also been quite influential in both philosophical and psychological theorizing about sensory perception. The standard scholarly edition of Berkeley's works is Luce & Jessop 1948. Influential book-length expositions of Berkeley's philosophy include Winkler 1989 and Pappas 2000. Atherton 1990 provides an account of Berkeley's theory of vision. Important collections of essays on Berkeley include Turbayne 1982, Sosa 1987, and Daniel 2007.
Introductions A variety of student editions of the Principles and Dialogues are available. The only collection of Berkeley's philosophical works currently in print is Clarke 2008. Encyclopedia articles on Berkeley's philosophy include Downing 2008 and Flage 2004. An account of Berkeley's life with emphasis on the development of his philosophical views can be found in Berman 1994. Winkler 2005 is a collection of essays on a variety of aspects of Berkeley's philosophy accessible to non-specialists. Stoneham 2002 provides an introduction to various issues in the Three Dialogues suitable for students as well as scholars.
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  1. A Proposta (I) Modesta de Berkeley. Um Mundo Sem Matéria.Pedro Alves - 2011 - Philosophica -- Revista Do Departamento de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa 38:59-74.
  2. The Origin of Berkeley's Paradoxes'.Colin Murray Turbayne - 1966 - In Warren E. Steinkraus (ed.), New Studies in Berkeley's Philosophy. University Press of America.
  3. Notes to an Interpretation of Berkeley.W. H. Werkmeister - 1966 - In Warren E. Steinkraus (ed.), New Studies in Berkeley's Philosophy. University Press of America.
  4. Useless Being-The Problem of Mediation in the Philosophy of George Berkeley.G. Chiurazzi - 1998 - Filosofia 49 (1):53-75.
  5. Le dialogisme de Berkeley.Laurent Gerbier - 2003 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):397-409.
  6. Berkeley: Argumentación Filosófica.José Antonio Robles García - 1985 - Dianoia 31:195-210.
  7. George Berkeley: Estetica E Idealismo.Bruno Marciano - 2010 - Nova Scripta.
  8. Natura języka i język natury w filozofii Berkeleya.Adam Grzeliński - 2007 - Filo-Sofija 7 (1(7)):83-93.
  9. Crença no mundo exterior: um diálogo entre Hume e Berkeley.Andrea Cachel - 2007 - Princípios 14 (21):125-146.
    No Tratado, Hume procura investigar as causas da crença nos objetos exteriores, admitindo ser impossível provar se os mesmos existem ou náo. Sua análise consistirá na investigaçáo da origem da inteligibilidade das noções de continuidade e distinçáo dos objetos sensíveis, em última instância, a crença do senso comum na continuidade e distinçáo das próprias percepções. Este texto pretende mostrar como essa discussáo humeana é um diálogo direto com a filosofia berkeleyana, a defesa humeana da crença na matéria implicando inicialmente uma (...)
  10. Fra Empirismo E Platonismo: L'Estetica di Berkeley E Il Suo Contesto Filosofico.Bruno Marciano - 2011 - De Ferrari.
  11. Berkeley’s Presence.Gabe Eisenstein - 1988 - Idealistic Studies 18 (3):207-229.
  12. Putnam Versus Berkeley?Ralf Goeres - 2007 - Facta Philosophica 9 (1):177-202.
  13. Berkeley and the Lumières : Misconception and Reconstruction.Sébastien Charles - 2008 - In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.
  14. Berkeley: How to Make a Mistake.Michael P. Levine - 1993 - Philosophia 22 (1-2):29-39.
Berkeley: Epistemology
  1. Berkeley and the Possibility of an Empirical Metaphysics.I. T. Ramsay - 1966 - In Warren E. Steinkraus (ed.), New Studies in Berkeley's Philosophy. University Press of America.
Berkeley: Skepticism
  1. George Berkeley.Daniele Bertini - 2018 - Aphex 18.
    George Berkeley (1685-1753) is one of the most influential early modern philosophers, and in reason of this a never-ending critical interest focuses on his works. Such a critical attention gave rise to a broad literature and it is in fact quite easy to find valuable introductory books to Berkeley's works. It would be thus superfluous to provide a further summary of the entire production of Berkeley. Rather, I focus on a specific issue, namely the main points of interest of immaterialism (...)
  2. What's the Point of a Dreaming Argument?Scott Stapleford - forthcoming - Think.
    In this paper, I argue that dreaming arguments are no cause for alarm.
  3. Berkeley’s Puzzle.Alan Millar - 2017 - Analysis 77 (1):232-242.
    Millar, A. 2017. Berkeley's Puzzle. Analysis 77: 232–242.
  4. Berkeley on Unperceived Objects and the Publicity of Language.Kenneth L. Pearce - 2017 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 34 (3):231-250.
    Berkeley's immaterialism aims to undermine Descartes's skeptical arguments by denying that the connection between sensory perception and reality is contingent. However, this seems to undermine Berkeley's (alleged) defense of commonsense by failing to recognize the existence of objects not presently perceived by humans. I argue that this problem can be solved by means of two neglected Berkeleian doctrines: the status of the world as "a most coherent, instructive, and entertaining Discourse" which is 'spoken' by God (Siris, sect. 254) and the (...)
  5. On Certainty, Skepticism and Berkeley's Idealism.Tero Vaaja - 2011 - SATS 12 (2):253-265.
    In this paper, I survey the way Wittgenstein reacts to radical philosophical doubt in his On Certainty.He deems skeptical doubt in some important cases idle, pointless or otherwise negligible. I point out that several passages of On Certainty make it difficult to judge whether Wittgenstein intends to address a skeptic or a metaphysical idealist. Drawing attention to the anti-skeptical nature of Berkeley’s idealism, I go on to argue that the question is far from trivial: rather, it affects the way we (...)
  6. Idealism and Greek Philosophy: What Descartes Saw and Berkeley Missed.M. F. Burnyeat - 1982 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 13:19-50.
  7. George Berkeley, Common Sense, and, Classical Realism.Theodore Young - 1985 - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 10:113-133.
  8. How Berkeley's Gardener Knows His Cherry Tree.Kenneth L. Pearce - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):553-576.
    The defense of common sense in Berkeley's Three Dialogues is, first and foremost, a defense of the gardener's claim to know this cherry tree, a claim threatened by both Cartesian and Lockean philosophy. Berkeley's defense of the gardener's knowledge depends on his claim that the being of a cherry tree consists in its being perceived. This is not something the gardener believes; rather, it is a philosophical analysis of the rules unreflectively followed by the gardener in his use of the (...)
  9. Idealism, Skepticism, Common Sense.George Pappas - 2003 - In Jorge J. E. Gracia, Gregory M. Reichberg & Bernard N. Schumacher (eds.), The Classics of Western Philosophy: A Reader's Guide. Blackwell. pp. 270.
  10. Berkeley, Pyrrhonism, and the Theaetetus.Kenneth Winkler - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 48--54.
    This essay reinterprets Berkeley’s idealism as partially motivated by a need to overcome the Agrippan mode of relativity pressed by Pyrrhonists. It compares Berkeley’s solution to that of Protagoras as presented in Plato’s Theaetetus, and argues that Berkeley needed to depend on reason — intuition or demonstration — to avoid skepticism. In this interpretation, Berkeley is closer to the rationalist tradition than usually recognized.
  11. Common Sense in Berkeley and Reid in Sens Commun.George S. Pappas - 1986 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 40 (158):292-303.
  12. Berkeley on the Unity of the Self.S. C. Brown - 1971 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 5:64-87.
    That the legacy of Berkeley's philosophy has been a largely sceptical one is perhaps rather surprising. For he himself took it as one of his objectives to undermine scepticism. He roundly denied that there were ‘any principles more opposite to Scepticism than those we have laid down’ . Yet Hume was to write of Berkeley that ‘most of the writings of that very ingenious author form the best lessons of scepticism, Bayle not excepted’. And it has become something of a (...)
  13. Scepticism and its Refutation in George Berkeley's and Thomas Reid's Philosophies (Sceptycyzm I Dyskusja Z Nim W Filozofii George'a Berkeleya I Thomasa Reida).Kucharski Dariusz - 2010 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 46 (2).
  14. Berkeley, défenseur du sens commun et théoricien de la connaissance d'autrui.Maxime Chastaing - 1953 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 143:219 - 243.
  15. Berkeley no país das Luzes: ceticismo e solipsismo no século XVIII.Sébastian Charles - 2004 - Doispontos 1 (2).
    A influência do ceticismo nos século XVI e XVII é por demais evidente para ser posta em questão. De Montaigne a Bayle, parece que o cético foi o promotor tanto de uma refutação radical dos princípios metafísicos escolásticos e depois cartesianos quanto de uma crítica feroz às autoridades religiosas e políticas. Ora, esse papel parece ter se amenizado no Século das Luzes, ou melhor, se deslocado - somente as dimensões críticas do social continuaram pertinentes. Pretende-se mostrar aqui o pressuposto de (...)
  16. As respostas de Berkeley ao ceticismo.Plínio Junqueira Smith - 2005 - Doispontos 1 (2):35-55.
    O artigo compara alguns aspectos da refutação do ceticismo nos Princípios e nos Três diálogos. Embora normalmente não se veja nenhuma diferença importante entre essas obras, duas hipóteses são defendidas aqui: de um lado, Berkeley desloca o foco de sua crítica das idéias abstratas para a noção de matéria e, de outro, muda sua estratégia de combate, da enunciação imediata da verdade para a lenta elaboração das consequências céticas da noção de matéria. Berkeley’s answers to skepticismThe topic of this paper (...)
  17. Idealism and Scepticism: A Reply to Brueckner.Stephen Puryear - 2013 - Theoria 79 (1):290-293.
    Anthony Brueckner argues that Berkeleyan idealism lacks anti-sceptical force because of the way Berkeley draws the appearance/reality distinction. But Brueckner's case rests on a misunderstanding of Berkeley's view. Properly understood, Berkeleyan idealism does indeed have anti-sceptical force.
  18. A Oposição de Berkeley Ao Ceticismo.Jaimir Conte - 2008 - Cadernos de História de Filosofia da Ciência 18 (2):3225-355.
    One of Berkeley’s main goals in the Principles and in the Three Dialogues, as expressly stated in the full titles these two works, as well as in the Philosophical Commen-taries, is the refutation of skepticism. This article aims to elucidate what Berkeley means by skepticism and to indicate which principles or doctrines, according to him, are at the root of the skeptics’ doubts. An attempt is made to show how Berkeley elaborated his opposition to skepticism. Finally, it is suggested that (...)
  19. Descartes, Leibniz and Berkeley on Whether We Can Dream Marks of the Waking State.Russell Wahl & Jonathan Westphal - 1992 - Studia Leibnitiana 24 (2):177-181.
    Dans la première méditation, Descartes a conclu, en regard des songes, « qu'il n'y a point d'indices concluants, ni de marques assez certaines par où l'on puisse distinguer nettement la veille d'avec la sommeil [...] » . À la fin de la sixième méditation, il a conclu qu'il y a de tels indices, mais qu'on a besoin de la garantie de Dieu pour savoir si ces indices sont réellement des indices de la veille. Cottingham a proposé une objection générale contre (...)
  20. Berkeley and the Argument From Conceiving.Robert Frederick - 1987 - Philosophy Research Archives 13:481-487.
    In both the Principles and the Dialogues Berkeley argues that physical objects cannot exist independently of minds. In this paper I suggest an interpretation of the argument in the Dialogues that shows that his argument either relies on an invalid inference or begs the question. I conclude that his attempt to defeat scepticism by making physical objects mind-dependent is unsuccessful.
  21. Berkeley's Theory of Common Sense.A. David Kline - 1987 - International Studies in Philosophy 19 (3):21-31.
  22. Berkeley's Assessment of Locke's Epistemology.George S. Pappas - 2007 - In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), Philosophica.
    In this essay, the author analyses Berkeley’s conformity and inference argument against Locke’s theory of percep tion. Both arguments are not as decisive as traditionally has been perceived and fail to engage in Locke’s actual position. The main reason for this is that Berkeley does not see that Locke’s position is compatible with the non-inferential nature of perceptual knowledge.
  23. Berkeley, Perception, and Common Sense.Goerge Pappas - 1982 - In Colin M. Turbayne (ed.), Berkeley: Critical and Interpretive Essays. University of Minnesota Press.
  24. Idealism and Scepticism.Anthony Brueckner - 2011 - Theoria 77 (4):368-371.
    It is argued that contrary to appearances, Berkeleyan Idealism lacks anti-sceptical force. The problem stems from the way in which the idealist draws the appearance/reality distinction.
  25. Berkeley's "Defense" of "Commonsense".S. Seth Bordner - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (3):315-338.
    Berkeley scholars can hardly resist dealing with the question of how his philosophical system relates to commonsense. It is an irresistible question because it first appears to have a sensational answer. On the one hand, Berkeley claims to "side in all things with the Mob," and on the other, his denial of the existence of matter seems as contrary to commonsense as any philosophical view can be. The articles, chapters, books and conference papers on this one aspect of Berkeley's philosophy (...)
  26. Locke, Berkeley, and Corpuscular Scepticism.Daniel Garber - 1982 - In Colin Murray Turbayne (ed.), Berkeley: Critical and Interpretive Essays. University of Minnesota Press.
  27. Berkeley and Pyrrhonism.Richard H. Popkin - 1951 - Review of Metaphysics 5 (2):223 - 246.
  28. Berkeley and Common Sense Realism.George S. Pappas - 1991 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 8 (1):27 - 42.
  29. Berkeley on Common Sense and the Privacy of Ideas.David Yandell - 1995 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 12 (4):411 - 423.
  30. Berkeley's Puzzle About the Water That Seems Both Hot and Cold.D. M. Armstrong - 1954 - Analysis 15 (2):44 - 46.
  31. Berkeley and Scepticism.Robert A. Imlay - 1992 - Hume Studies 18 (2):501-510.
  32. Berkeleian Idealism and the Dream Argument.Douglas Odegard - 1981 - Idealistic Studies 11 (2):93-99.
  33. Reply to Seth Bordner’s “Berkeley’s Defense of Common Sense”.John Russell Roberts - manuscript
  34. Berkeley's Thought. [REVIEW]Lex Newman - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (2):314-318.
  35. Berkeley au siecle des lumieres. Immaterialisme et scepticisme au XVIIIe siecle (review).Todd Ryan - 2004 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (4):495-496.
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