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Summary As with justice more generally, there are several complementary areas involved in Health Care Justice. Distributive justice is primarily concerned with access to health care, but also with the distribution of other social goods that contribute to health. This can also encompass the scope of health care: what should be included in a public health care provision?  Health care justice also encompasses the role of rights in health care; this includes questions of how medical professionals should interact with patients, but also the rights of the medical professionals themselves, patient families, and broader groups such as the general public.  In general questions of health care justice may emerge within a particular society, at a particular time. But they can also include issues of international justice, justice between generations, and the scope of justice (e.g. whether non-human animals have claims on the basis of justice).  Finally, though a less prominent aspect of health care justice, the term may also relate to the role of legal justice in health care. For instance, we might wonder at what point, and for what kinds of misconduct, criminal law should be applied to cases of misconduct by medical professionals, or whether medics' central role in society should impact their employment rights, such as the right to strike action. 
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  1. Ethical Challenges in Refugee Health: A Global Public Health Concern.Eliana Aaron - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (3).
    Medications of choice, necessary supplies, and evidence-based health care now seem like luxuries. The contrast between my experience at a well-funded health unit and the Lev El Lev (“heart to heart”) African Refugee Clinic in Tel Aviv, Israel, is staggering. The complex personal, social, health, psychological, educational, and economic difficulties create a unique ethical environment for the health care provider.
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  2. Disability, Disease, and Health Sufficiency.Sean Aas - 2016 - In Carina Fourie & Annette Rid (eds.), What is Enough?: Sufficiency, Justice, and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter argues that standard accounts of health are ill-suited to constructing a plausible theory of health justice, particularly a sufficientarian theory. The problem in these accounts is revealed by their treatment of disability. Theorists of health justice need to define “health” more narrowly to capture the legitimate claims of people with disabilities. Following Ronald Amundson and Peter Hucklenbroich, this chapter proposes such a definition. Health, as defined in this chapter, is the absence of conditions that directly cause, or threaten (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Sexual Reorientation: What Should Clinicians and Researchers Do?Sean Aas & Candice Delmas - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (6):340-347.
    Technological measures meant to change sexual orientation are, we have argued elsewhere, deeply alarming, even and indeed especially if they are safe and effective. Here we point out that this in part because they produce a distinctive kind of ‘clinical collective action problem’, a sort of dilemma for individual clinicians and researchers: a treatment which evidently relieves the suffering of particular patients, but in the process contributes to a practice that substantially worsens the conditions that produce this suffering in the (...)
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  4. Teaching Residents to Consider Costs in Medical Decision Making.Elmer D. Abbo & Angelo E. Volandes - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):33 – 34.
  5. Seven Things to Know About Female Genital Surgeries in Africa.Jasmine Abdulcadir, Fuambai Sia Ahmadu, Lucrezia Catania, Birgitta Essen, Ellen Gruenbaum, Sara Johnsdotter, Michelle C. Johnson, Crista Johnson-Agbakwu, Corinne Kratz, Carlos Londoño Sulkin, Michelle McKinley, Wairimu Njambi, Juliet Rogers, Bettina Shell-Duncan & Richard A. Shweder - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (6):19-27.
    Western media coverage of female genital modifications in Africa has been hyperbolic and one-sided, presenting them uniformly as mutilation and ignoring the cultural complexities that underlie these practices. Even if we ultimately decide that female genital modifications should be abandoned, the debate around them should be grounded in a better account of the facts.
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  6. Fat Stigma and Public Health: A Theoretical Framework and Ethical Analysis.Desiree Abu-Odeh - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (3):247-265.
    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people’s well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan’s 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral (...)
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  7. Technology Assessment and Resource Allocation for Predictive Genetic Testing: A Study of the Perspectives of Canadian Genetic Health Care Providers.Alethea Adair, Robyn Hyde-Lay, Edna Einsiedel & Timothy Caulfield - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):6-.
    With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior (...)
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  8. The BMA's Guidance on Conscientious Objection May Be Contrary to Human Rights Law.John Olusegun Adenitire - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):260-263.
    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that (...)
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  9. Liberal Forensic Medicine.Joseph Agassi - 1978 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):226-241.
    The liberal approach to ethics quite naturally tends toward the classic individualistic theory of society, to reductionism or psychologism so-called, that is, to a reduction of all social action to individual action. For example, liberalism allows one to experiment with new medications on one's own body. By extension, liberalism allows one to experiment, it seems, on another person's body with new medication if one acts as the other person's agent, that is, if one has the other person's proper consent. We (...)
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  10. The New Politics of Medicine. [REVIEW]C. Agathangelou - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (4):422-423.
  11. Shaeff R, The Need for Health Care. [REVIEW]C. Agathangelou - 1997 - Nursing Ethics 4 (3):257-257.
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  12. Nation, Narration, and Health in Mohamedou Ould Slahi’s Guantánamo Diary.Neil Krishan Aggarwal - 2018 - Journal of Medical Humanities 39 (3):263-273.
    Scholars have mostly analyzed information from mental health practitioners, attorneys, and institutions to critique mental health practices in the War on Terror. These sources offer limited insights into the suffering of detainees. Detainee accounts provide novel information based on their experiences at Guantánamo. Mohamedou Ould Slahi’s Guantánamo Diary is the only text from a current detainee that provides a first-person account of his interrogations and interactions with health professionals. Despite being advertised as a diary, however, it has undergone redaction from (...)
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  13. The Issue of Expertise in Clinical Ethics.George J. Agich - 2009 - Diametros 22:3-20.
    The proliferation of ethics committees and ethics consultation services has engendered a discussion of the issue of the expertise of those who provide clinical ethics consultation services. In this paper, I discuss two aspects of this issue: the cognitive dimension or content knowledge that the clinical ethics consultant should possess and the practical dimension or set of dispositions, skills, and traits that are necessary for effective ethics consultation. I argue that the failure to differentiate and fully explicate these dimensions contributes (...)
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  14. Conflicts of Interest and Management in Managed Care.George J. Agich & Heidi Forster - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2):189-204.
    The bioethics literature on managed care has devoted significant attention to a broad range of conflicts that managed care is perceived to have introduced into the practice of medicine. In the first part of this paper we discuss three kinds of conflict of interest: conflicts of economic incentives, conflicts with patient and physician autonomy, and conflicts with the fiduciary character of the physician–patient relationship. We argue that the conflicts are either not as serious as they are often alleged to be (...)
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  15. A Framework for Luck Egalitarianism in Health and Healthcare.A. Albertsen & C. Knight - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):165-169.
    Several attempts have been made to apply the choice-sensitive theory of distributive justice, luck egalitarianism, in the context of health and healthcare. This article presents a framework for this discussion by highlighting different normative decisions to be made in such an application, some of the objections to which luck egalitarians must provide answers and some of the practical implications associated with applying such an approach in the real world. It is argued that luck egalitarians should address distributions of health rather (...)
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  16. Fresh Starts for Poor Health Choices: Should We Provide Them and Who Should Pay?Andreas Albertsen - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):55-64.
    Should we grant a fresh start to those who come to regret their past lifestyle choices? A negative response to this question can be located in the luck egalitarian literature. As a responsibility-sensitive theory of justice, luck egalitarianism considers it just that people’s relative positions reflect their past choices, including those they regret. In a recent article, Vansteenkiste, Devooght and Schokkaert argue against the luck egalitarian view, maintaining instead that those who regret their past choices in health are disadvantaged in (...)
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  17. Application of Law to the Childhood Obesity Epidemic.Jess Alderman, Jason A. Smith, Ellen J. Fried & Richard A. Daynard - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (1):90-112.
    Childhood obesity is in important respects a result of legal policies that influence both dietary intake and physical activity. The law must shift focus away from individual risk factors alone and seek instead to promote situational and environmental influences that create an atmosphere conducive to health. To attain this goal, advocates should embrace a population-wide model of public health, and policymakers must critically examine the fashionable rhetoric of consumer choice.
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  18. Health Insurance Coverage for Vulnerable Populations: Contrasting Asian Americans and Latinos in the United States.Margarita Alegría, Zhun Cao, Thomas G. McGuire, Victoria D. Ojeda, Bill Sribney, Meghan Woo & David Takeuchi - 2006 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 43 (3):231-254.
    This paper examines the role that population vulnerabilities play in insurance coverage for a representative sample of Latinos and Asians in the United States. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), these analyses compare coverage differences among and within ethnic subgroups, across states and regions, among types of occupations, and among those with or without English language proficiency. Extensive differences exist in coverage between Latinos and Asians, with Latinos more likely to be uninsured. Potential explanations include (...)
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  19. Why and How States Are Updating Their Public Health Laws.Susan M. Allan, Benjamin Mason Meier, Joan Miles, Gregg Underheim & Anne C. Haddix - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (s4):39-42.
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  20. Threshold Considerations in Fair Allocation of Health Resources: Justice Beyond Scarcity.Allen Andrew A. Alvarez - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (8):426–438.
  21. QALYS and the Integration of Claims in Health Care Rationing.Paul Anand - 1999 - Health Care Analysis 7 (3):239-253.
    The paper argues against the polarisation of the health economics literature into pro- and anti-QALY camps. In particular, we suggest that a crucial distinction should be made between the QALY measure as a metric of health, and QALY maximisation as an applied social choice rule. We argue against the rule but for the measure and that the appropriate conceptualisation of health-care rationing decisions should see the main task as the integration of competing and possibly incommensurable normative claim types. We identify (...)
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  22. Public Health, Ethics, and Equity.Sudhir Anand (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In the last fifty years, average overall health status has increased more or less in parallel with a much celebrated decline in mortality, attributed mostly to poverty reduction, sanitation, nutrition, housing, immunization, and improved medical care. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that these achievements were not equally distributed. In most countries, while some social groups have benefited significantly, the situation of others has stagnated or may even have worsened.If health is a prerequisite to a person functioning as an agent, (...)
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  23. Nonprofit Health Care Organizations and Universal Health Care Coverage.Terry Andrus, William Cox, Bradford Gray, Cleve Killingsworth, Paula Steiner & Bruce McPherson - 2008 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 45 (1):7-14.
    Health care reforms, in particular the expansion of public and/or private health care benefit coverage to some or all population groups, is becoming an increasingly hot topic for discussion—and in some cases for action—at all levels of government. With almost 16% of Americans estimated to be uninsured for at least part of the year, opinion polls show health care near the top of the general public’s list of concerns. Little wonder that presidential candidates for the 2008 election are incorporating ‘‘universal (...)
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  24. Is Obesity a Public Health Problem?Jonny Anomaly - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (3):216-221.
    It is often claimed that there is an obesity epidemic in affluent countries, and that obesity is one of the most serious public health threats in the developed world. I will argue that obesity is not an 'epidemic' in any useful sense of the word, and that classifying it as a public health problem requires us to make fairly controversial moral and empirical assumptions. While evidence suggests that the prevalence of obesity is on the rise, and that obesity can lead (...)
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  25. Public Health and Public Goods.Jonny Anomaly - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (3):251-259.
    It has become increasingly difficult to distinguish public health from tangentially related fields like social work. I argue that we should reclaim the more traditional conception of public health as the provision of health-related public goods. The public goods account has the advantage of establishing a relatively clear and distinctive mission for public health. It also allows a consensus of people with different comprehensive moral and political commitments to endorse public health measures, even if they disagree about precisely why they (...)
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  26. Quantifying Quality of Life for Economic Analysis: Time Out for Time Trade Off.T. M. Arnesen - 2003 - Medical Humanities 29 (2):81-86.
    The “Time trade-off” (TTO), is the most widely used method to “quality adjust” life years for “QALYs” in cost utility analysis. In this paper we ask if it is theoretically likely that the TTO is valid for this use. The TTO consists in a trade off between longevity and quality of life. Firstly, we argue that it is impossible to control for all factors that may influence one’s willingness to sacrifice lifetime. Secondly, that longevity and quality of life are too (...)
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  27. Principlism, Medical Individualism, and Health Promotion in Resource-Poor Countries: Can Autonomy-Based Bioethics Promote Social Justice and Population Health? [REVIEW]Jacquineau Azétsop & Stuart Rennie - 2010 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 5:1.
    Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics (...)
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  28. Human Enhancement: A New Issue in Philosophical Agenda.Marco Azevedo - 2013 - Princípios. Revista de Filosofía 20 (33):265-303.
    Since before we can remember, humanity aims to overcome its biological limitations; such a goal has certainly played a key role in the advent of technique. However, despite the benefits that technique may bring, the people who make use of it will inevitably be under risk of harm. Even though human technical wisdom consists in attaining the best result without compromising anybody’s safety, misuses are always a possibility in the horizon. Nowadays, technology can be used for more than just improving (...)
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  29. U.S. Health Care Values: An Historical Perspective.Marilyn L. Bach, Nicholas A. Bryant, Jeri L. Boleman & Charles N. Oberg - 1993 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (1/2):141-167.
    Stark disparities exist in the United States' health care system. Thirty-five million Americans are uninsured, severely impeding their access to necessary health care. Concurrently, others receive health care services that are of unproven necessity and benefit. We assert that this situation is unjust and morally indefensible.
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  30. If You’Re a Rawlsian, How Come You’Re So Close to Utilitarianism and Intuitionism? A Critique of Daniels’s Accountability for Reasonableness.Gabriele Badano - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):1-16.
    Norman Daniels’s theory of ‘accountability for reasonableness’ is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls’s general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls’s argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques. The important (...)
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  31. Still Special, Despite Everything: A Liberal Defence of the Value of Healthcare in the Face of the Social Determinants of Health.Gabriele Badano - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):183-204.
    Recent epidemiological research on the social determinants of health has been used to attack an important framework, associated with Norman Daniels, that depicts healthcare as special. My aim is to rescue the idea that healthcare has special importance in society, although specialness will turn out to be mainly limited to clinical care. I build upon the link between Daniels's theory and the work of John Rawls to develop a conception of public justification liberalism that is suitable to the field of (...)
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  32. Biotechnology and the Creation of Health Care Needs.Brian S. Baigrie & Patricia J. Kazan - 1997 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 2 (3/4):113-126.
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  33. Talking to Each Other About Universal Health Care: Do Values Belong in the Discussion?Mary Ann Baily - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (6):4-4.
    Paul Menzel and Donald Light ("A Conservative Case for Universal Access to Health Care," Jul-Aug 2006) tell a story that is plausible. However, based on my twenty-five years of experience as a policy analyst interested in access to health care, I find it inaccurate for a number of reasons.
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  34. Health Care Explained, Though Not Beautifully. [REVIEW]Mary Ann Baily - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (2):43-43.
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  35. Improving Fairness in Coverage Decisions: Appearance or Reality?Mary Ann Baily - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):110-112.
    It is good for people to understand their insurance coverage and the reasoning that has shaped it, to be able to contribute their two cents if they want to, and to know that their plan has at least attempted to make decisons that are consistent, fair and compassionate. It is also good for them to be told that attention to cost is ethically required. Nevertheless, while following the recommendations of Wynia et al (2004) might make benefits design and administration appear (...)
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  36. Visibility and the Just Allocation of Health Care: A Study of Age-Rationing in the British National Health Service.Robert Baker - 1993 - Health Care Analysis 1 (2):139-150.
    The British National Health Service (BNHS) was founded, to quote Minister of Health Aneurin Bevan, to ‘universalise the best’. Over time, however, financial constraints forced the BNHS to turn to incrementalist budgeting, to rationalise care and to ask its practitioners to act as gatekeepers. Seeking a way to ration scarce tertiary care resources, BNHS gatekeepers began to use chronological age as a rationing criterion. Age-rationing became the ‘done thing’ without explicit policy directives and in a manner largely invisible to patients, (...)
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  37. Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics: Highlights and Papers of the Xxviiith Cioms Conference, Ixtapa, Guerrero State, Mexico, 17-20 April 1994. [REVIEW]Zbigniew Bańkowski & John H. Bryant (eds.) - 1995 - Cioms.
  38. Ethics, Equity, and the Renewal of Who's Health-for-All Strategy: Proceedings of the Xxixth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland 12-14 March 1997. [REVIEW]Zbigniew Bańkowski, John H. Bryant & J. Gallagher (eds.) - 1997 - Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Cioms).
  39. The Ethics of Scarce Health Resource Allocation: Towards Equity in the Uganda Health Care System.John Barugahare - unknown
    The central ideas in this work are health as a moral entitlement and equity in health. It is a discourse on distributive justice in health and takes Uganda as a case study. It describes Uganda health system especially the extent and distribution of health-related injustice brought about by severe poverty and the manner health resources are raised and allocated. This manner disproportionately adversely affects the poor's access to health services and endangers their livelihoods due to catastrophic health expenditure. This work (...)
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  40. Age Rationing and the Just Distribution of Health Care: Is There a Duty to Die?Margaret P. Battin - 1987 - Ethics 97 (2):317-340.
  41. Distributive Justice and Rural Healthcare.Keith Bauer - 2003 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2):241-252.
    People living in rural areas make up 20 percent of the U.S. population, but only 9 percent of physicians practice there. This uneven distribution is significant because rural areas have higher percentages of people in poverty, elderly people, people lacking health insurance coverage, and people with chronic diseases. As a way of ameliorating these disparities, e-health initiatives are being implemented. But the rural e-health movement raises its own set of distributive justice concerns about the digital divide. Moreover, even if the (...)
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  42. Universal Health Care, American Style: A Single Fund Approach to Health Care Reform.Dan E. Beauchamp - 1992 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 2 (2):125-135.
    With increasing momentum for health care reform, attention is shifting to finance reform that will provide for direct methods for controlling health care spending. This article outlines the two principal paths to direct cost control and outlines a national plan that retains our multiple sources of payment, yet also contains a powerful direct cost control technique: a single fund to finance all health care.
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  43. Habilitation, Health, and Agency: A Framework for Basic Justice.Lawrence C. Becker - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    This book argues for adopting a new account of the circumstances of justice ("the habilitation framework") for philosophical theories of basic justice. It proposes a concept of basic health as a metric for such theories, and healthy agency as a target for them. It does not, however, propose a specific distributive rule or set of distributive principles. Nor does it propose a specific type of theory to pursue (e.g., utilitarian, contractarian, etc.). The book is thus meant to be largely theory-independent (...)
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  44. Allergies And Asthma: Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development.Jason Behrmann - 2010 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 5 (1):119-130.
    The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrating how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of (...)
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  45. What Setting Limits May Mean: A Feminist Critique of Daniel Callahan's "Setting Limits". [REVIEW]Nora K. Bell - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):169 - 178.
    In Setting Limits, Daniel Callahan advances the provocative thesis that age be a limiting factor in decisions to allocate certain kinds of health services to the elderly. However, when one looks at available data, one discovers that there are many more elderly women than there are elderly men, and these older women are poorer, more apt to live alone, and less likely to have informal social and personal supports than their male counterparts. Older women, therefore, will make the heaviest demand (...)
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  46. Justice and Health Care. [REVIEW]Nora K. Bell - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (2):48-49.
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  47. Global Health and Justice: Re‐Examining Our Values.Solomon R. Benatar - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (6):297-304.
    Widening disparities in health within and between nations reflect a trajectory of ‘progress’ that has ‘run its course’ and needs to be significantly modified if progress is to be sustainable. Values and a value system that have enabled progress are now being distorted to the point where they undermine the future of global health by generating multiple crises that perpetuate injustice. Reliance on philanthropy for rectification, while necessary in the short and medium terms, is insufficient to address the challenge of (...)
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  48. Equity and Resource Allocation in Health Care: Dialogue Between Islam and Christianity.Christoph Benn & Adnan A. Hyder - 2002 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):181-189.
    Inequities in health and health care are one of the greatest challenges facing the international community today. This problem raises serious questions for health care planners, politicians and ethicists alike. The major world religions can play an important role in this discussion. Therefore, interreligious dialogue on this topic between ethicists and health care professionals is of increasing relevance and urgency. This article gives an overview on the positions of Islam and Christianity on equity and the distribution of resources in health (...)
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  49. Petty Corruption in Health Care.B. Blasszauer - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):133-134.
    "Petty corruption and honesty in all health care systems" is the original title of one of the bioethics networks within the world-wide study projects of the International Association of Bioethics. As the co-ordinator of this network, it still puzzles me why the word "petty" is in the title when in the past few years - through interviews and questionnaires involving 18 countries - it has become evident to me that not only trivial but important, significant corruption exists in many health (...)
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  50. Palliative Care, Public Health and Justice: Setting Priorities in Resource Poor Countries.Craig Blinderman - 2009 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (3):105-110.
    Many countries have not considered palliative care a public health problem. With limited resources, disease-oriented therapies and prevention measures take priority. In this paper, I intend to describe the moral framework for considering palliative care as a public health priority in resource-poor countries. A distributive theory of justice for health care should consider integrative palliative care as morally required as it contributes to improving normal functioning and preserving opportunities for the individual. For patients requiring terminal care , we are guided (...)
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