About this topic
Summary There are several complementary issues involved in Health Care Justice. Distributive justice is primarily concerned with access to health care, but also with the distribution of other social goods that contribute to health. This can also encompass the scope of health care: what should be included in a public health care provision?  Health care justice also encompasses the role of rights in health care; this includes questions of how medical professionals should interact with patients, but also the rights of the medical professionals themselves, patient families, and broader groups such as the general public. This will also include the application of distinctive questions of justice (e.g racial justice; disability-related justice; gender justice, etc.) to health, including considerations of discrimination within health care, the effect of discrimination in other areas on people's health and access to care, as well as past and present unjust uses and refusals of health care.  In general questions of health care justice may emerge within a particular society, at a particular time. But they can also include issues of international and global justice, justice between generations, and the scope of justice (e.g. whether non-human animals have claims on the basis of justice).  The term may also relate to the role of legal justice in health care. For instance, we might wonder at what point, and for what kinds of misconduct, criminal law should be applied to cases of misconduct by medical professionals, or whether medics' central role in society should impact their employment rights, such as the right to strike action.  There are also questions about the relationship of health justice to justice in other areas. It is now widely recognised that health is affected not only by 'health care', but also - and probably more - by other social goods. Is there any reason, therefore, for a distinctive theory of 'health care justice', where we aim for equality of health care provision regardless of what happens elsewhere? Or should health care just be seen as one sector across which justice applies, with gains or losses in health fully commensurable with gains and losses in other areas of life? 
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  1. added 2020-07-28
    A Conceptual Framework for Clearer Ethical Discussions About COVID-19 Response.Govind C. Persad - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):98-101.
    In this Commentary, I propose an ethical framework for ethical discussions around the allocation of scarce resources in COVID-19 response. The framework incorporates four principles: beneficence (benefiting people by saving lives or years of life), equality, remedying disadvantage, and recognizing past conduct. I then discuss how the framework interacts with ethical constraints against using people as a mere means and against causing death. The commentary closes by criticizing the equation of deontological ethics with random or first-come, first-served allocation and of (...)
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  2. added 2020-07-22
    From Sufficient Health to Sufficient Responsibility.Ben Davies & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    The idea of using responsibility in the allocation of healthcare resources has been criticized for, among other things, too readily abandoning people who are responsible for being very badly off. One response to this problem is that while responsibility can play a role in resource allocation, it cannot do so if it will leave those who are responsible below a “sufficiency” threshold. This paper considers first whether a view can be both distinctively sufficientarian and allow responsibility to play a role (...)
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  3. added 2020-07-20
    Philosophical, Ethical, and Moral Aspects of Health Care Rationing: A Review of Daniel Callahan's Setting Limits.Richard Hull - manuscript
    My assigned task in today’s colloquium is to review philosophers’ perspectives on the broad question of whether health care rationing ought to target the elderly. This is a revolutionary question, particularly in a society that is so sensitive to apparent discrimination, and the question must be approached carefully if it is to be successfully dealt with. Three subordinate questions attend this one and must be addressed in the course of answering it. The first such question has to do with the (...)
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  4. added 2020-07-20
    Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans.Susan D. Cochran, Namdi W. Barnes & Vickie M. Mays - manuscript
    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans' continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement of contextual factors and functional neuroscience, an opportunity now exists to cleave together a (...)
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  5. added 2020-07-20
    How Not to Make Trade-Offs Between Health and Other Goods.Antti Kauppinen - manuscript
    In the context of a global pandemic, there is good health-based reason for governments to impose various social distancing measures. However, in addition to health benefits, such measures also cause economic and other harms. In this paper, I look at proposals to make use of existing QALY (quality-adjusted life year) valuations and WELLBYs (wellbeing-adjusted life-years) as the currency for making trade-offs between health and other goods. I argue that both methods are problematic. First, whether the costs and benefits are translated (...)
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  6. added 2020-07-20
    Structural Racism in Precision Medicine: Leaving No One Behind.Tenzin Wangmo, Bernice Simone Elger, David Shaw, Andrea Martani & Lester Darryl Geneviève - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-13.
    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to individualized care. It aims to help physicians better comprehend and predict the needs of their patients while effectively adopting in a timely manner the most suitable treatment by promoting the sharing of health data and the implementation of learning healthcare systems. Alongside its promises, PM also entails the risk of exacerbating healthcare inequalities, in particular between ethnoracial groups. One often-neglected underlying reason why this might happen is the impact of structural racism on PM (...)
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  7. added 2020-07-20
    Migration, Intersectionality and Social Justice.Daiva Stasiulis, Zaheera Jinnah & Blair Rutherford - 2020 - Studies in Social Justice 2020 (14):1-21.
    This article utilizes the lens of disposability to explore recent conditions of low-wage temporary migrant labour, whose numbers and economic sectors have expanded in the 21stcentury. A central argument is that disposability is a discursive and material relation of power that creates and reproduces invidious distinctions between the value of “legitimate” Canadian settler-citizens and the lack of worth of undesirable migrant populations working in Canada, often for protracted periods of time. The analytical lens of migrant disposability draws upon theorizing within (...)
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  8. added 2020-07-20
    Why the Coming Debate Over the QALY and Disability Will Be Different.Steven D. Pearson - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2):304-307.
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  9. added 2020-07-20
    Medical Overtesting and Racial Distrust.Luke Golemon - 2019 - In Fritz Allhoff & Sandra Borden (eds.), Ethics and Error in Medicine. New York, NY, USA: pp. 121-147.
    Reprinted with modification and permission from Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. -/- The phenomenon of medical overtesting in general, and specifically in the emergency room, is well-known and regarded as harmful to both the patient and the healthcare system. Although the implications of this problem raise myriad ethical concerns, this chapter explores the extent to which overtesting might mitigate race-based health inequalities. Given that medical malpractice and error greatly increase when the patients belong to a racial minority, it is no (...)
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  10. added 2020-07-20
    Health Ethics and Indigenous Ethnocide.Richard Matthews - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (7):827-834.
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  11. added 2020-07-20
    Precision QALYs, Precisely Unjust.Leonard M. Fleck - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (3):439-449.
    Warwick Heale has recently defended the notion of individualized and personalized Quality-Adjusted Life Years in connection with health care resource allocation decisions. Ordinarily, QALYs are used to make allocation decisions at the population level. If a health care intervention costs £100,000 and generally yields only two years of survival, the cost per QALY gained will be £50,000, far in excess of the £30,000 limit per QALY judged an acceptable use of resources within the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. (...)
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  12. added 2020-07-20
    Medical Overtesting and Racial Distrust.Luke Golemon - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):273-303.
    The phenomenon of medical overtesting in general, and specifically in the emergency room, is well-known and regarded as harmful to both the patient and the healthcare system. Although the implications of this problem raise myriad ethical concerns, this paper explores the extent to which overtesting might mitigate race-based health inequalities. Given that medical malpractice and error greatly increase when the patients belong to a racial minority, it is no surprise that the mortality rate similarly increases in proportion to white patients. (...)
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  13. added 2020-07-20
    Essential(Ist) Medicine: Promoting Social Explanations for Racial Variation in Biomedical Research.Iliya Gutin - 2019 - Medical Humanities 45 (3):224-234.
    Biomedical research has a long and complicated history as a tool of oppression, exemplary of the racial science used to legitimise and maintain racial hierarchies in the USA and abroad. While the explicit racism and racial inferiority supported by this research has dissipated and modern methods of inquiry have increased in sophistication and rigor, contemporary biomedical research continues to essentialise race by distilling racial differences and disparities in health to an underlying, biogenetic source. Focusing on the persistence of essentialism in (...)
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  14. added 2020-07-20
    Vulnerability in the Clinic: Case Study of a Transcultural Consultation.Melissa Dominicé Dao - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):167-170.
    Discrimination and inequalities in healthcare can be experienced by many patients due to many characteristics ranging from the obviously visible to the more subtly noticeable, such as race and ethnicity, legal status, social class, linguistic fluency, health literacy, age, gender and weight. Discrimination can take a number of forms including overt racist statement, stereotyping or explicit and implicit attitudes and biases. This paper presents the case study of a complex transcultural clinical encounter between the mother of a young infant in (...)
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  15. added 2020-07-20
    Racism & Health: A Public Health Perspective on Racial Discrimination.Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah & Jan Lewis - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):995-998.
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  16. added 2020-07-20
    How Stigma Distorts Justice: The Exile and Isolation of Leprosy Patients in Hawai`I.Alexander T. M. Cheung - 2018 - Asian Bioethics Review 10 (1):53-66.
    Leprosy has taken on many names throughout human history. But none of its nomenclature has adequately captured the essence of what it has historically meant to live with the disease like the Hawaiian term ma`i ho`oka`awale, or “the separating sickness.” The appropriateness of this term is twofold: on the one hand, it accurately reflects the physical isolation imposed on leprosy patients as a result of stigmatization and quarantine policies; on the other, it seems fitting to use the language of the (...)
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  17. added 2020-07-20
    Overcoming the Legacy of Mistrust: African Americans’ Mistrust of Medical Profession.Marvin J. H. Lee, Kruthika Reddy, Junad Chowdhury, Nishant Kumar, Peter A. Clark, Papa Ndao, Stacey J. Suh & Sarah Song - 2018 - Journal of Healthcare Ethics and Administration 4 (1):16-40.
    Recent studies show that racism still exists in the American medical profession, the fact of which legitimizes the historically long-legacy of mistrust towards medical profession and health authorities among African Americans. Thus, it was suspected that the participation of black patients in end-of-life care has always been significantly low stemmed primarily from their mistrust of the medical profession. On the other hand, much research finds that there are other reasons than the mistrust which makes African Americans feel reluctant to the (...)
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  18. added 2020-07-20
    The Racist Underbelly of Health Disparities in America.Danish Zaidi & Nneka Sederstrom - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):25-26.
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  19. added 2020-07-20
    Examining Carceral Medicine Through Critical Phenomenology.Andrea J. Pitts - 2018 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 11 (2):14-35.
    In "Medicine and Colonialism," Frantz Fanon critically implicates several impasses that arise from the provision of medicine under contexts of colonialism. His essay offers a critical appraisal of medical care in Algeria from the perspective of a health care provider who is himself also subject to racist hierarchies of difference under French colonial rule. Drawing from his experiences as a clinician, Fanon argues that developing trusting relationships of care between patients and providers often becomes nearly impossible under conditions of colonial (...)
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  20. added 2020-07-20
    Racism and the Health of White Americans.Hedwig Lee & Margaret T. Hicken - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):21-23.
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  21. added 2020-07-20
    Now is the Time for a Postracial Medicine: Biomedical Research, the National Institutes of Health, and the Perpetuation of Scientific Racism.Alejandro de la Fuente & Javier Perez-Rodriguez - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (9):36-47.
    The consideration of racial differences in the biology of disease and treatment options is a hallmark of modern medicine. However, this time-honored medical tradition has no scientific basis, and the premise itself, that is, the existence of biological differences between the commonly known races, is false inasmuch as races are only sociocultural constructions. It is time to rid medical research of the highly damaging exercise of searching for supposed racial differences in the biological manifestations of disease. The practice not only (...)
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  22. added 2020-07-20
    Clinical Ethics Issues in HIV Care in Canada: An Institutional Ethnographic Study.Chris Kaposy, Nicole R. Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall & Cynthia Kitson - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):9.
    This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical (...)
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  23. added 2020-07-20
    Thirteen Ways of Looking at Henrietta Lacks.D. Lantos John - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):228-233.
    What are we to make of Henrietta Lacks? After dying at a young age more than half a century ago, she has now become immortal twice—once biologically, and once culturally.She was first immortalized when cells from her cervical biopsy were cultured and became the first immortal cell line. The idea that this made Lacks herself immortal illustrates the dangerous temptations of genetic reductionism and literary license. Such literary license is illustrated by the title of Rebecca Skloot’s remarkable 2011 bestselling book (...)
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  24. added 2020-07-20
    Why Bioethics Has a Race Problem.John Hoberman - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (2):12-18.
    In the September-October 2001 issue of the Hastings Center Report, editor Gregory Kaebnick encouraged bioethicists to turn their attention toward “easily overlooked, relatively little-talked-about societal topics” such as race. In 2000 the president of the American Society for Bioethics had called for a more socially conscious bioethics. Race was risky territory, Kaebnick pointed out, but this challenge did not justify avoidance. Over the next fifteen years, the response to this editor's invitation to examine the racial dimensions of medicine in the (...)
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  25. added 2020-07-20
    Beyond the Line: Violence and the Objectification of the Karitiana Indigenous People as Extreme Other in Forensic Genetics.Mark Munsterhjelm - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (2):289-316.
    Utilizing social semiotic approaches, this article addresses how genetic researchers’ organizing narratives have involved extensive ontological and epistemological violence in their objectification Karitiana Indigenous people of Western Brazil. The paper analyses how genetic researchers have represented the Karitiana in the US and Canadian courts, post-9/11 forensic identification technology development, and patents. It also considers disputes over the sale of Karitiana cell lines by the US National Institutes of Health-funded Coriell Cell Repositories. These case studies reveal how the prominent population geneticist (...)
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  26. added 2020-07-20
    Inheriting Racist Disparities in Health.Shannon Sullivan - 2013 - Critical Philosophy of Race 1 (2):190.
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  27. added 2020-07-20
    The Biopolitics of Race: State Racism and U.S. Immigration.Sokthan Yeng - 2013 - Lexington Books.
    The Biopolitics of Race provides philosophical analysis of immigration, a pressing public issue, by focusing on how concerns over state health are used to identify and deny entrance to Mexican, Muslim, homosexual, and female immigrants.
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  28. added 2020-07-20
    The Promise and Paradox of Cultural Competence.Rebecca J. Hester - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (4):279-291.
    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for dealing with (...)
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  29. added 2020-07-20
    Ethical Dimensions of Disparities in Depression Research and Treatment in the Pharmacogenomic Era.Lisa S. Parker & Valerie B. Satkoske - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):886-903.
    Disparities in access to, and utilization of, treatment for depression among African-American and Caucasian elderly adults have been well-documented. Less fully explored are the multidimensional factors responsible for these disparities. The intersection of cultural constructs, socioeconomic factors, multiple levels of racism, and stigma attending both mental health issues and older age may help to explain disparities in the treatment of the depressed elderly. Personalized medicine with its promise of developing interventions tailored to an individual's health needs and genetically related response (...)
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  30. added 2020-07-20
    Genetic Research and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.Emma Kowal, Glenn Pearson, Chris S. Peacock, Sarra E. Jamieson & Jenefer M. Blackwell - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):419-432.
    While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of “victim-blaming” approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the (...)
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  31. added 2020-07-20
    Anti-Racist Health Care Practice. Elizabeth A. McGibbon and Josephine B. Etowa. MacKay - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):164.
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  32. added 2020-07-20
    Anti-Racist Health Care Practice. [REVIEW]Kathryn L. Mackay - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):164-168.
    Elizabeth A. McGibbon and Josephine B. Etowa’s co-authored book Anti-racist Health Care Practice exposes and addresses systemic racism in the Canadian health-care system. McGibbon and Etowa directly confront racism in health provision and Canadian society, and provide a discussion of racism and related issues (gender, class) that does not hold back criticisms. The system of racial oppression and its sustenance by white privilege is presented to the reader in a clear and straightforward way, making it impossible for the reader to (...)
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  33. added 2020-07-20
    Racist Appearance Standards and the Enhancements That Love Them: Norman Daniels and Skin-Lightening Cosmetics.Matt Lamkin - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (4):185-191.
    Darker skin correlates with reduced opportunities and negative health outcomes. Recent discoveries related to the genes associated with skin tone, and the historical use of cosmetics to conform to racist appearance standards, suggest effective skin-lightening products may soon become available. This article examines whether medical interventions of this sort should be permitted, subsidized, or restricted, using Norman Daniels's framework for determining what justice requires in terms of protecting health. I argue that Daniels's expansive view of the requirements of justice in (...)
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  34. added 2020-07-20
    The Role of Community Health Advisors in Community-Based Participatory Research.Lachel Story, Agnes Hinton & Sharon B. Wyatt - 2010 - Nursing Ethics 17 (1):117-126.
    Mistrust and fear of research often exist in minority communities because of assumptions, preconceived ideas, and historical abuse and racism that continue to influence research participation. The research establishment is full of well-meaning ‘outsider’ investigators who recognize discrimination, health disparities, and insufficient health care providers in minority communities, but struggle in breaking through this history of mistrust. This article provides ethical insights from one such ‘insider-outsider’, community-based participatory research project implemented via community health advisors in the Mississippi Delta. Both community-based (...)
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  35. added 2020-07-20
    Prejudice and the Medical Profession: A Five-Year Update.Peter A. Clark - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (1):118-133.
    Over the past decades the mortality rate in the United States has decreased, and life expectancy has increased. Yet a number of recent studies have drawn Americans' attention to the fact that racial and ethnic disparities persist in health care. It is clear that the U.S. health care system, which is the envy of the world, is not only flawed by basic injustices, but may be the cause of both injury and death for members of racial and ethnic minorities. Progress (...)
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  36. added 2020-07-20
    “Undisturbed By Colors”: Photorealism and Narrative Bioethics in the Poetry of William Carlos Williams. [REVIEW]Cynthia Barounis - 2009 - Journal of Medical Humanities 30 (1):43-59.
    Between 1917 and 1935, William Carlos Williams’ poetic style shifted from a focus on color to a verbal grayscale of photorealism. Considering this shift alongside of the historical connection between photography and eugenics raises questions about Williams’ status as a physician during an era when medical discourse was dominated by theories of scientific racism. While one might conclude that Williams move from color to grayscale represents a capitulation to public health anxieties regarding the pathologized bodies of the immigrant poor, I (...)
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  37. added 2020-07-20
    Is There an Aboriginal Bioethic?G. Garvey - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (6):570-575.
    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in (...)
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  38. added 2020-07-20
    Racism and Health Care: A Medical Ethics Issue.Annette Dula - 2003 - In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell.
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  39. added 2020-07-20
    Equalising Opportunities, Minimising Oppression: A Critical Review of Anti-Discriminatory Policies in Health and Social Welfare.Dylan Ronald Tomlinson & Winston Trew (eds.) - 2002 - Routledge.
    This book clarifies the distinctions between three key concepts - Anti-Racist Practice (ARP), Anti-Discriminatory Practice(ADP) and Anti-Oppressive Practice (AOP). Critically and constructively analysing these three approaches to practice it reappraises their potential in the light of emerging equality issues in the health service. With contributions from leading teachers and practitioners in the field, Equalising Opportunities provides students and practitioners in health and social care with a clear overview of an area where there is much confusion and imperfect understanding.
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  40. added 2020-07-20
    Race and Healthcare Disparities: Overcoming Vulnerability.John Stone - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (6):499-518.
    The paper summarizes recently published data and recommendations about healthcare disparities experienced by African Americans who have Medicare or other healthcare coverage. Against this background the paper addresses the ethics of such disparities and how disadvantages of vulnerable populations like African Americans are typically maintained indecision making about how to respond to such disparities. Considering how to respond to disparities reveals much that vulnerable populations would bring to the policy-making table, if they can also be heard when they get there. (...)
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  41. added 2020-07-20
    An American Health Dilemma: A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900. [REVIEW]Bill King - 2002 - Isis 93:98-99.
    This work is the first volume of a projected two‐volume examination of the black experience with the practices and institutions of Western medicine from its earliest beginnings to the end of the twentieth century. As a reference source, W. Michael Byrd and Linda Clayton's history is certainly valuable: its thirty‐page bibliography and nearly one hundred pages of notes offer a rich field of information for anyone who wants to know the “what” and “how” of the intersection of black history and (...)
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  42. added 2020-07-20
    Good Enough for the Third World.Dennis Cooley - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (4):427 – 450.
    Over the past two years, much has been made by some governments and the media about the possible callous and racist distribution of Quinacrine by two Americans to sterilize women in the Third World. The main criticism of the practice is that though Quinacrine is unapproved by the developed world's health regulatory agencies for this particular use in the developed world due to inadequate testing for long-term side effects, it is used on defenseless women in the developing world.I argue that (...)
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  43. added 2020-07-20
    The Human Genome and the Law.Theofano Papazissi - 2000 - Global Bioethics 13 (3-4):87-94.
    The human genome has always been the source of a great variety in behaviour and reactions ranging from the most cruel nationalistic, racist and other social conflicts to the most innocuous family quarrels. The concept of heredity has justified racial discrimination in its harshest form; the concept of sex division has caused social and legal discrimination between men and women, while some countries even permit sex selection. Sex related family disputes are neither harmless nor without serious consequences.Since the days of (...)
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  44. added 2020-06-16
    Book Review: The New Politics of Medicine. [REVIEW]Charalambos Agathangelou - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (4):422-423.
  45. added 2020-06-16
    English Almanacs and Animal Health Care in the Seventeenth Century.Louise Hill Curthl - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (1):71-86.
    In seventeenth-century England, the health and welfare of nonhuman animals rested almost solely on the shoulders of their keepers. Veterinary institutions had not yet been founded, and academically trained animal doctors did not exist. Laymen, however, had access to a great deal of information on animal health care. A range of printed publications were available that offered medical advice.The most accessible and easily understood were the ubiquitous almanacs. This article will examine the type of medical guidance offered in these cheap, (...)
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  46. added 2020-06-11
    Ethical Allocation of Remdesivir.Parker Crutchfield, Tyler S. Gibb, Michael J. Redinger & William Fales - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):84-86.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 84-86.
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  47. added 2020-05-28
    Inner-City Healthcare and Higher Education: A Partnership in Catholic Social Teaching.Lynn-Beth Satterly, Barbara M. Carranti, Rev Msgr Neal Quartier, Christopher P. Morley & S. Joseph Marina - 2010 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 7 (1):115-130.
  48. added 2020-05-21
    Continuous Glucose Monitoring as a Matter of Justice.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - forthcoming - HEC Forum:1-26.
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic illness that requires intensive lifelong management of blood glucose concentrations by means of external insulin administration. There have been substantial developments in the ways of measuring glucose levels, which is crucial to T1D self-management. Recently, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has allowed people with T1D to keep track of their blood glucose levels in near real-time. These devices have alarms that warn users about potentially dangerous blood glucose trends, which can often be shared with (...)
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  49. added 2020-05-20
    Respecting Disability Rights — Toward Improved Crisis Standards of Care.Michelle M. Mello, Govind Persad & Douglas B. White - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine:DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2011997.
    We propose six guideposts that states and hospitals should follow to respect disability rights when designing policies for the allocation of scarce, lifesaving medical treatments. Four relate to criteria for decisions. First, do not use categorical exclusions, especially ones based on disability or diagnosis. Second, do not use perceived quality of life. Third, use hospital survival and near-term prognosis (e.g., death expected within a few years despite treatment) but not long-term life expectancy. Fourth, when patients who use ventilators in their (...)
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  50. added 2020-05-13
    What is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice, and Health.Carina Fourie & Annette Rid - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
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