Global Health

Edited by Kyle Ferguson (Hunter College (CUNY), New York University)
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  1. Discounting future health.Hilary Greaves - forthcoming - In Norheim Emanuel Jamison Johansson Millum Otterson Ruger and Verguet (ed.), Global health priority-setting: Cost-effectiveness and beyond. Oxford University Press.
    In carrying out cost-benefit or cost-effective analysis, a discount rate should be applied to some kinds of future benefits and costs. It is controversial, though, whether future health is in this class. I argue that one of the standard arguments for discounting (from diminishing marginal returns) is inapplicable to the case of health, while another (favouring a pure rate of time preference) is unsound in any case. However, there are two other reasons that might support a positive discount rate for (...)
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  2. Ethical Considerations for Global Health Decision-Making: Justice-Enhanced Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of New Technologies for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.Maria W. Merritt, C. Simone Sutherland & Fabrizio Tediosi - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phy013.
    We sought to assess formally the extent to which different control and elimination strategies for human African trypanosomiasis Trypanosoma brucei gambiense would exacerbate or alleviate experiences of societal disadvantage that traditional economic evaluation does not take into account. Justice-enhanced cost-effectiveness analysis is a normative approach under development to address social justice considerations in public health decision-making alongside other types of analyses. It aims to assess how public health interventions under analysis in comparative evaluation would be expected to influence the clustering (...)
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  3. Response strategies of Filipino nursing organizations in the US and UK under the VUCA conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic.Patricia Eunice Miraflores - forthcoming - Migration and Diasporas: An Interdisciplinary Journal:82-120.
    The COVID-19 pandemic put immense pressure on healthcare systems globally, including those of highly developed countries like the United States and United Kingdom. During the pandemic, professional nursing organizations were the first to call attention to the disproportionate pandemic-related deaths among Filipino nurses. These organizations played a central role in addressing the various crises Filipino nurses faced due to their vulnerabilities as frontliners, ethnic minorities, and migrants in their host countries. Using the Volatile, Uncertain, Complexity, and Ambiguous (VUCA) framework, this (...)
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  4. Ebola Virus Disease : A Case for Shared National and Global Responsibilities in Global Health Crisis.Evaristus Obi - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
  5. Predicting attitudinal and behavioral responses to COVID-19 pandemic using machine learning.Tomislav Pavlović, Flavio Azevedo, Koustav De, Julián C. Riaño-Moreno, Marina Maglić, Theofilos Gkinopoulos, Patricio Andreas Donnelly-Kehoe, César Payán-Gómez, Guanxiong Huang, Jaroslaw Kantorowicz, Michèle D. Birtel, Philipp Schönegger, Valerio Capraro, Hernando Santamaría-García, Meltem Yucel, Agustin Ibanez, Steve Rathje, Erik Wetter, Dragan Stanojević, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Eugenia Hesse, Christian T. Elbaek, Renata Franc, Zoran Pavlović, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Aleksandra Cichocka, Michele Gelfand, Mark Alfano, Robert M. Ross, Hallgeir Sjåstad, John B. Nezlek, Aleksandra Cislak, Patricia Lockwood, Koen Abts, Elena Agadullina, David M. Amodio, Matthew A. J. Apps, John Jamir Benzon Aruta, Sahba Besharati, Alexander Bor, Becky Choma, William Cunningham, Waqas Ejaz, Harry Farmer, Andrej Findor, Biljana Gjoneska, Estrella Gualda, Toan L. D. Huynh, Mostak Ahamed Imran, Jacob Israelashvili & Elena Kantorowicz-Reznichenko - forthcoming - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Nexus.
    At the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 became a global problem. Despite all the efforts to emphasize the relevance of preventive measures, not everyone adhered to them. Thus, learning more about the characteristics determining attitudinal and behavioral responses to the pandemic is crucial to improving future interventions. In this study, we applied machine learning on the multi-national data collected by the International Collaboration on the Social and Moral Psychology of COVID-19 (N = 51,404) to test the predictive efficacy of constructs from (...)
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  6. Xenotransplantation: A historical–ethical account of viewpoints.Daniel Rodger, Daniel J. Hurst & David K. C. Cooper - forthcoming - Xenotransplantation.
    Formal clinical trials of pig-to-human organ transplant—known as xenotransplantation—may begin this decade, with the first trials likely to consist of either adult renal transplants or pediatric cardiac transplant patients. Xenotransplantation as a systematic scientific study only reaches back to the latter half of the 20th century, with episodic xenotransplantation events occurring prior to that. As the science of xenotransplantation has progressed in the 20th and 21st centuries, the public's knowledge of the potential therapy has also increased. With this, there have (...)
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  7. Global health gateway: Ethics in global health.Shilpi Shah, Shishir Shah, Shobhit Jain, Tejal Sheth & Mihir Shah - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
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  8. Ethical Consumerism, Human Rights, and Global Health Impact.Brian Berkey - 2024 - Developing World Bioethics 24 (1):31-36.
    In this paper, I raise some doubts about Nicole Hassoun's account of the obligations of states, pharmaceutical firms, and consumers with regard to global health, presented in Global Health Impact. I argue that it is not necessarily the case, as Hassoun claims, that if states are just, and therefore satisfy all of their obligations, then consumers will not have strong moral reasons, and perhaps obligations, to make consumption choices that are informed by principles and requirements of justice. This is because (...)
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  9. Transitional Health Justice.Himani Bhakuni & Lucas Miotto - 2023 - In Himani Bhakuni & Lucas Miotto (eds.), Justice in Global Health: New Perspectives and Current Issues. Routledge.
    In the past few years, health and human rights scholars have stressed upon the need for rebuilding or reforming our health systems to make them both more resilient to health emergencies and less prone to nurturing inequalities. Discussions about health reform often centre on the ends of reform: the kind of health systems that should be built and the demands of justice that they should be able to satisfy once reformed. However, little has been said about the demands of justice (...)
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  10. The Role of Museums in Planetary Health Bioethics: A Review.Teng Wai Lao & Jan Gresil Kahambing - 2023 - In Alexander Waller & Darryl Macer (eds.), Planetary Health Bioethics. pp. 434-451.
    This chapter delves into the museological side of ‘the way forward’ to conservation for planetary health bioethics. Specifically, it highlights the crucial role that museums play – their curatorial or exhibition interventions, conservation operations, development policies, or practices – which present or represent the vital relationship between human and planetary health. While it is not new to stress the significance of museums’ link to the environment and environmental education, it is necessary to re-examine recent cases in light of the rapid (...)
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  11. Medical Rules of Eligibility – Can Preferential Medical Treatment Provisions Be Ethically Justified?Daniel Messelken - 2023 - In Sheena M. Eagan & Daniel Messelken (eds.), Resource Scarcity in Austere Environments: An Ethical Examination of Triage and Medical Rules of Eligibility. Springer Verlag. pp. 133-153.
    In emergency situations and while medical resources are sufficient, doctors are expected to prioritize and treat patients according to medical criteria only. In MASSCAL situations and when medical resources become insufficient, patient selection and prioritization changes. Rules of triage are applied with the aim of getting the best result possible under the circumstances, e.g., saving the largest number; collective health outweighs individual health. Still, according to the standard ethical principles, non-medical criteria should never influence the doctors’ decision of who will (...)
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  12. Fair domestic allocation of monkeypox virus countermeasures.Govind Persad, R. J. Leland, Trygve Ottersen, Henry S. Richardson, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2023 - Lancet Public Health 8 (5):e378–e382.
    Countermeasures for mpox (formerly known as monkeypox), primarily vaccines, have been in limited supply in many countries during outbreaks. Equitable allocation of scarce resources during public health emergencies is a complex challenge. Identifying the objectives and core values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures, using those values to provide guidance for priority groups and prioritisation tiers, and optimising allocation implementation are important. The fundamental values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures are: preventing death and illness; reducing the association between death (...)
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  13. The importance of getting the ethics right in a pandemic treaty.G. Owen Schaefer, Caesar A. Atuire, Sharon Kaur, Michael Parker, Govind Persad, Maxwell J. Smith, Ross Upshur & Ezekiel Emanuel - 2023 - The Lancet Infectious Diseases 23 (11):e489 - e496.
    The COVID-19 pandemic revealed numerous weaknesses in pandemic preparedness and response, including underfunding, inadequate surveillance, and inequitable distribution of countermeasures. To overcome these weaknesses for future pandemics, WHO released a zero draft of a pandemic treaty in February, 2023, and subsequently a revised bureau's text in May, 2023. COVID-19 made clear that pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response reflect choices and value judgements. These decisions are therefore not a purely scientific or technical exercise, but are fundamentally grounded in ethics. The latest (...)
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  14. Equitable global allocation of monkeypox vaccines.G. Owen Schaefer, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Caesar A. Atuire, R. J. Leland, Govind Persad, Henry S. Richardson & Carla Saenz - 2023 - Vaccine 41 (48):7084-7088.
    With the world grappling with continued spread of monkeypox internationally, vaccines play a crucial role in mitigating the harms from infection and preventing spread. However, countries with the greatest need - particularly historically endemic countries with the highest monkeypox case-fatality rates - are not able to acquire scarce vaccines. This is unjust, and requires rectification through equitable allocation of vaccines globally. We propose applying the Fair Priority Model for such allocation, which emphasizes three key principles: 1) preventing harm; 2) prioritizing (...)
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  15. More Carrots, Less Sticks: Encouraging Good Stewardship in the Global Antimicrobial Commons.Cristian Timmermann - 2023 - Health Care Analysis 31 (1):53-57.
    Time-tested commons characterize by having instituted sanctioning mechanisms that are sensitive to the circumstances and motivations of non-compliers. As a proposed Global Antimicrobial Commons cannot cost-effectively develop sanctioning mechanisms that are consistently sensitive to the circumstances of the global poor, I suggest concentrating on establishing a wider set of incentives that encourages both compliance and participation.
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  16. Voluntariness or legal obligation? An ethical analysis of two instruments for fairer global access to COVID-19 vaccines.Katja Voit, Cristian Timmermann, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2023 - Frontiers in Public Health 11:995683.
    Introduction: There is currently no binding, internationally accepted and successful approach to ensure global equitable access to healthcare during a pandemic. The aim of this ethical analysis is to bring into the discussion a legally regulated vaccine allocation as a possible strategy for equitable global access to vaccines. We focus our analysis on COVAX (COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access) and an existing EU regulation that, after adjustment, could promote global vaccine allocation. -/- Methods: The main documents discussing the two strategies are (...)
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  17. "Where you live should not determine whether you live". Global justice and the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.Göran Collste - 2022 - Ethics and Global Politics 15 (2):43-54.
    In 2020, the world faced a new pandemic. The corona infection hit an unprepared world, and there were no medicines and no vaccines against it. Research to develop vaccines started immediately and in a remarkably short time several vaccines became available. However, despite initiatives for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, vaccines have so far become accessible only to a minor part of the world population. In this article, I discuss the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines from an ethical point (...)
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  18. Reconciling Regulation with Scientific Autonomy in Dual-Use Research.Nicholas G. Evans, Michael J. Selgelid & Robert Mark Simpson - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (1):72-94.
    In debates over the regulation of communication related to dual-use research, the risks that such communication creates must be weighed against against the value of scientific autonomy. The censorship of such communication seems justifiable in certain cases, given the potentially catastrophic applications of some dual-use research. This conclusion however, gives rise to another kind of danger: that regulators will use overly simplistic cost-benefit analysis to rationalize excessive regulation of scientific research. In response to this, we show how institutional design principles (...)
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  19. Responding to the Tragedies of Our Time - The Human Right to Health and the Virtue of Creative Resolve.Nicole Hassoun - 2022 - Global Justice: Theory Practice Rhetoric 13 (2):41-59.
    We live in tragic times. Millions are sheltering in place to avoid exacerbating the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. How should we respond to such tragedies? This paper argues that the human right to health can help us do so because it inspires human rights advocates, claimants, and those with responsibility for fulfilling the right to try hard to satisfy its claims. That is, the right should, and often does, give rise to what I call_ the virtue of creative resolve_. This resolve (...)
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  20. Good Enough? The Minimally Good Life Account of the Basic Minimum.Nicole Hassoun - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (2):330-341.
    ABSTRACT What kind of basic minimum do we owe to others? This paper defends a new procedure for answering this question. It argues that its minimally good life account has some advantages over the main alternatives and that neither the first-, nor third-, person perspective can help us to arrive at an adequate account. Rather, it employs the second-person perspective of free, reasonable, care. There might be other conditions for distributive justice, and morality certainly requires more than helping everyone to (...)
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  21. Costa, cancer and coronavirus: contractualism as a guide to the ethics of lockdown.Stephen David John & Emma J. Curran - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):643-650.
    Lockdown measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic involve placing huge burdens on some members of society for the sake of benefiting other members of society. How should we decide when these policies are permissible? Many writers propose we should address this question using cost-benefit analysis, a broadly consequentialist approach. We argue for an alternative non-consequentialist approach, grounded in contractualist moral theorising. The first section sets up key issues in the ethics of lockdown, and sketches the apparent appeal of addressing (...)
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  22. Editorial: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Socio-Economic Systems in the Post-Pandemic World: Design Thinking, Strategic Planning, Management, and Public Policy.Andrzej Klimczuk, Eva Berde, Delali Dovie, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska & Gabriella Spinelli - 2022 - Frontiers in Communication 7:1–5.
    The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, led to unprecedented events. All regions of the world participated in implementing preventive health measures such as physical distancing, travel restrictions, self-isolation, quarantines, and facility closures. The pandemic started global disruption of socio-economic systems, covering the postponement or cancellation of public events, supply shortages, schools and universities’ closure, evacuation of foreign citizens, a rise in unemployment and inflation, misinformation, the anti-vaccine movement, and incidents of discrimination (...)
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  23. Editorial: Social, Technological and Health Innovation: Opportunities and Limitations for Social Policy, Health Policy, and Environmental Policy.Andrzej Klimczuk, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska & Jorge Felix - 2022 - Frontiers in Political Science 4:1–4.
    Innovation is progressively needed in responding to global challenges. Moreover, the increasing complexity of challenges implies demand for the usage of multisectoral and policy mix approaches. Wicked problems can be tackled by "integrated innovation" that combines the coordinated implementation of social, technological, and health innovation co-created by entities of the public sector, the private sector, the non-governmental sector, and the informal sector. This Research Topic focuses on filling the knowledge gaps about the selected types of innovation. First, regarding social innovation (...)
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  24. Can “My Body, My Choice” anti‐vaxxers be pro‐life?Tina Rulli & Stephen Campbell - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (6):708-714.
    Many “anti-vaxxers” oppose COVID-19 vaccination mandates on the grounds that they wrongfully infringe on bodily autonomy. Their view has been expressed with the slogan “My Body, My Choice,” co-opted from the pro-choice abortion rights movement. Yet, many of those same people are pro-life and support abortion restrictions that are effectively a kind of gestation mandate. Both vaccine and gestation mandates impose restrictions on bodily autonomy in order to prevent serious harms. This article evaluates the defensibility of the anti-vax pro-life position. (...)
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  25. Climate Change, Pollution, Deforestation, and Mental Health: Research Trends, Gaps, and Ethical Considerations.Moritz E. Wigand, Cristian Timmermann, Ansgar Scherp, Thomas Becker & Florian Steger - 2022 - GeoHealth 6 (11):e2022GH000632.
    Climate change, pollution, and deforestation have a negative impact on global mental health. There is an environmental justice dimension to this challenge as wealthy people and high-income countries are major contributors to climate change and pollution, while poor people and low-income countries are heavily affected by the consequences. Using state-of-the art data mining, we analyzed and visualized the global research landscape on mental health, climate change, pollution and deforestation over a 15-year period. Metadata of papers were exported from PubMed®, and (...)
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  26. Crisis Nationalism: To What Degree Is National Partiality Justifiable during a Global Pandemic?Eilidh Beaton, Mike Gadomski, Dylan Manson & Kok-Chor Tan - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (1):285-300.
    Are countries especially entitled, if not obliged, to prioritize the interests or well-being of their own citizens during a global crisis, such as a global pandemic? We call this partiality for compatriots in times of crisis “crisis nationalism”. Vaccine nationalism is one vivid example of crisis nationalism during the COVID-19 pandemic; so is the case of the US government’s purchasing a 3-month supply of the global stock of the antiviral Remdesivir for domestic use. Is crisis nationalism justifiable at all, and, (...)
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  27. Following the Science: Pandemic Policy Making and Reasonable Worst-Case Scenarios.Richard Bradley & Joe Roussos - 2021 - LSE Public Policy Review 1 (4):6.
    The UK has been ‘following the science’ in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in line with the national framework for the use of scientific advice in assessment of risk. We argue that the way in which it does so is unsatisfactory in two important respects. Firstly, pandemic policy making is not based on a comprehensive assessment of policy impacts. And secondly, the focus on reasonable worst-case scenarios as a way of managing uncertainty results in a loss of decision-relevant information and (...)
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  28. Phantom premise and a shape-shifting ism: reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11).
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  29. Love thy neighbour? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e20-e20.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  30. Should we delay covid-19 vaccination in children?Lisa Forsberg & Anthony Skelton - 2021 - British Medical Journal 374 (8300):96-97.
    The net benefit of vaccinating children is unclear, and vulnerable people worldwide should be prioritised instead, say Dominic Wilkinson, Ilora Finlay, and Andrew J Pollard. But Lisa Forsberg and Anthony Skelton argue that covid-19 vaccines have been approved for some children and that children should not be disadvantaged because of policy choices that impede global vaccination.
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  31. E-cigarettes : The Long-Term Liberal Perspective.Kalle Grill - 2021 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research 23 (1):9-13.
    The debate for and against making e-cigarettes available to smokers is to a large extent empirical. We do not know the long-term health effects of vaping and we do not know how smokers will respond to e-cigarettes over time. In addition to these empirical uncertainties, however, there are difficult moral issues to consider. One such issue is that many smokers in some sense choose to smoke. Though smoking is addictive and though many start young, it does not seem impossible to (...)
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  32. Eating Meat and Not Vaccinating: In Defense of the Analogy.Ben Jones - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):135-142.
    The devastating impact of the COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is prompting renewed scrutiny of practices that heighten the risk of infectious disease. One such practice is refusing available vaccines known to be effective at preventing dangerous communicable diseases. For reasons of preventing individual harm, avoiding complicity in collective harm, and fairness, there is a growing consensus among ethicists that individuals have a duty to get vaccinated. I argue that these same grounds establish an analogous duty to avoid buying and (...)
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  33. Intervening on Behalf of the Human Right to Health: Who, When, and How?Kathryn Muyskens - 2021 - Human Rights Review 22 (2):173-191.
    A common understanding of the political function of human rights is as a trigger for international intervention, with states typically understood to be duty bound by these rights claims. The unique character of the human right to health raises some complications for these conventional views. In this paper, I will argue that because of the unique character of the human right to health, intervention on its behalf can be justified not only in response to outright violation, but also due to (...)
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  34. Strategie boje s epidemií: vítězové a poražení?Daniel D. Novotný - 2021 - Časopis Zdravotnického Práva a Bioetiky 11 (2):1–19.
    The ongoing covid-19 epidemic has affected the entire world. Somewhat surprisingly, it is not the case that the most successful countries are the richest one, with the best health care. Nor is there a clear link between success and geographical location. Above all, much of the rich Western world has failed so far to protect public health effectively, and so it is appropriate to consider the question why. In this article, I focus mainly on the choice of the basic epidemiological (...)
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  35. Community engagement and ethical global health research.Bipin Adhikari, Christopher Pell & Phaik Yeong Cheah - 2020 - Global Bioethics 31 (1):1-12.
    Community engagement is increasingly recognized as a critical element of medical research, recommended by ethicists, required by research funders and advocated in ethics guidelines. The benefits of community engagement are often stressed in instrumental terms, particularly with regard to promoting recruitment and retention in studies. Less emphasis has been placed on the value of community engagement with regard to ethical good practice, with goals often implied rather than clearly articulated. This article outlines explicitly how community engagement can contribute to ethical (...)
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  36. Legal and ethical framework for global health information and biospecimen exchange - an international perspective.Lara Bernasconi, Selçuk Şen, Luca Angerame, Apolo P. Balyegisawa, Damien Hong Yew Hui, Maximilian Hotter, Chung Y. Hsu, Tatsuya Ito, Francisca Jörger, Wolfgang Krassnitzer, Adam T. Phillips, Rui Li, Louise Stockley, Fabian Tay, Charlotte von Heijne Widlund, Ming Wan, Creany Wong, Henry Yau, Thomas F. Hiemstra, Yagiz Uresin & Gabriela Senti - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-8.
    The progress of electronic health technologies and biobanks holds enormous promise for efficient research. Evidence shows that studies based on sharing and secondary use of data/samples have the potential to significantly advance medical knowledge. However, sharing of such resources for international collaboration is hampered by the lack of clarity about ethical and legal requirements for transfer of data and samples across international borders. Here, the International Clinical Trial Center Network reports the legal and ethical requirements governing data and sample exchange (...)
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  37. Ethical rationale for better coordination of clinical research on COVID-19.Francois Bompart - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-10.
    Hundreds of clinical trials of potential treatments and vaccines for the “coronavirus 19 disease” have been set up in record time. This is a remarkable reaction to the global pandemic, but the absence of a global coordination of clinical research efforts raises serious ethical concerns. Some COVID-19 patients might carry the burden of clinical trial involvement even though their trial cannot be completed as researchers are competing for patients. A shortage of medicines can occur when existing drugs are diverted for (...)
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  38. Guiding Principles of Community Engagement and Global Health Research: Solidarity and Subsidiarity.Sarah-Vaughan Brakman - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):62-64.
    Pratt et al. (2020) tackle a seeming lack of consensus about the ethical goals of community engagement (CE) in global health research. Their paper “identifies an additional or complementary role fo...
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  39. Global Health with Justice: Controlling the Floodgates of the Upstream Determinants of Health through Evidence-Based Law.John Coggon & Lawrence O. Gostin - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):4-9.
    This article introduces a special issue on the legal determinants of health, following the publication of the Lancet–O’Neill Institute of Georgetown University Commission’s report on the subject. We contextualize legal determinants as a significant and vital aspect of the social determinants of health, explain the work of the Lancet–O’Neill Commission and outline where consequent research will usefully be directed. We also introduce the papers that follow in the special issue, which together set out in greater detail the work of the (...)
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  40. The Complex Structure of Health Rights.Michael Da Silva - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):99-110.
    Research on how to understand legally recognized socio-economic rights produced many insights into the nature of rights. Legally recognized rights to health and, by extension, health care could contribute to health justice. Yet a tension remains between widespread international and transnational constitutional recognition of rights to health and health care and compelling normative conditions for rights recognition from both philosophers seeking to identify the scope and structure of the rights and policy scholars seeking to understand how to practically realize such (...)
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  41. Solidarity in Global Health Research—Are the Stakes Equal?Amrita Daftary & A. M. Viens - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):59-62.
    Global health is in desperate need of greater solidarity between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a means to reduce the inequity that pervades all aspect...
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  42. An ethical framework for global vaccine allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  43. Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions.Nir Eyal, Samia A. Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.) - 2020 - New York, USA: Oup Usa.
    The Global Burden of Disease Study is one of the largest-scale research collaborations in global health, producing critical data for researchers, policy-makers, and health workers about more than 350 diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Such an undertaking is, of course, extremely complex from an empirical perspective. But it also raises complex ethical and philosophical questions. In this volume, a group of leading philosophers, economists, epidemiologists, and policy scholars identify and discuss these philosophical questions. Better appreciating the philosophical dimensions of a (...)
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  44. Health Inequalities.Lawrence O. Gostin & Eric A. Friedman - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (4):6-8.
    Health inequalities are embedded in a complex array of social, political, and economic inequalities. Responding to health inequalities will require systematic action targeting all the underlying (“upstream”) social determinants that powerfully affect health and well‐being. Systemic inequalities are a major reason for the rise of modern populism that has deeply divided polities and infected politics, perhaps nowhere more so than in the United States. Concerted action to mitigate shocking levels of inequality could be a powerful antidote to nationalist populism. A (...)
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  45. Has Global Health Law Risen to Meet the COVID-19 Challenge? Revisiting the International Health Regulations to Prepare for Future Threats.Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi & Benjamin Mason Meier - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (2):376-381.
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  46. Global Health Impact: Extending Access to Essential Medicines.Nicole Hassoun - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    Nicole Hassoun here makes a philosophical argument for health, and access to essential medicines, as essential human rights, and she proposes the Global Health Impact system as a way to ensure those rights. She reports how life-saving medicines are inaccessible and costly for the global poor, and that rather than focusing on treatments for critical, deadly global health problems, pharmaceutical companies instead invest in more profitable drugs. To address this problem, Hassoun's proposal will rate pharmaceutical companies based on their medicines' (...)
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  47. Socially Constructed Determinants of Health: The Case for Synergies to Arrive at Gendered Global Health Law.Sarah Hawkes & Kent Buse - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):16-28.
    Both gender and the law are significant determinants of health and well-being. Here, we put forward evidence to unpack the relationship between gender and outcomes in health and well-being, and explore how legal determinants interact and intersect with gender norms to amplify or reduce health inequities across populations. The paper explores the similarities between legal and health systems in their response to gender—both systems portray gender neutrality but would be better described as gender-blind. We conclude with a set of recommendations (...)
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  48. Global Disparity and Solidarity in a Pandemic.Anita Ho & Iulia Dascalu - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):65-67.
    While the domestic effect of structural racism and other social vulnerabilities on Covid‐19 mortality in the United States has received some attention, there has been much less discussion (with some notable exceptions) of how structural global inequalities will further exacerbate Covid‐related health disparity across the world. This may be partially due to the delayed availability of accurate and comparable data from overwhelmed systems, particularly in low‐ and middle‐income countries. However, early methods to procure and develop treatments and vaccines by some (...)
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  49. The Health Crisis of Immigrants and Displaced Persons in a Pluralistic Society: A Need for Global Bioethics Governance.Asmat Ara Islam - 2020 - Jibon Darshon 10:342-350.
    Abstract. Global bioethics governance is a necessity in the era of globalization, yet the research on this issue is inadequate and underdeveloped. This research project argues that introducing global bioethics governance may deal effectively with the health crisis of migrants. Since immigrants are the minority in a new country, thus, one of the moral questions regarding this issue reflects on how to ensure health justice for this population. Health crisis issues arise in a multicultural society, which is often problematic to (...)
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  50. The Lancet–O’Neill Institute/Georgetown University Commission on Global Health and Law: The Power of Law to Advance the Right to Health.Jenny C. Kaldor, Lawrence O. Gostin, John T. Monahan & Katie Gottschalk - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):9-15.
    The Lancet–O’Neill Institute/Georgetown University Commission on Global Health and Law published its report on the Legal Determinants of Health in 2019. The term ‘legal determinants of health’ draws attention to the power of law to influence upstream social and economic influences on population health. In this article, we introduce the Commission, including its background and rationale, set out its methodology, summarize its key findings and recommendations and reflect on its impact since publication. We also look to the future, making suggestions (...)
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