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  1. added 2019-01-11
    What Does a Definition of Death Do?Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Diametros 55:63-67.
    In his article, “Defining Death: Beyond Biology,” John Lizza argues in favor of a civil definition of death, according to which the potential for consciousness and social interaction marks us as the “kind of being that we are.” In this commentary, I critically discuss this approach to the bioethical debate on the definition of death. I question whether Lizza’s account is based on a full recognition of the “practical, moral, religious, philosophical, and cultural considerations” at play in this debate. I (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-11
    Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55:20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  3. added 2019-01-08
    The Right to Healthcare Under European Law.André den Exter - 2017 - Diametros 51:173-195.
    Too often, the right to healthcare has been considered an illusory right that is not even a legal right, but merely an aspirational norm that cannot be adjudicated before the court. In modern human rights law, considering individual and social rights as interdependent and indivisible, such an approach is untenable. Both legal doctrine and recent case law from domestic and international courts have elaborated and confirmed the specific obligations under the right to healthcare, countering the general complaint of “shrouded vagueness”. (...)
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  4. added 2019-01-08
    Priority to Organ Donors: Personal Responsibility, Equal Access and the Priority Rule in Organ Procurement.Andreas Brøgger Albertsen - 2017 - Diametros 51:137-152.
    In the effort to address the persistent organ shortage it is sometimes suggested that we should incentivize people to sign up as organ donors. One way of doing so is to give priority in the allocation of organs to those who are themselves registered as donors. Israel introduced such a scheme recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible (...)
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  5. added 2019-01-08
    Prywatne ubezpieczenia zdrowotne a zasada równości i solidarności.Aleksandra Głos - 2017 - Diametros 51:28-47.
    Private health insurance is a domain of mutually conflicting models of healthcare systems. Most European healthcare systems are built upon the principles of solidarity and equality, and are provided by public entities. But the private health insurance market can threaten these values, limiting solidarity, equality and universality for the sake of cost effectiveness, consumer choice and market competition. The aim of this article is to analyse these risks and present mechanisms for their mitigation, which would allow the construction of effective (...)
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  6. added 2019-01-08
    Pharmacogenomic Inequalities: Strategies for Justice in Biomedical Research and Healthcare.Giovanni De Grandis - 2017 - Diametros 51:153-172.
    The paper discusses the possibility that the benefits of pharmacogenomics will not be distributed equally and will create orphan populations. I argue that since these inequalities are not substantially different from those produced by ‘traditional’ drugs and are not generated with the intention to discriminate, their production needs not be unethical. Still, the final result is going against deep-seated moral feelings and intuitions, as well as broadly accepted principles of just distribution of health outcomes and healthcare. I thus propose two (...)
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  7. added 2019-01-08
    Finansowy wymiar psychoterapii a relacja psychoterapeutyczna.Marchewka Katarzyna - 2017 - Diametros 51:48-64.
    This paper aims to discuss selected issues related to the effect exerted by the financial aspects of psychotherapy on a psychotherapeutic relationship. At the beginning, I consider the effect that remuneration received by the therapist directly from the customer can have on their therapeutic relationship. Then I discuss the issues related to the compensation for psychotherapy services and show the consequences which the criteria of compensating for specific therapeutic methods have for the quality of psychotherapeutic relationships, as well as the (...)
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  8. added 2019-01-08
    A Thomistic Argument for Respecting Conscientious Refusals.Michał Głowala - 2016 - Diametros 47:19-34.
    The paper presents an argument for respecting conscientious refusals based on the Thomistic account of conscience; the argument does not employ the notion of right. The main idea is that acting against one’s conscience necessarily makes the action objectively wrong and performed in bad faith, and expecting someone to act against his or her conscience is incompatible with requiring him or her to act in good faith. In light of this idea I also examine the issue of obligations imposed on (...)
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  9. added 2018-12-31
    Uzasadnienie Sprzeciwu Sumienia: Lekarze, Poborowi I Żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
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  10. added 2018-12-21
    Ethical Issues Related to End of Life Treatment in Patients with Advanced Dementia – The Case of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration.Esther-Lee Marcus, Ofra Golan & David Goodman - 2016 - Diametros 50:118-137.
    Patients with advanced dementia suffer from severe cognitive and functional impairment, including eating disorders. The focus of our research is on the issue of life-sustaining treatment, specifically on the social and ethical implications of tube feeding. The treatment decision, based on values of life and dignity, involves sustaining lives that many people consider not worth living. We explore the moral approach to caring for these patients and review the history of the debate on artificial nutrition and hydration showing the impact (...)
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  11. added 2018-12-13
    Prior Authorization as a Potential Support of Patient-Centered Care.Leah Rand & Zackary Berger - 2018 - Patient 4 (11):371-375.
    We discuss the role of prior authorization (PA) in supporting patient-centered care (PCC) by directing health system resources and thus the ability to better meet the needs of individual patients. We begin with an account of PCC as a standard that should be aimed for in patient care. In order to achieve widespread PCC, appropriate resource management is essential in a healthcare system. This brings us to PA, and we present an idealized view of PA in order to argue how (...)
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  12. added 2018-12-09
    Three Things Clinicians Should Know About Disability.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2018 - AMA Journal of Ethics 12 (20):E1181-1187.
    The historical relationship between health care professionals and people with disabilities is fraught, a fact all the more troubling in light of the distinctive roles clinicians play in both establishing and responding to that which is considered normal or abnormal by society at large. Those who wish to improve their clinical practice might struggle, however, to keep up with developments across numerous disability communities as well as the ever-growing body of disability studies scholarship. To assist with this goal, I offer (...)
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  13. added 2018-12-03
    Defining Death: Beyond Biology.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:1-19.
    The debate over whether brain death is death has focused on whether individuals who have sustained total brain failure have satisfied the biological definition of death as “the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism as a whole.” In this paper, I argue that what it means for an organism to be integrated “as a whole” is undefined and vague in the views of those who attempt to define death as the irreversible loss of the integration of the organism (...)
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  14. added 2018-12-03
    Why Compassion Still Needs Hume Today.Margreet van der Cingel - 2015 - Diametros 44:140-152.
    Over the past years the relevance of compassion for society and specific practices such as in healthcare is becoming a focus of attention. Philosophers and scientists discuss theoretical descriptions and defining characteristics of the phenomenon and its benefits and pitfalls. However, there are hardly any empirical studies which substantiate these writings in specific societal areas. Besides, compassion may be in the eye of attention today but has always been of interest for many contemporary philosophers as well as philosophers in the (...)
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  15. added 2018-12-03
    Solidarity: A Local, Partial and Reflective Emotion.David Heyd - 2015 - Diametros 43:55-64.
    Solidarity is analysed in contradistinction from two adjacent concepts - justice and sympathy. It is argued that unlike the other two, it is essentially local , partial and reflective . Although not to be confused with justice, solidarity is presented as underlying any contract-based system of justice, since it defines the contours of the group within which the contract is taking place. Finally, due to the fact that health is a typically universal value and being a primary good it is (...)
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  16. added 2018-12-03
    Response to Ruud ter Meulen.Ruth Chadwick - 2015 - Diametros 43:21-27.
    In addition to thinking about the meanings of solidarity, it is important to address how solidarity of the appropriate sort can be cultivated. Possibilities include the transformative power of key individuals or events; and the role of institutions. In health care it is suggested that a combination of the two strategies is required. Professional conduct includes not only acting in 'face to face' delivery, but also engaging with those institutions which enable or disable certain ways of acting, so that they (...)
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  17. added 2018-12-03
    Solidarity and Health: A Public Goods Justification.Patricia Illingworth & Wendy E. Parmet - 2015 - Diametros 43:65-71.
    This comment on Professor ter Meulen's paper, "Solidarity and Justice in Health Care," offers additional perspectives on solidarity's importance for health. Noting the findings of social epidemiology, the paper explains that health has important public good dimensions. It is both non-rivlalrous because one person's health does not diminish another's, and it is largely determined by non-excludable access goods, including social networks, social determinants, and public health efforts. The public good dimension of health underscores the mutual dependence and shared stake that (...)
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  18. added 2018-12-03
    The Veil of Ignorance and Solidarity in Healthcare: Finding Compassion in the Original Position.Michał Zabdyr-Jamróz - 2015 - Diametros 43:79-95.
    In this paper I will juxtapose the concept of the veil of ignorance – a fundamental premise of Rawlsian justice as fairness – and solidarity in the context of the organisation of a healthcare system. My hypothesis is that the veil of ignorance could be considered a rhetorical tool that supports compassion solidarity. In the concept of the veil of ignorance, I will find some crucial features of compassion solidarity within the Rawlsian concept of “reciprocity” – located between “impartiality” and (...)
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  19. added 2018-12-03
    Solidarity in the Legal Frames.Aleksandra Głos - 2015 - Diametros 44:204-222.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of solidarity and its proper position in the legal frames, with particular focus on health care. Solidarity is often identified with welfare arrangements and social guarantees. In this institutional version, it tends to humiliate citizens and restrict their entrepreneurship. Moreover, administrative solidarity is unable to recognize the actual needs of the most vulnerable members of society, which should be one of its primary concerns. Solidarity, in its original meaning, understood as (...)
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  20. added 2018-12-03
    Just Solidarity: The Key to Fair Health Care Rationing.Leonard M. Fleck - 2015 - Diametros 43:44-54.
    I agree with Professor ter Meulen that there is no need to make a forced choice between “justice” and “solidarity” when it comes to determining what should count as fair access to needed health care. But he also asserts that solidarity is more fundamental than justice. That claim needs critical assessment. Ter Meulen recognizes that the concept of solidarity has been criticized for being excessively vague. He addresses this criticism by introducing the more precise notion of “humanitarian solidarity.” However, I (...)
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  21. added 2018-12-03
    Ewolucja koncepcji świadomej zgody w kontekście badań naukowych z użyciem ludzkiego materiału biologicznego.Jakub Pawlikowski - 2015 - Diametros 44:89-109.
    The development of research based on human biological material has contributed to a lively debate on the concept of informed consent in these studies, particularly its scope, form and length of validity. The biggest disputes and doubts concern the range of consent for research that will be conducted in the future, whose aim and place are unknown at the time of the sample collection, as are the future researchers and the ability to use the previously collected materials again. This situation (...)
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  22. added 2018-12-03
    Reflective Solidarity as to Provincial Globalism and Shared Health Governance.Michael J. DiStefano & Jennifer Prah Ruger - 2015 - Diametros 46:151-158.
    There is a special need for solidarity at the global level to address global health disparities. Ter Meulen argues that solidarity must complement justice, and is, in fact, more fundamental than justice to the arrangement of health care practices. We argue that PG/SHG, though a theory of justice, is fundamentally synergistic with solidarity. We relate PG/SHG to Jodi Dean’s conceptual work on reflective solidarity, contrasted with conventional solidarity, as an approach to transnational solidarity that dovetails with PG/SHG. We argue that (...)
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  23. added 2018-12-03
    Solidarity and Justice in Health Care. A Critical Analysis of Their Relationship.Ruud ter Meulen - 2015 - Diametros 43:1-20.
    This article tries to analyze the meaning and relevance of the concept of solidarity as compared to the concept of justice. While ‘justice’ refers to rights and duties , the concept of solidarity refers to relations of personal commitment and recognition . The article wants to answer the question whether solidarity and liberal justice should be seen as mutually exclusive or whether both approaches should be regarded as complementary to each other. The paper starts with an analysis of liberal theories (...)
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  24. added 2018-12-03
    Dwa modele zaufania w opiece zdrowotnej.Aleksandra Głos - 2015 - Diametros 45:82-106.
    Trust is a fundament of decent and just health care. In a subtle relation between patient and physician trust not only fuels the process of therapy but also plays a therapeutic role itself. Trust is a precondition of successful cooperation – it lowers its costs, increases efficiency and brings satisfaction to the partners. Only altruistic trust acts as such. Philosophical arguments as well as experiments analysing birth of trust in health care praxis prove the validity of the altruistic model. Distinction (...)
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  25. added 2018-11-27
    Capacity, Obligation, and Medical Billing.Mark Wells & Jacob Sparks - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (1):17-24.
    It is a common assumption that medical institutions may permissibly use the force of law to seek remuneration for costs incurred in medical intervention done without patient consent. In this paper, we challenge that assumption. Specifically, we claim that: Generally, when patients who lack capacity are given medical treatment without their consent, those practitioners who treated them are wrong to use legal mechanisms to secure remuneration for that treatment.
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  26. added 2018-11-18
    The Normative Significance of Identifiability.Tomasz Żuradzki - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    According to psychological research, people are more eager to help identified individuals than unidentified ones. This phenomenon significantly influences many important decisions, both individual and public, regarding, for example, vaccinations or the distribution of healthcare resources. This paper aims at presenting definitions of various levels of identifiability as well as a critical analysis of the main philosophical arguments regarding the normative significance of the identifiability effect, which refer to: (1) ex ante contractualism; (2) fair distribution of chances and risks; (3) (...)
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  27. added 2018-11-15
    Dismissal Policies for Vaccine Refusal -- A Reply.Michael J. Deem, Mark Christopher Navin & John D. Lantos - 2018 - JAMA Pediatrics 172 (11):1101-1102.
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  28. added 2018-11-14
    Harms and Wrongs in Epistemic Practice.Simon Barker, Charlie Crerar & Trystan S. Goetze - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 84:1-21.
    This volume has its roots in two recent developments within mainstream analytic epistemology: a growing recognition over the past two or three decades of the active and social nature of our epistemic lives; and, more recently still, the increasing appreciation of the various ways in which the epistemic practices of individuals and societies can, and often do, go wrong. The theoretical analysis of these breakdowns in epistemic practice, along with the various harms and wrongs that follow as a consequence, constitutes (...)
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  29. added 2018-10-16
    Impartiality and Infectious Disease: Prioritising Individuals Versus the Collective in Antibiotic Prescription.Bernadine Dao, Thomas Douglas, Alberto Giubilini, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Nadira Faber - forthcoming - Ajob Empirical Bioethics.
  30. added 2018-09-29
    Defining ‘Medical Necessity’ in an Age of Personalised Medicine: A View From Canada.Timothy Caulfield & Amy Zarzeczny - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (9):813-817.
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  31. added 2018-09-07
    The Importance of Rationality.G. Owen Schaefer - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (1):3.
    Michael Hauskeller (“Reflections from a Troubled Stream: Giubliani and Minerva on ‘After-Birth Abortion’) has recently suggested that we should resist rationalist tendencies in moral discourse: “[I]s not all morality ultimately irrational? Even the most strongly held moral convictions can be shown to lack a rational basis.” (Hauskeller 2012, p. 18) Hauskeller was responding to Alberto Giubliani and Francesca Minverva’s (2012) recent defense of the permissibility of killing infants, but his anti-rationality arguments have wide-reaching implications. Yet pace Hauskeller, rationality is indeed (...)
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  32. added 2018-08-03
    What's Philosophical About Moral Distress?Nancy J. Matchett - 2018 - Philosophical Practice: Journal of the American Philosophical Practitioners Association 2 (13):2108-19.
    Moral distress is a well-documented phenomenon in the nursing profession, and increasingly thought to be implicated in a nation-wide nursing shortage in the US. First identified by the philosopher Andrew Jameton in 1984, moral distress has also proven resistant to various attempts to prevent its occurrence or at least mitigate its effects. While this would seem to be bad news for nurses and their patients, it is potentially good news for philosophical counselors, for whom there is both socially important and (...)
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  33. added 2018-07-05
    Health Care Disparities.Marvin J. H. Lee & Sally Kuykendall - 2018 - In Encyclopedia of Public Health: Principles, People, and Programs. Santa Barbara, CA, USA:
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  34. added 2018-07-05
    Population Health.Marvin J. H. Lee - 2018 - In Sally Kuykendall (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public Health: Principles, People, and Programs. Santa Barbara, CA, USA:
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  35. added 2018-05-23
    Heeding Humanity in an Age of Electronic Health Records.Casey Rentmeester - 2018 - Nursing Philosophy 19 (3):e12214.
    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) required healthcare providers in the United States to adopt and demonstrate meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) by January 1, 2014. In many ways, EHRs mark a notable improvement over paper medical records as they are more easily accessible and allow for electronic searching and sharing of medical history. However, as EHRs have become mandated by ARRA, many nurses now rely upon computers far more heavily during nurse–patient interactions, thereby decreasing (...)
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  36. added 2018-04-04
    Selbst-Vergessen. Über den Umgang mit demenzbedingten Erfahrungen des Selbstverlusts.Katharina Bauer - 2017 - In Daniela Ringkamp, Sara Strauß & Leonie Süwolto (eds.), ‘Dementia and Subjectivity – Literary and Philosophical Perspectives’. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang. pp. 179-191.
    One of the most threatening effects of dementia is the experience of forgetting or losing one’s self. How can patients and their caregivers cope with this experience? Based on the example of Arno Geiger’s narrative about his father this paper suggests aiming at a joint re-interpretation of the patient’s personality. For this purpose it is essential to respect the patient as a person with practical significance.
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  37. added 2018-04-02
    Measuring Health Burden Without Discriminating Against the Disabled.Nicole Hassoun & Lucio Esposito - 2016 - Journal of Public Health 39 (3):633-639.
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  38. added 2018-04-02
    The Human Right to Health.Nicole Hassoun - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (4):275-283.
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  39. added 2018-04-02
    The Global Health Impact Index.Nicole Hassoun - 2015 - PLoS ONE 10 (12):e0141374.
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  40. added 2017-12-18
    Blameless Guilt: The Case of Carer Guilt and Chronic and Terminal-Illness.Matt Bennett - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophical Studies.
    My ambition in this paper is to provide an account of an unacknowledged example of blameless guilt that, I argue, merits further examination. The example is what I call carer guilt: guilt felt by nurses and family members caring for patients with palliative-care needs. Nurses and carers involved in palliative care often feel guilty about what they perceive as their failure to provide sufficient care for a patient. However in some cases the guilty carer does not think that he has (...)
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  41. added 2017-11-07
    Evaluating Clinical Ethics Consultation: A European Perspective.Margarete Pfäfflin, Klaus Kobert & Stella Reiter-Theil - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (4):406.
    This paper focuses on the topic of evaluation of clinical ethics consultation. The concept of evaluation seems to contain an internal tension: On the one hand, evaluation is seen as distorting the conceptual and normative content of the case under scrutiny and, on the other, the evaluative act is the most important use of judgment and an inescapable part of everyday life. As such, we maintain that evaluation is essential.
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  42. added 2017-10-19
    Clinical Decision-Making: The Case Against the New Casuistry.Mahesh Ananth - 2017 - Issues in Law and Medicine 32 (2):143-171.
    Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin have argued that the best way to resolve complex “moral” issues in clinical settings is to focus on the details of specific cases. This approach to medical decision-making, labeled ‘casuistry’, has met with much criticism in recent years. In response to this criticism, Carson Strong has attempted to salvage much of Jonsen’s and Toulmin’s version of casuistry. He concludes that much of their analysis, including Jonsen’s further elaboration about the casuistic methodology, is on the mark. (...)
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  43. added 2017-10-11
    Physician Involvement in Hostile Interrogations.Fritz Allhoff - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (4):392-402.
    In this paper, I have two main goals. First, I will argue that traditional medical values mandate, as opposed to forbid, at least minimal physician participation in hostile interrogations. Second, I will argue that traditional medical duties or responsibilities do not apply to medically-trained interrogators. In support of this conclusion, I will argue that medically-trained interrogators could simply choose not to enter into a patient-physician relationship. Recognizing that this argument might not be convincing, I will then propose three further arguments (...)
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  44. added 2017-09-07
    Is Ethical Expertise Possible?Jukka Varelius - 2008 - Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):127-132.
    Services of ethics committees are nowadays commonly used in such various spheres of life as health care, public administration, business, law, engineering, and scientific research. It is taken that as their members have expertise in ethics, these committees can have valuable contributions to make in solving practical moral problems. It has, however, also been maintained that it is simply absurd to claim that one has some special knowledge and skills in moral matters; in connection with moral questions there is no (...)
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  45. added 2017-09-04
    Advance Directives and the Descendant Argument.Jukka Varelius - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (1):1-11.
    By issuing an advance treatment directive, an autonomous person can formally express what kinds of treatment she wishes and does not wish to receive in case she becomes ill or injured and unable to autonomously decide about her treatment. While many jurisdictions and medical associations endorse them, advance treatment directives have also been criticized. According to an important criticism, when a person irreversibly loses her autonomy what she formerly autonomously desired ceases to be of importance in deciding about her treatment. (...)
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  46. added 2017-09-04
    Is Ethical Expertise Possible?Jukka Varelius - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):127-132.
    Services of ethics committees are nowadays commonly used in such various spheres of life as health care, public administration, business, law, engineering, and scientific research. It is taken that as their members have expertise in ethics, these committees can have valuable contributions to make in solving practical moral problems. It has, however, also been maintained that it is simply absurd to claim that one has some special knowledge and skills in moral matters; in connection with moral questions there is no (...)
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  47. added 2017-08-25
    Do Motives Matter in Male Circumcision? 'Conscientious Objection' Against the Circumcision of a Muslim Child with a Blood Disorder.Ayesha Ahmad - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (2):67-75.
    Whilst there have been serious attempts to locate the practice of male circumcision for religious motives in the context of the (respective) religion's narrative and community, the debate, when referring to a clinical context, is often more nuanced. This article will contribute further to the debate by contextualising the Islamic practice of male circumcision within the clinical setting typical of a contemporary hospital. It specifically develops an additional complication; namely, the child has a pre-existing blood disorder. As an approach to (...)
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  48. added 2017-08-02
    Unexpected Complications of Novel Deep Brain Stimulation Treatments: Ethical Issues and Clinical Recommendations.Hannah Maslen, Binith Cheeran, Jonathan Pugh, Laurie Pycroft, Sandra Boccard, Simon Prangnell, Alexander Green, James FitzGerald, Julian Savulescu & Tipu Aziz - forthcoming - Neuromodulation.
    Background -/- Innovative neurosurgical treatments present a number of known risks, the natures and probabilities of which can be adequately communicated to patients via the standard procedures governing obtaining informed consent. However, due to their novelty, these treatments also come with unknown risks, which require an augmented approach to obtaining informed consent. -/- Objective -/- This paper aims to discuss and provide concrete procedural guidance on the ethical issues raised by serious unexpected complications of novel deep brain stimulation treatments. -/- (...)
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  49. added 2017-07-23
    Provider Responses to Patients Controlling Access to Their Electronic Health Records: A Prospective Cohort Study in Primary Care.William M. Tierney, Sheri A. Alpert, Amy Byrket, Kelly Caine, Jeremy C. Leventhal, Eric M. Meslin & Peter H. Schwartz - 2015 - Journal of General Internal Medicine 30 (1):31-37.
    Applying Fair Information Practice principles to electronic health records (EHRs) requires allowing patient control over who views their data.
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  50. added 2017-07-16
    History of Disease and the Longue Durée.Jon Arrizabalaga - 2005 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (1):41 - 56.
    This paper summarizes Grmek's theoretical contribution to history of disease and explores to what extent the longue durée could still be a useful concept in order to better understand past perceptions of, and reactions to, diseases. The case of the medical responses to epidemic disease in pre-industrial Europe is synthetically expounded in order to illustrate this issue.
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