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  1. Narrow AI Nanny: Reaching Strategic Advantage Via Narrow AI to Prevent Creation of the Dangerous Superintelligence.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    Abstract: As there are no currently obvious ways to create safe self-improving superintelligence, but its emergence is looming, we probably need temporary ways to prevent its creation. The only way to prevent it is to create a special type of AI that is able to control and monitor the entire world. The idea has been suggested by Goertzel in the form of an AI Nanny, but his Nanny is still superintelligent, and is not easy to control. We explore here ways (...)
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  2. Technology as Terrorism: Police Control Technologies and Drone Warfare.Jessica Wolfendale - manuscript
    Debates about terrorism and technology often focus on the potential uses of technology by non-state terrorist actors and by states as forms of counterterrorism. Yet, little has been written about how technology shapes how we think about terrorism. In this chapter I argue that technology, and the language we use to talk about technology, constrains and shapes our understanding of the nature, scope, and impact of terrorism, particularly in relation to state terrorism. After exploring the ways in which technology shapes (...)
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  3. Why Liberal States Must Accommodate Tax Resistors.Jason Brennan - forthcoming - Public Affairs Quarterly.
    Liberal states ought to accommodate conscientious tax resistance for the same reasons they should accommodate conscientious objection to fighting in war. Conscientious objection to fighting is nothing special.
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  4. Political Corruption. The Internal Enemy of Public Institutions.Emanuela Ceva & Maria Paola Ferretti - forthcoming - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book discusses political corruption and anticorruption as a matter of public ethics. It develops a normative account of political corruption as a relationally wrongful practice that consists in an unaccountable use of the power of office. Most current discussions of what political corruption is and why it is wrong have concentrated either on explaining and assessing it as a matter of an individual’s corrupt character and motives or as a dysfunction of institutional procedures. However, surprisingly little scholarly attention has (...)
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  5. The Ethics of Anti-Corruption Policies.Emanuela Ceva & Maria Paola Ferretti - forthcoming - In The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy. London: Routledge.
    The corruption of public officials and institutions is one of the most obvious problems that affects developed and developing countries alike. Because this view is largely shared, most current studies of this phenomenon—‘political corruption’—have been dedicated either to measuring or counteracting the negative political, social, and economic effects that this form of corruption may have in society. Albeit significant and urgent, these studies have distracted the attention of commentators from a somewhat more basic analysis of the nature and wrongness of (...)
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  6. DACA-Ptives in Advance.Joseph Farrell - forthcoming - International Journal of Applied Philosophy.
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  7. Epistocracy and Public Interests.Finlay Malcolm - forthcoming - Res Publica.
    Epistocratic systems of government have received renewed attention, and considerable opposition, in recent political philosophy. Although they vary significantly in form, epistocracies generally reject universal suffrage. But can they maintain the advantages of universal suffrage despite rejecting it? This paper develops an argument for a significant instrumental advantage of universal suffrage: that governments must take into account the interests of all of those enfranchised in their policy decisions or else risk losing power. This is called ‘the Interests Argument’. One problem (...)
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  8. A Case Study in the Problem of Policymaker Ignorance: Political Responses to COVID-19.Scott Scheall & Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Cosmos + Taxis.
    We apply the analysis that we have developed over the course of several publications on the significance of ignorance for decision-making, especially in surrogate (and, thus, in political) contexts, to political decision-making, such as it has been, during the COVID-19 pandemic (see Scheall 2019; Crutchfield and Scheall 2019; Scheall and Crutchfield 2020; Scheall 2020). Policy responses to the coronavirus constitute a case study of the problem of policymaker ignorance. We argue that political responses to the virus cannot be explained by (...)
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  9. Wrongful Influence in Educational Contexts.John Tillson - forthcoming - In Kathryn Hytten (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    When and why are coercion, indoctrination, manipulation, deception, and bullshit morally wrongful modes of influence in the context of educating children? Answering this question requires identifying what valid claims different parties have against one another regarding how children are influenced. Most prominently among these, it requires discerning what claims children have regarding whether and how they and their peers are influenced, and against whom they have these claims. The claims they have are grounded in the weighty interests they each equally (...)
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  10. Political Irrationality, Utopianism, and Democratic Theory.Aaron Ancell - 2020 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 19 (1):3-21.
    People tend to be biased and irrational about politics. Should this constrain what our normative theories of democracy can require? David Estlund argues that the answer is ‘no’. He contends that even if such facts show that the requirements of a normative theory are very unlikely to be met, this need not imply that the theory is unduly unrealistic. I argue that the application of Estlund’s argument to political irrationality depends on a false presupposition: mainly, that being rational about politics (...)
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  11. The Egalitarian Fallacy: Are Group Differences Compatible with Political Liberalism?Jonathan Anomaly & Bo Winegard - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (2):433-444.
    Many people greet evidence of biologically based race and sex differences with extreme skepticism, even hostility. We argue that some of the vehemence with which many intellectuals in the West resist claims about group differences is rooted in the tacit assumption that accepting evidence for group differences in socially valued traits would undermine our reasons to treat people with respect. We call this the egalitarian fallacy. We first explain the fallacy and then give evidence that self-described liberals in the United (...)
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  12. Epistemic Paternalism: Conceptions, Justifications and Implications.Guy Axtell & Amiel Bernal (eds.) - 2020 - Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    This volume considers forms of information manipulation and restriction in contemporary society, paying special attention to contemporary paternalistic practices in big data and scientific research, as the way in which the flow of information or knowledge might be curtailed by the manipulations of a small body of experts or algorithms.
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  13. Torture and American Exceptionalism.Christopher J. Einolf - 2020 - Criminal Justice Ethics 39 (2):152-162.
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  14. Reclaiming Democratic Classical Liberalism.David Ellerman - 2020 - In Reclaiming Liberalism. New York, NY, USA: pp. 1-39.
    Classical liberalism is skeptical about governmental organizations "doing good" for people. Instead governments should create the conditions so that people individually (Adam Smith) and in associations (Tocqueville) are empowered to do good for themselves. The market implications of classical liberalism are well-known, but the implications for organizations are controversial. We will take James Buchanan as our guide (with assists from Mill and Dewey). Unpacking the implications of classical liberalism for the "science of associations" (Tocqueville) requires a tour through the intellectual (...)
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  15. Just Food: Why We Need to Think More About Decoupled Crop Subsidies as an Obligation to Justice.Samuel Pierce Gordon - 2020 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 33 (2):355-367.
    In this article I respond to the obligation to institute the policy of decoupled crop subsidies as is provided in Pilchman’s article “Money for Nothing: Are decoupled Crop Subsidies Just?” With growing problems of poor nutrition in the United States there have been two different but related phenomenon that have appeared. First, the obesity epidemic that has ravaged the nation and left an increasing number of people very unhealthy; and second, the phenomenon of food deserts where individuals are unable to (...)
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  16. Political Activism and Research Ethics.Ben Jones - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):233-248.
    Those who care about and engage in politics frequently fall victim to cognitive bias. Concerns that such bias impacts scholarship recently have prompted debates—notably, in philosophy and psychology—on the proper relationship between research and politics. One proposal emerging from these debates is that researchers studying politics have a professional duty to avoid political activism because it risks biasing their work. While sympathetic to the motivations behind this proposal, I suggest several reasons to reject a blanket duty to avoid activism: (1) (...)
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  17. The Necessity of Understanding Disasters in the Language of Suffering.Srajana Kaikini - 2020 - Voices in Bioethics 6.
    The categorization of disasters as natural or manmade does little for our understanding of the moral stakes of institutions and collectives involved in the aftermath of disasters. This paper presents a brief account of how disasters can be understood philosophically taking cues from studies in sociology. Having articulated the gap in conceptualizing disasters, the paper argues that an interpretation of disasters as “events of social suffering,” will help foreground the complex moral and phenomenological nature of such events to prompt a (...)
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  18. COVID-19: Against a Lockdown Approach.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 13 (2):195-212.
    Governments around the world have faced the challenge of how to respond to the recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease. Some have reacted by greatly restricting the freedom of citizens, while others have opted for less drastic policies. In this paper, I draw a parallel with vaccination ethics to conceptualize two distinct approaches to COVID-19 that I call altruistic and lockdown. Given that the individual measures necessary to limit the spread of the virus can in principle be achieved voluntarily (...)
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  19. Introduction to the Narrative Justice Symposium.Rafe McGregor - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 54 (4):1.
    Narrative Justice presents an argument for a contemporary theory of aesthetic education, followed by examples of that theory in practice.1 I use aesthetic education in its strict philosophical sense, that is, as a thesis about the relationship between aesthetic or artistic value on the one hand and moral and political value on the other hand. The crux of the thesis is that there is some kind of causal relation between aesthetic experiences and moral development. The term is ambiguous because an (...)
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  20. Replies to Critics.Rafe McGregor - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 54 (4):62.
    I am both grateful and flattered that colleagues whom I hold in such high regard have taken the time to engage so closely and so thoughtfully with my work. I am particularly pleased that those colleagues have approached Narrative Justice from such distinct perspectives as the intellectual impulse behind its writing was to create a work that was genuinely interdisciplinary and whose insights, such as they are, could be applied to a range of issues across the humanities and social sciences. (...)
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  21. False Exemplars: Admiration and the Ethics of Public Monuments.Benjamin Cohen Rossi - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 18 (1).
    In recent years, a new generation of activists has reinvigorated debate over the public commemorative landscape. While this debate is in no way limited to statues, it frequently crystallizes around public representations of historical figures who expressed support for the oppression of certain groups or contributed to their past or present oppression. In this paper, I consider what should be done about such representations. A number of philosophers have articulated arguments for modifying or removing public monuments. Joanna Burch-Brown (2017) grounds (...)
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  22. A Case for Removing Confederate Monuments.Travis Timmerman - 2020 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Ethics, Left and Right: The Moral Issues that Divide Us. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 513-522.
    A particularly important, pressing, philosophical question concerns whether Confederate monuments ought to be removed. More precisely, one may wonder whether a certain group, viz. the relevant government officials and members of the public who together can remove the Confederate monuments, are morally obligated to (of their own volition) remove them. Unfortunately, academic philosophers have largely ignored this question. This paper aims to help rectify this oversight by moral philosophers. In it, I argue that people have a moral obligation to remove (...)
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  23. WHEN CORRUPTION IS CULTURAL: EXPLORING MORAL, INSTITUTIONAL AND RULE-BASED CONCEPTS OF CORRUPTION.Enrique Camacho Beltran - 2019 - Boletín Mexicano de Derecho Comparado 2 (156):1325.
    It is often asserted that people are conditioned to act corruptly by their culture in a way they cannot help themselves. The aim of this paper is to use a multidisciplinary approach, both from political theory and political science, to show that this kind of narrative about corruption is flawed because it is not informative at all about the nature of corruption. This prevents it from leading to any type of meaningful analysis or policy design. We will concentrate on two (...)
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  24. Personal Trust, Public Accountability, and the Justification of Whistleblowing.Emanuela Ceva & Michele Bocchiola - 2019 - Journal of Political Philosophy 27 (2):187-206.
    Whistleblowing (WB) is the practice of reporting immoral or illegal behavior by members of a legitimate organization with privileged access to information concerning an alleged wrongdoing within that organization. A common critique of WB draws on its supposed consequence of generating a climate of mutual distrust. This wariness is heightened in the case of external WB, which may lead to weakening public trust in an organization by diminishing its credibility. Accordingly, even the defenders of WB have presented it as an (...)
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  25. The Anti-Paternalist Case for Unconditional Basic Income Provision.Michael Cholbi - 2019 - In Michael Cholbi & Michael Weber (eds.), The Future of Work, Technology, and Basic Income. pp. 62-78.
    Argues that an anti-paternalist case for unconditional basic income (UBI) is more difficult to make than it appears. Those who support UBI on anti-paternalist grounds wrongly understand paternalism in terms of how having options affects liberty rather than, in terms of how others intercede in their rational agency in ways that reflect judgments of the recipients’ inferiority. Moreover, a basket of essential goods appears better equipped than UBI to prevent unequal social relations that paternalism can exploit or exacerbate.
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  26. Demos Vs. Polis? Essays on Civic Responsibility and Participation.Dagmar Kusá & James Griffith (eds.) - 2019 - Bratislava: Kritika & Kontext.
  27. Indicting a President.Clifton Perry - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):1-10.
    Although it is clear that the Chief Executive may be impeached while in office, it is generally thought that a sitting President cannot suffer criminal indictment while in office. There are two general arguments in support of this position. The first argument notes that criminal indictment of the President would so interfere with the duties of the office as to constitute a violation of the Constitution. The second argument simply refers to the express language of the Constitution providing that the (...)
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  28. The Ethics of Omission.Gregory Schwartz - 2019 - Think 18 (51):117-121.
    In society, power and responsibility are often linked, supporting the idea that with great power comes great responsibility. I assert that this link between power and responsibility is a form of the Act–Omission Distinction, a principle in ethics that there is a morally relevant distinction between doing something and omitting to do something, e.g. a difference between killing someone and letting someone be killed. As such, using trolleys, elected spider-men, and real-life cases such as R v Stone & Dobinson, I (...)
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  29. The Ethical and Public Health Implications of Family Separation.Mia Stange & Brett Stark - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (S2):91-94.
    When immigrant children are separated from their parents, inexorable medical and legal harms result. Family separation violates a fundamental right of parents to participate in medical decisions involving their children. This paper reviews and contributes to evolving analyses of the public health, legal, and ethical consequences of immigration policy.
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  30. Against Democracy Jason Brennan, 2016 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press 296 Pp., £17.25. [REVIEW]Jonathan Benson - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (3):637-639.
  31. Teaching & Learning Guide for Political Corruption.Emanuela Ceva & Maria Paola Ferretti - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (4):e12499.
    The Guide offers some ideas concerning readings, topics, and seminar prompts for a philosophy course on political corruption.
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  32. The Use of Lethal Drones in the War on Terror.David K. Chan - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Basingstoke, UK: Springer Verlag. pp. 135-145.
    I evaluate one intuitive argument for, and one against, the use of lethal drones by the United States in its War on Terror. The Lesser Evil Argument appeals to those who think it perverse to reject weapons that enable a more limited use of force. But if harms on all sides and longer-term consequences are considered, the argument is much less persuasive. The Targeted Killing Argument is intuitive to those who consider drone strikes against terrorist suspects named in intelligence reports (...)
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  33. "في العلاقة بين الثقافة والسياسة: نقد المقاربة الثقافوية"، مجلة قلمون، العدد الرابع، يناير/كانون الثاني 2018، ص 29-46.Housamedden Darwish - 2018 - Kalamoon مجلة قلمون 1 (4):29-45.
  34. Rethinking Libertarianism: Elizabeth Anderson's Private Government. [REVIEW]David Ellerman - 2018 - Challenge 61:156-182.
    In her recent book Private Government, Elizabeth Anderson makes a powerful but pragmatic case against the abuses experienced by employees in conventional corporations. The purpose of this review-essay is to contrast Anderson’s pragmatic critique of many abuses in the employment relation with a principled critique of the employment relationship itself. This principled critique is based on the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience down through the Enlightenment in the abolitionist, democratic, and (...)
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  35. DACA-Ptives.Joseph Farrell - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (1):33-47.
    The play on words in the title is used to illustrate a problem facing the United States government, United States citizens, and illegal immigrants. Recent estimates describe the number of illegal immigrants living in the United States at between eleven and twelve million individuals. To address issues with some of our illegal immigrants, on June 15, 2012, President Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. This is an Executive Order easing the burdens of immigration law on some illegal (...)
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  36. New Twist to Political Corruption in 4th Republic Nigeria Given Non-Human Animals Stealing Millions: A Case for the Defense of Animal Rights.Amaobi Nelson Osuala - 2018 - GNOSI: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis 1 (2).
    Corruption has assumed a new turn in 4th Republic Nigeria, particularly where non-human animals are alleged by human animals to deep their hands into the public tilt for their selfish non-human animal purposes. This is a clear case of hypocrisy on the part of human animals in that, at one instance we contend that non-human animals are inferior to human beings and at the other instance, we affirm though inadvertently that non-human animals are not inferior but equal since they have (...)
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  37. Conflicts of Interest, Emoluments, and the Presidency.Fritz Allhoff & Jonathan Milgrim - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):45-67.
    The past presidential election reinvigorated interest in the applicability of conflict of interest legislation to the executive branch. In § 2, we survey various approaches to conflicts of interest, paying particular attention to 18 U.S.C. § 208. Under 18 U.S.C. § 202, this conflict of interest statute is straightforwardly inapplicable to the President. We then explore the normative foundations of such an exemption in § 3. While these sections are ultimately lenient, we go on to consider the Emoluments Clause of (...)
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  38. The Rationality of Voting and Duties of Elected Officials.Marcus Arvan - 2017 - In Emily Crookston, David Killoren & Jonathan Trerise (eds.), Ethics in Politics: The Rights and Obligations of Individual Political Agents. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 239-253.
    In his recent article in Philosophy and Public Affairs, 'The Paradox of Voting and Ethics of Political Representation', Alexander A. Guerrero argues it is rational to vote because each voter should want candidates they support to have the strongest public mandate possible if elected to office, and because every vote contributes to that mandate. The present paper argues that two of Guerrero's premises require correction, and that when those premises are corrected several provocative but compelling conclusions follow about the rationality (...)
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  39. Democracy Beyond Disclosure: Secrecy, Transparency, and the Logic of Self-Government.Jonathan Richard Bruno - 2017 - Dissertation, Harvard University
    "Transparency" is the constant refrain of democratic politics, a promised aid to accountability and integrity in public life. Secrecy is stigmatized as a work of corruption, tolerable by a compromise of democratic principles. My dissertation challenges both ideas. It argues that secrecy and transparency are best understood as complementary, not contradictory, practices. And it develops a normative account of liberal democratic politics in which duties of transparency coexist with permissions to act behind closed doors. The project begins with some history. (...)
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  40. Trumping Conflicts of Interest.Michael Davis - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):9-20.
    As President, Donald Trumps faces two sorts of conflict of interest. The first are conflicts of interest other Presidents also faced, though Trump’s are “writ large.” These seem—as a practical matter—unavoidable now, hard to escape, not to be much changed by disclosure, and not even much subject to management. The other sort of conflict of interest seems to be without resolution even in principle while Trump remains both President and the person he is. These conflicts of interest are the product (...)
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  41. Democratic Legitimacy and the Paradox of Persisting Opposition.González-Ricoy Iñigo - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (1):130-146.
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  42. Does the Emolument Rule Exist for the President?Stephen Kershnar - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):31-43.
    In this article, I argue that with regard to the President, the Emoluments Clause is not law. I argue for this on the basis of two premises. First, if something is a law, then it has a legal remedy. Second, EC does not have a legal remedy. This premise rests on one or more of the following assumptions: EC does not apply to the President; if EC were to apply to the President, it does not provide a remedy; or, if (...)
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  43. The Pledge of Allegiance: A Reading.Richard Oxenberg - 2017 - Political Animal Magazine.
    In the Pledge of Allegiance we pledge our loyalty, not to the United States as it may exist at any particular moment, but to the flag and what it represents: an ideal United States that maintains "liberty and justice for all." When we say the Pledge we commit ourselves to this ideal, and to the ongoing struggle of bringing our actual nation into alignment with it.
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  44. Review of "One Child: Do We Have a Right to More?". [REVIEW]Jeff Sebo - 2017 - Essays in Philosophy 18 (1):172-178.
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  45. Compromise and the Value of Widely Accepted Laws.Fabian Wendt - 2017 - In Christian F. Rostboll & Theresa Scavenius (eds.), Compromise and Disagreement in Contemporary Political Theory. London: Routledge. pp. 50-62.
    The article defends the claim that if some laws are (or would be) widely accepted, this provides pro tanto moral reasons to support these laws and not to support otherwise better laws that are not widely accepted. In that sense the value of having widely accepted laws provides moral reasons to make compromises in politics, and it justifies a modest and qualified status quo bias. Widely accepted laws are valuable because they reduce enforcement costs, have symbolic value, help to maintain (...)
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  46. The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.John Danaher - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):245-268.
    One of the most noticeable trends in recent years has been the increasing reliance of public decision-making processes on algorithms, i.e. computer-programmed step-by-step instructions for taking a given set of inputs and producing an output. The question raised by this article is whether the rise of such algorithmic governance creates problems for the moral or political legitimacy of our public decision-making processes. Ignoring common concerns with data protection and privacy, it is argued that algorithmic governance does pose a significant threat (...)
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  47. Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Implications for the Future of Decision Making.U. K. Government & Office for Science - 2016
    Artificial intelligence has arrived. In the online world it is already a part of everyday life, sitting invisibly behind a wide range of search engines and online commerce sites. It offers huge potential to enable more efficient and effective business and government but the use of artificial intelligence brings with it important questions about governance, accountability and ethics. Realising the full potential of artificial intelligence and avoiding possible adverse consequences requires societies to find satisfactory answers to these questions. This report (...)
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  48. "'Due-Care' or a 'Duty-to-Care'? Codes of Ethics in Intelligence Gathering".Hernandez Jill Graper - 2016 - In Jai Gailliot (ed.), The Ethics and Future of Spying. London: Routledge. pp. 233-244.
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  49. The Minimal State and Indigent Defense.Richard L. Lippke - 2016 - Criminal Justice Ethics 35 (1):1-20.
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  50. Government Surveillance and Why Defining Privacy Matters in a Post‐Snowden World.Kevin Macnish - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy (2).
    There is a long-running debate as to whether privacy is a matter of control or access. This has become more important following revelations made by Edward Snowden in 2013 regarding the collection of vast swathes of data from the Internet by signals intelligence agencies such as NSA and GCHQ. The nature of this collection is such that if the control account is correct then there has been a significant invasion of people's privacy. If, though, the access account is correct then (...)
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