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Summary There are several complementary issues involved in Health Care Justice. Distributive justice is primarily concerned with access to health care, but also with the distribution of other social goods that contribute to health. This can also encompass the scope of health care: what should be included in a public health care provision?  Health care justice also encompasses the role of rights in health care; this includes questions of how medical professionals should interact with patients, but also the rights of the medical professionals themselves, patient families, and broader groups such as the general public. This will also include the application of distinctive questions of justice (e.g racial justice; disability-related justice; gender justice, etc.) to health, including considerations of discrimination within health care, the effect of discrimination in other areas on people's health and access to care, as well as past and present unjust uses and refusals of health care.  In general questions of health care justice may emerge within a particular society, at a particular time. But they can also include issues of international and global justice, justice between generations, and the scope of justice (e.g. whether non-human animals have claims on the basis of justice).  The term may also relate to the role of legal justice in health care. For instance, we might wonder at what point, and for what kinds of misconduct, criminal law should be applied to cases of misconduct by medical professionals, or whether medics' central role in society should impact their employment rights, such as the right to strike action.  There are also questions about the relationship of health justice to justice in other areas. It is now widely recognised that health is affected not only by 'health care', but also - and probably more - by other social goods. Is there any reason, therefore, for a distinctive theory of 'health care justice', where we aim for equality of health care provision regardless of what happens elsewhere? Or should health care just be seen as one sector across which justice applies, with gains or losses in health fully commensurable with gains and losses in other areas of life? 
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  1. The "Foreign" Virus? COVID and Borders: The Case of Norway.Magnus Egan & Attila Tanyi - manuscript
    On 27 January this year, the Norwegian government introduced the strictest entry rules since March 2020 - which are the strictest since World War II. Persons who do not have Norwegian citizenship or are resident in Norway no longer have access to the country, with a few exceptions. Are such restrictions justified? -/- We find that there is little critical discussion of this problem both in Norway and, more generally, in the normative literature (philosophical or otherwise). This critical silence is (...)
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  2. ‘Personal Health Surveillance’: The Use of mHealth in Healthcare Responsibilisation.Ben Davies - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    There is an ongoing increase in the use of mobile health technologies that patients can use to monitor health-related outcomes and behaviours. While the dominant narrative around mHealth focuses on patient empowerment, there is potential for mHealth to fit into a growing push for patients to take personal responsibility for their health. I call the first of these uses ‘medical monitoring’, and the second ‘personal health surveillance’. After outlining two problems which the use of mHealth might seem to enable us (...)
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  3. Rights to Health Care.H. Tristram Englehardt - forthcoming - The Foundations of Bioethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    A basic human right to the delivery of health care, even to the delivery of a decent minimum of health care, does not exist. The difficult with talking of such rights should be apparent. It is difficult if not impossible both to respect the freedom of all and to achieve their long-range best interests. -/- Rights to health care constitute claims against others for either their services or their goods. Unlike rights to forbearance, which require others to refrain from interfering, (...)
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  4. Phantom Premise and a Shape-Shifting Ism: Reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  5. Love Thy Neighbour? Allocating Vaccines in a World of Competing Obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur L. Caplan - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106887.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  6. Medical Cosmopolitanism: The Global Extension of Justice in Healthcare Practice.Luvuyo Gantsho & Christopher S. Wareham - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
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  7. How (Not) to Make Trade-Offs Between Health and Other Goods.Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    In the context of a global pandemic, there is good health-based reason for governments to impose various social distancing measures. However, such measures also cause economic and other harms to people at low risk from the virus. In this paper, I examine how to make such trade-offs in a way that is respectfully justifiable to their losers. I argue that existing proposals like using standard QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) valuations or WELLBYs (wellbeing-adjusted life-years) as the currency for trade-offs do not allow (...)
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  8. Providing Health Care for the Indigent.David M. Kinzer - forthcoming - Scarce Medical Resources and Justice.
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  9. Continuous Glucose Monitoring as a Matter of Justice.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - forthcoming - HEC Forum.
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic illness that requires intensive lifelong management of blood glucose concentrations by means of external insulin administration. There have been substantial developments in the ways of measuring glucose levels, which is crucial to T1D self-management. Recently, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has allowed people with T1D to keep track of their blood glucose levels in near real-time. These devices have alarms that warn users about potentially dangerous blood glucose trends, which can often be shared with (...)
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  10. Ethical Considerations for Global Health Decision-Making: Justice-Enhanced Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of New Technologies for Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense.Maria W. Merritt, C. Simone Sutherland & Fabrizio Tediosi - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phy013.
    We sought to assess formally the extent to which different control and elimination strategies for human African trypanosomiasis Trypanosoma brucei gambiense would exacerbate or alleviate experiences of societal disadvantage that traditional economic evaluation does not take into account. Justice-enhanced cost-effectiveness analysis is a normative approach under development to address social justice considerations in public health decision-making alongside other types of analyses. It aims to assess how public health interventions under analysis in comparative evaluation would be expected to influence the clustering (...)
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  11. Special Supplement: What Do We Owe the Elderly? Allocating Social and Health Care Resources.Ruud ter Meulen, Eva Topinková & Daniel Callahan - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  12. Qualifying'the Normal Functioning View': Towards a Consensus on a Functioning-Based Framework of Health Justice.Lasse Nielsen - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
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  13. Conditioning Principles: On Bioethics and The Problem of Ableism.Joel Michael Reynolds - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Victor & Laura Guidry Grimes (eds.), Applying Nonideal Theory to Bioethics: Living and Dying in a Nonideal World. Springer.
    This paper has two goals. The first is to argue that the field of bioethics in general and the literature on ideal vs. nonideal theory in particular has underemphasized a primary problem for normative theorizing: the role of conditioning principles. I define these as principles that implicitly or explicitly ground, limit, or otherwise determine the construction and function of other principles, and, as a result, profoundly impact concept formation, perception, judgment, and action, et al. The second is to demonstrate that (...)
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  14. How Can We Decide a Fair Allocation of Healthcare Resources During a Pandemic?Cristina Roadevin & Harry Hill - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106815.
    Whenever the government makes medical resource allocation choices, there will be opportunity costs associated with those choices: some patients will have treatment and live longer, while a different group of patients will die prematurely. Because of this, we have to make sure that the benefits we get from investing in treatment A are large enough to justify the benefits forgone from not investing in the next best alternative, treatment B. There has been an increase in spending and reallocation of resources (...)
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  15. Why We Should Stop Using Animal-Derived Products on Patients Without Their Consent.Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Medicines and medical devices containing animal-derived ingredients are frequently used on patients without their informed consent, despite a significant proportion of patients wanting to know if an animal-derived product is going to be used in their care. Here, I outline three arguments for why this practice is wrong. Firstly, I argue that using animal-derived medical products on patients without their informed consent undermines respect for their autonomy. Secondly, it risks causing non-trivial psychological harm. Thirdly, it is morally inconsistent to respect (...)
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  16. Justice, the Basic Social Contract and Health Care.Robert M. Veatch - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
  17. Global Obligations and the Human Right to Health.Bill Wringe - forthcoming - In Tracy Isaacs, Kendy Hess & Violetta Igneski (eds.), Collective Obligation: Ethics, Ontology and Applications.
    In this paper I attempt to show how an appeal to a particular kind of collective obligation - a collective obligation falling on an unstructured collective consisting of the world’s population as a whole – can be used to undermine recently influential objections to the idea that there is a human right to health which have been put forward by Gopal Sreenivasan and Onora O’Neill. -/- I take this result to be significant both for its own sake and because it (...)
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  18. Mental Health in South Asia: Ethics, Resources, Programs and Legislation.Adarsh Tripathi & Jitendra Kumar Trivedi (eds.) - 2nd ed. 2015 - Springer Verlag.
    The aim of this chapter is to describe a type of law governing involuntary treatment that is based on decision-making capability and not on risk of harm to self or others. It is consistent with the legal and ethical principles followed in general medicine, and non-discriminatory against people with a mental illness. The rationale behind the proposal is outlined, as well as its principles and main features. It is argued that this type of law could be adapted to the needs (...)
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  19. How the Past Matters for the Future: A Luck Egalitarian Sustainability Principle for Healthcare Resource Allocation.Andreas Albertsen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):102-103.
    Christian Munthe, David Fumagalli and Erik Malmqvist argue that well-known healthcare resource allocation principles, such as need, prognosis, equal treatment and cost-effectiveness, should be supplemented with a principle of sustainability.1 Employing such a principle would entail that the allocation of healthcare resources should take into account whether a specific allocation causes negative dynamics, which would limit the amount of resources available in the future. As examples of allocation decisions, which may have such negative dynamics, they mention those who cause a (...)
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  20. What’s the Appropriate Target of Allocative Justification?Zara Anwarzai & Ricky Mouser - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):167-168.
    Building on work by Peterman, Aas, and Wasserman (2021), we modify their prospective benefit analysis to include only medically-relevant information about patients as persons without reference to their broader lives. Because patients (not their lives) must be treated equally, we argue that patients are the appropriate targets of allocative justification. We go on to challenge some of our current data-collection practices on this basis.
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  21. Mistrust and Inconsistency During COVID-19: Considerations for Resource Allocation Guidelines That Prioritise Healthcare Workers.Alexander T. M. Cheung & Brendan Parent - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):73-77.
    As the USA contends with another surge in COVID-19 cases, hospitals may soon need to answer the unresolved question of who lives and dies when ventilator demand exceeds supply. Although most triage policies in the USA have seemingly converged on the use of clinical need and benefit as primary criteria for prioritisation, significant differences exist between institutions in how to assign priority to patients with identical medical prognoses: the so-called ‘tie-breaker’ situations. In particular, one’s status as a frontline healthcare worker (...)
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  22. Afro-Communitarianism and the Role of Traditional African Healers in the COVID-19 Pandemic.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues & Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (1):59-71.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant challenges to healthcare systems worldwide, and in Africa, given the lack of resources, they are likely to be even more acute. The usefulness of Traditional African Healers in helping to mitigate the effects of pandemic has been neglected. We argue from an ethical perspective that these healers can and should have an important role in informing and guiding local communities in Africa on how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Particularly, we argue not only (...)
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  23. There is No Race Problem: Theorizing the Absence of Racial and Ethnic Disparity Data in Scotland After COVID-19.Tommy J. Curry - 2021 - In Scotland After the Virus. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 195-202.
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  24. Grow the Pie, or the Resource Shuffle? Commentary on Munthe, Fumagalli and Malmqvist.Ben Davies - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):98-99.
    John Rawls’s ‘just savings’ principle is among the better-known attempts to outline how we should balance the claims of the present with the claims of the future generations on resources. A central element of Rawls’s approach involves endorsing a sufficientarian approach, where our central obligation is to ensure ‘the conditions needed to establish and to preserve a just basic structure’.1 This engaging paper by Christian Munthe, Davide Fumagalli and Erik Malmqvist does not explicitly mention Rawls’s work on this issue.2 Still, (...)
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  25. Nursing is Never Neutral: Political Determinants of Health and Systemic Marginalization.Nathan Eric Dickman & Roxana Chicas - 2021 - Nursing Inquiry 1 (Online First e12408):1-13.
    The nursing community in the United States polarized in September 2020 between Dawn Wooten's whistleblowing about forced hysterectomies at an immigration center in Georgia and the American Nurses Association's refusal to endorse a presidential candidate despite the Trump administration's mounting failures to address the public health crisis posed by the COVID‐19 pandemic. This reveals a need for more attention to political aspects of health outcome inequities. As advocates for health equity, nurses can join in recent scholarship and activism concerning the (...)
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  26. Understanding Government Decisions to De-Fund Medical Services Analyzing the Impact of Problem Frames on Resource Allocation Policies.Mark Embrett & Glen E. Randall - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (1):78-98.
    Many medical services lack robust evidence of effectiveness and may therefore be considered “unnecessary” care. Proactively withdrawing resources from, or de-funding, such services and redirecting the savings to services that have proven effectiveness would enhance overall health system performance. Despite this, governments have been reluctant to discontinue funding of services once funding is in place. The focus of this study is to understand how the framing of an issue or problem influences government decision-making related to de-funding of medical services. To (...)
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  27. Ordeals, Women and Gender Justice.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):8-22.
    Rationing health care by ordeals is likely to have different effects on women and men, and on distinct groups of women. I show how such putative effects of ordeals are relevant to achieving gender justice. I explain why some ordeals may disproportionately set back women’s interest in discretionary time, health and access to health care, and may undermine equality of opportunity for positions of advantage. Some ordeals protect the interests of the worse-off women yet set back the interests of better-off (...)
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  28. Incorporating Health Equity Into COVID-19 Reopening Plans: Policy Experimentation in California.Emily A. Largent, Govind Persad, Michelle M. Mello, Danielle M. Wenner, Daniel B. Kramer, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds & Monica Peek - 2021 - American Journal of Public Health 1 (1):e1-e8.
    California has focused on health equity in the state’s COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California’s 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier’s test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 residents must (...)
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  29. What Does an African Ethic of Social Cohesion Entail for Social Distancing?Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (1):7-16.
    The most prominent strand of moral thought in the African philosophical tradition is relational and cohesive, roughly demanding that we enter into community with each other. Familiar is the view that being a real person means sharing a way of life with others, perhaps even in their fate. What does such a communal ethic prescribe for the coronavirus pandemic? Might it forbid one from social distancing, at least away from intimates? Or would it entail that social distancing is wrong to (...)
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  30. Sustainability Principle for the Ethics of Healthcare Resource Allocation.Christian Munthe, Davide Fumagalli & Erik Malmqvist - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):90-97.
    We propose a principle of sustainability to complement established principles used for justifying healthcare resource allocation. We argue that the application of established principles of equal treatment, need, prognosis and cost-effectiveness gives rise to what we call negative dynamics: a gradual depletion of the value possible to generate through healthcare. These principles should therefore be complemented by a sustainability principle, making the prospect of negative dynamics a further factor to consider, and possibly outweigh considerations highlighted by the other principles. We (...)
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  31. Difficult Trade-Offs in Response to COVID-19: The Case for Open and Inclusive Decision-Making.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Joelle Abi-Rached, Liam Kofi Bright, Kristine Baeroe, Octavio Ferraz, Siri Gloppen & Alex Voorhoeve - 2021 - Nature Medicine 27:10-13.
    We argue that deliberative decision-making that is inclusive, transparent and accountable can contribute to more trustworthy and legitimate decisions on difficult ethical questions and political trade-offs during the pandemic and beyond.
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  32. Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  33. Prioritizing the Prevention of Early Deaths During Covid‐19.Govind Persad - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (2):42-43.
    In this Correspondence, I argue that given that scarcity has existed both for critical care resources and for vaccines, allocating critical care resources to prioritize the prevention of early COVID-19 deaths (i.e. COVID-19 deaths among younger patients) could valuably counterbalance the disproportionate exclusion of minority patients and those with life shortening disabilities that age-based vaccine allocation produces. -/- Covid-19 deaths early in life have overwhelmingly befallen minorities and people with life-shortening disabilities. Policies preventing early deaths prevent an outcome widely recognized (...)
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  34. Public Perspectives on COVID-19 Vaccine Prioritization.Govind Persad, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Samantha Sangenito, Aaron Glickman, Steven Phillips & Emily A. Largent - 2021 - JAMA Network Open 4:e217943.
    In this survey study of 4735 US adults, respondents of all demographic and political affiliations agreed with prioritizing COVID-19 vaccine access for health care workers, adults of any age with serious comorbid conditions, frontline workers (eg, teachers and grocery workers), and Black, Hispanic, Native American, and other communities that have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Older adult respondents were less likely than younger respondents to list healthy people older than 65 years as 1 of their top 4 priority groups. These (...)
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  35. Religious Accommodation in Bioethics and the Practice of Medicine.William R. Smith & Robert Audi - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (2):188-218.
    Debates about the ethics of health care and medical research in contemporary pluralistic democracies often arise partly from competing religious and secular values. Such disagreements raise challenges of balancing claims of religious liberty with claims to equal treatment in health care. This paper proposes several mid-level principles to help in framing sound policies for resolving such disputes. We develop and illustrate these principles, exploring their application to conscientious objection by religious providers and religious institutions, accommodation of religious priorities in biomedical (...)
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  36. Triage and Justice in an Unjust Pandemic: Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Setting of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities.Benjamin Tolchin, Sarah C. Hull & Katherine Kraschel - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (3):200-202.
    Shortages of life-saving medical resources caused by COVID-19 have prompted hospitals, healthcare systems, and governmentsto develop crisis standards of care, including 'triage protocols' to potentially ration medical supplies during the public health emergency. At the same time, the pandemic has highlighted and exacerbated racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health disparities that together constitute a form of structural racism. These disparities pose a critical ethical challenge in developing fair triage systems that will maximize lives saved without perpetuating systemic inequities. Here we review (...)
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  37. The Ethics of Grandfather Clauses in Healthcare Resource Allocation.Gry Wester, Leah Zoe Gibson Rand, Christine Lu & Mark Sheehan - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):151-160.
    A grandfather clause is a provision whereby an old rule continues to apply to some existing situation while a new rule applies to all future cases. This paper focuses on the use of grandfather clauses in health technology appraisals (HTAs) issued by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom. NICE provides evidence‐based guidance on healthcare technologies and public health interventions that influence resource allocation decisions in the National Health Service (NHS) and the broader public (...)
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  38. Assessing the Wellbeing Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Three Policy Types: Suppression, Control, and Uncontrolled Spread.Matthew D. Adler, Richard Bradley, Maddalena Ferranna, Marc Fleurbaey, James Hammitt & Alex Voorhoeve - 2020 - Thinktank 20 Policy Briefs for the G20 Meeting in Saudi Arabia 2020.
    The COVID-19 crisis has forced a difficult trade-off between limiting the health impacts of the virus and maintaining economic activity. Welfare economics offers tools to conceptualize this trade-off so that policy-makers and the public can see clearly what is at stake. We review four such tools: the Value of Statistical Life (VSL); the Value of Statistical Life Years (VSLYs); Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs); and social welfare analysis, and argue that the latter are superior. We also discuss how to choose policies that (...)
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  39. Rural Bioethics: The Alaska Context.Fritz Allhoff & Luke Golemon - 2020 - HEC Forum 32 (4):313-331.
    With by far the lowest population density in the United States, myriad challenges attach to healthcare delivery in Alaska. In the “Size, Population, and Accessibility” section, we characterize this geographic context, including how it is exacerbated by lack of infrastructure. In the “Distributing Healthcare” section, we turn to healthcare economics and staffing, showing how these bear on delivery—and are exacerbated by geography. In the “Health Care in Rural Alaska” section, we turn to rural care, exploring in more depth what healthcare (...)
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  40. COVID-19 and Mental Health: Government Response and Appropriate Measures.Genevieve Bandares-Paulino & Randy A. Tudy - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (7):378-382.
    As governments around the world imposed lockdowns or stay-at-home measures, people began to feel the stress as time dragged on. There were already reports on some individuals committing suicide. How do governments respond to such a phenomenon? Our main focus is the Philippine government and how it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we argue that the problem with COVID-19 went forth just dealing with physical health. First, people suffer not just from being infected but the psychological stress (...)
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  41. Pandemic Ethics: 8 Big Questions of COVID-19.Ben Bramble - 2020 - Sydney: Bartleby Books.
    A clear and provocative introduction to the ethics of COVID-19, suitable for university-level students, academics, and policymakers, as well as the general reader. It is also an original contribution to the emerging literature on this important topic. The author has made it available Open Access, so that it can be downloaded and read for free by all those who are interested in these issues. Key features include: -/- A neat organisation of the ethical issues raised by the pandemic. An exploration (...)
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  42. Discrimination, Othering, and the Political Instrumentalizing of Pandemic Disease.Emanuele Costa & Martina Baradel - 2020 - Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas 9 (18).
    The complex history of pandemics has created a diversified array of anti-epidemic responses, which have allowed structures of authority to express their power in multiple ways. In this paper, by considering theories applicable to cases ranging from Europe to Asia, from the 11th to the 18th century, we conduct a comparative analysis capable of identifying common traits and radical differences, aiming to show how such deployment of power was not always commensurate with the medical theories of the age, and with (...)
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  43. Ethical Allocation of Remdesivir.Parker Crutchfield, Tyler S. Gibb, Michael J. Redinger & William Fales - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):84-86.
    As the federal government distributed remdesivir to some of the states COVID-19 hit hardest, policymakers scrambled to develop criteria to allocate the drug to their hospitals. Our state, Michigan, was among those states to receive an initial quantity of the drug from the U.S. government. The disparities in burden of disease in Michigan are striking. Detroit has a death rate more than three times the state average. Our recommendation to the state was that it should prioritize the communities that bear (...)
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  44. Disability, Epistemic Harms, and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year.Laura M. Cupples - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (1):46-62.
    Health policymakers employ utility measures to inform resource allocation decisions. They often rely on a conceptual tool called the quality-adjusted life year that discounts the value of years lived in a state of disability relative to years lived in full health. A representative sample of the general public is asked to place values on hypothetical health states as part of a standard gamble or time trade-off task. Policymakers use the resulting values to calculate the number of QALYs gained through particular (...)
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  45. Ezekiel Emanuel, Andrew Steinmetz, and Harald Schmidt (Eds): Rationing and Resource Allocation in Healthcare: Essential Readings: Oxford University Press, New York, 2018, 558 Pp, $39.95, ISBN: 978-0-19-020075-6. [REVIEW]Margherita Daverio - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (1):57-58.
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  46. From Sufficient Health to Sufficient Responsibility.Ben Davies & Julian Savulescu - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (3):423-433.
    The idea of using responsibility in the allocation of healthcare resources has been criticized for, among other things, too readily abandoning people who are responsible for being very badly off. One response to this problem is that while responsibility can play a role in resource allocation, it cannot do so if it will leave those who are responsible below a “sufficiency” threshold. This paper considers first whether a view can be both distinctively sufficientarian and allow responsibility to play a role (...)
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  47. Public Health and Precarity.Michael D. Doan & Ami Harbin - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (2):108-130.
    One branch of bioethics assumes that mainly agents of the state are responsible for public health. Following Susan Sherwin’s relational ethics, we suggest moving away from a “state-centered” approach toward a more thoroughly relational approach. Indeed, certain agents must be reconstituted in and through shifting relations with others, complicating discussions of responsibility for public health. Drawing on two case studies—the health politics and activism of the Black Panther Party and the work of the Common Ground Collective in post-Katrina New Orleans—we (...)
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  48. Black Lives in a Pandemic: Implications of Systemic Injustice for End‐of‐Life Care.Alan Elbaum - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):58-60.
    In recent months, Covid‐19 has devastated African American communities across the nation, and a Minneapolis police officer murdered George Floyd. The agents of death may be novel, but the phenomena of long‐standing epidemics of premature black death and of police violence are not. This essay argues that racial health and health care disparities, rooted as they are in systemic injustice, ought to carry far more weight in clinical ethics than they generally do. In particular, this essay examines palliative and end‐of‐life (...)
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  49. Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Ross Upshur, Beatriz Thome, Michael Parker, Aaron Glickman, Cathy Zhang, Connor Boyle & James P. Phillips - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine:10.1056/NEJMsb2005114.
    Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
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  50. Disability Rights as a Necessary Framework for Crisis Standards of Care and the Future of Health Care.Laura Guidry-Grimes, Katie Savin, Joseph A. Stramondo, Joel Michael Reynolds, Marina Tsaplina, Teresa Blankmeyer Burke, Angela Ballantyne, Eva Feder Kittay, Devan Stahl, Jackie Leach Scully, Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, Anita Tarzian, Doron Dorfman & Joseph J. Fins - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):28-32.
    In this essay, we suggest practical ways to shift the framing of crisis standards of care toward disability justice. We elaborate on the vision statement provided in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (National Academy of Medicine) “Summary of Guidance for Establishing Crisis Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations,” which emphasizes fairness; equitable processes; community and provider engagement, education, and communication; and the rule of law. We argue that interpreting these elements through disability justice entails a commitment to both (...)
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