About this topic
Summary There are several complementary issues involved in Health Care Justice. Distributive justice is primarily concerned with access to health care, but also with the distribution of other social goods that contribute to health. This can also encompass the scope of health care: what should be included in a public health care provision?  Health care justice also encompasses the role of rights in health care; this includes questions of how medical professionals should interact with patients, but also the rights of the medical professionals themselves, patient families, and broader groups such as the general public. This will also include the application of distinctive questions of justice (e.g racial justice; disability-related justice; gender justice, etc.) to health, including considerations of discrimination within health care, the effect of discrimination in other areas on people's health and access to care, as well as past and present unjust uses and refusals of health care.  In general questions of health care justice may emerge within a particular society, at a particular time. But they can also include issues of international and global justice, justice between generations, and the scope of justice (e.g. whether non-human animals have claims on the basis of justice).  The term may also relate to the role of legal justice in health care. For instance, we might wonder at what point, and for what kinds of misconduct, criminal law should be applied to cases of misconduct by medical professionals, or whether medics' central role in society should impact their employment rights, such as the right to strike action.  There are also questions about the relationship of health justice to justice in other areas. It is now widely recognised that health is affected not only by 'health care', but also - and probably more - by other social goods. Is there any reason, therefore, for a distinctive theory of 'health care justice', where we aim for equality of health care provision regardless of what happens elsewhere? Or should health care just be seen as one sector across which justice applies, with gains or losses in health fully commensurable with gains and losses in other areas of life? 
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  1. Reproductive Embryo Editing: Attending to Justice.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    The use of genome embryo editing tools in reproduction is often touted as a way to ensure the birth of healthy and genetically related children. Many would agree that this is a worthy goal. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, if we are concerned with justice, accepting such goal as morally appropriate commits one to rejecting the development of embryo editing for reproductive purposes. This is so because safer and more effective means exist that can allow many (...)
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  2. Rights to Health Care.H. Tristram Englehardt - forthcoming - The Foundations of Bioethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    A basic human right to the delivery of health care, even to the delivery of a decent minimum of health care, does not exist. The difficult with talking of such rights should be apparent. It is difficult if not impossible both to respect the freedom of all and to achieve their long-range best interests. -/- Rights to health care constitute claims against others for either their services or their goods. Unlike rights to forbearance, which require others to refrain from interfering, (...)
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  3. Two Conceptions of Solidarity in Health Care.L. Chad Horne - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    In this paper, I distinguish two conceptions of solidarity, which I call solidarity as beneficence and solidarity as mutual advantage. I argue that only the latter is capable of providing a complete foundation for national universal health care programs. On the mutual advantage account, the rationale for universal insurance is parallel to the rationale for a labor union’s “closed shop” policy. In both cases, mandatory participation is necessary in order to stop individuals free-riding on an ongoing system of mutually advantageous (...)
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  4. Towards A New Model of Global Health Justice: The Case of COVID-19 Vaccines.Nancy S. Jecker, Caesar A. Atuire & Susan D. Bull - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2022-108165.
    This paper questions an exclusively state-centred framing of global health justice and proposes a multilateral alternative. Using the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to illustrate, we bring to light a broad range of global actors up and down the chain of vaccine development who contribute to global vaccine inequities. Section 1 presents an overview of moments in which diverse global actors, each with their own priorities and aims, shaped subsequent vaccine distribution. Section 2 characterises collective action failures at each phase of (...)
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  5. How (Not) to Make Trade-Offs Between Health and Other Goods.Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    In the context of a global pandemic, there is good health-based reason for governments to impose various social distancing measures. However, such measures also cause economic and other harms to people at low risk from the virus. In this paper, I examine how to make such trade-offs in a way that is respectfully justifiable to their losers. I argue that existing proposals like using standard QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) valuations or WELLBYs (wellbeing-adjusted life-years) as the currency for trade-offs do not allow (...)
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  6. Providing Health Care for the Indigent.David M. Kinzer - forthcoming - Scarce Medical Resources and Justice.
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  7. Ethical Considerations for Global Health Decision-Making: Justice-Enhanced Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of New Technologies for Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense.Maria W. Merritt, C. Simone Sutherland & Fabrizio Tediosi - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics:phy013.
    We sought to assess formally the extent to which different control and elimination strategies for human African trypanosomiasis Trypanosoma brucei gambiense would exacerbate or alleviate experiences of societal disadvantage that traditional economic evaluation does not take into account. Justice-enhanced cost-effectiveness analysis is a normative approach under development to address social justice considerations in public health decision-making alongside other types of analyses. It aims to assess how public health interventions under analysis in comparative evaluation would be expected to influence the clustering (...)
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  8. Special Supplement: What Do We Owe the Elderly? Allocating Social and Health Care Resources.Ruud ter Meulen, Eva Topinková & Daniel Callahan - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  9. Qualifying'the Normal Functioning View': Towards a Consensus on a Functioning-Based Framework of Health Justice.Lasse Nielsen - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
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  10. Why We Should Stop Using Animal-Derived Products on Patients Without Their Consent.Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Medicines and medical devices containing animal-derived ingredients are frequently used on patients without their informed consent, despite a significant proportion of patients wanting to know if an animal-derived product is going to be used in their care. Here, I outline three arguments for why this practice is wrong. Firstly, I argue that using animal-derived medical products on patients without their informed consent undermines respect for their autonomy. Secondly, it risks causing non-trivial psychological harm. Thirdly, it is morally inconsistent to respect (...)
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  11. Justice, the Basic Social Contract and Health Care.Robert M. Veatch - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
  12. Global Obligations and the Human Right to Health.Bill Wringe - forthcoming - In Tracy Isaacs, Kendy Hess & Violetta Igneski (eds.), Collective Obligation: Ethics, Ontology and Applications.
    In this paper I attempt to show how an appeal to a particular kind of collective obligation - a collective obligation falling on an unstructured collective consisting of the world’s population as a whole – can be used to undermine recently influential objections to the idea that there is a human right to health which have been put forward by Gopal Sreenivasan and Onora O’Neill. -/- I take this result to be significant both for its own sake and because it (...)
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  13. Affirmative Action in Healthcare Resource Allocation: Vaccines, Ventilators and Race.Hazem Zohny, Ben Davies & Dominic Wilkinson - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    This article is about the potential justification for deploying some form of affirmative action (AA) in the context of healthcare, and in particular in relation to the pandemic. We call this Affirmative Action in healthcare Resource Allocation (AARA). Specifically, we aim to investigate whether the rationale and justifications for using prioritization policies based on race in education and employment apply in a healthcare setting, and in particular to the COVID-19 pandemic. We concentrate in this article on vaccines and ventilators because (...)
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  14. Justice, Transparency and the Guiding Principles of the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Victoria Charlton - 2022 - Health Care Analysis 30 (2):115-145.
    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence is the UK’s primary healthcare priority-setting body, responsible for advising the National Health Service in England on which technologies to fund and which to reject. Until recently, the normative approach underlying this advice was described in a 2008 document entitled ‘Social value judgements: Principles for the development of NICE guidance’. In January 2020, however, NICE replaced SVJ with a new articulation of its guiding principles. Given the significant evolution of NICE’s methods between (...)
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  15. "Where You Live Should Not Determine Whether You Live". Global Justice and the Distribution of COVID-19 Vaccines.Göran Collste - 2022 - Ethics and Global Politics 15 (2):43-54.
    In 2020, the world faced a new pandemic. The corona infection hit an unprepared world, and there were no medicines and no vaccines against it. Research to develop vaccines started immediately and in a remarkably short time several vaccines became available. However, despite initiatives for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, vaccines have so far become accessible only to a minor part of the world population. In this article, I discuss the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines from an ethical point (...)
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  16. Responsibility and the Recursion Problem.Ben Davies - 2022 - Ratio 35 (2):112-122.
    A considerable literature has emerged around the idea of using ‘personal responsibility’ as an allocation criterion in healthcare distribution, where a person's being suitably responsible for their health needs may justify additional conditions on receiving healthcare, and perhaps even limiting access entirely, sometimes known as ‘responsibilisation’. This discussion focuses most prominently, but not exclusively, on ‘luck egalitarianism’, the view that deviations from equality are justified only by suitably free choices. A superficially separate issue in distributive justice concerns the two–way relationship (...)
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  17. Medical AI and Human Dignity: Contrasting Perceptions of Human and Artificially Intelligent (AI) Decision Making in Diagnostic and Medical Resource Allocation Contexts.Paul Formosa, Wendy Rogers, Yannick Griep, Sarah Bankins & Deborah Richards - 2022 - Computers in Human Behaviour 133.
    Forms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are already being deployed into clinical settings and research into its future healthcare uses is accelerating. Despite this trajectory, more research is needed regarding the impacts on patients of increasing AI decision making. In particular, the impersonal nature of AI means that its deployment in highly sensitive contexts-of-use, such as in healthcare, raises issues associated with patients’ perceptions of (un) dignified treatment. We explore this issue through an experimental vignette study comparing individuals’ perceptions of being (...)
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  18. We Should Not Use Randomization Procedures to Allocate Scarce Life-Saving Resources.Roberto Fumagalli - 2022 - Public Health Ethics 15 (1):87-103.
    In the recent literature across philosophy, medicine and public health policy, many influential arguments have been put forward to support the use of randomization procedures to allocate scarce life-saving resources. In this paper, I provide a systematic categorization and a critical evaluation of these arguments. I shall argue that those arguments justify using RAND to allocate SLSR in fewer cases than their proponents maintain and that the relevant decision-makers should typically allocate SLSR directly to the individuals with the strongest claims (...)
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  19. Justice and the Racial Dimensions of Health Inequalities: A View From COVID‐19.Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra, Kaveri Qureshi, Gwenetta D. Curry & Nasar Meer - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (3):252-259.
    In this paper, we take up the call to further examine structural injustice in health, and racial inequalities in particular. We examine the many facets of racism: structural, interpersonal and institutional as they appeared in the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, and emphasize the relevance of their systemic character. We suggest that such inequalities were entirely foreseeable, for their causal mechanisms are deeply ingrained in our social structures. It is by recognizing the conventional, un-extraordinary nature of racism within social systems (...)
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  20. Value Assessment Frameworks: Who is Valuing the Care in Healthcare?Jonathan Anthony Michaels - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (6):419-426.
    Many healthcare agencies are producing evidence-based guidance and policy that may determine the availability of particular healthcare products and procedures, effectively rationing aspects of healthcare. They claim legitimacy for their decisions through reference to evidence-based scientific method and the implementation of just decision-making procedures, often citing the criteria of ‘accountability for reasonableness’; publicity, relevance, challenge and revision, and regulation. Central to most decision methods are estimates of gains in quality-adjusted life-years, a measure that combines the length and quality of survival. (...)
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  21. COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal and Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.Govind Persad & Emily A. Largent - 2022 - JAMA Health Forum 3 (4):e220356.
    When hospitals face surges of patients with COVID-19, fair allocation of scarce medical resources remains a challenge. Scarcity has at times encompassed not only hospital and intensive care unit beds—often reflecting staffing shortages—but also therapies and intensive treatments. Safe, highly effective COVID-19 vaccines have been free and widely available since mid-2021, yet many Americans remain unvaccinated by choice. Should their decision to forgo vaccination be considered when allocating scarce resources? Some have suggested it should, while others disagree. We offer a (...)
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  22. Rare and Common Diseases Should Be Treated Equally and Why the Article by de Magalhaes Somewhat Misses its’ Mark.Lars Sandman - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):97-98.
    In the article Should rare diseases get special treatment? by Monica Q F de Magalhaes,1 it is argued that rarity is not a morally relevant feature to consider in prioritising treatment in healthcare, but severity is. A central conclusion in the article is that severity rather than prevalence should guide different cost-effectiveness thresholds. Hence, I take it, she answers no to the question in her own heading. I agree with all of this—and with most of her other arguments and conclusions (...)
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  23. COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters for All Adults: An Optimal U.S. Approach?Ameet Sarpatwari, Ankur Pandya, Emily P. Hyle & Govind Persad - 2022 - Annals of Internal Medicine 175 (2):280–282.
    By 20 October 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had amended its Emergency Use Authorizations for immunocompetent adults who previously received the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines. For the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, the FDA permitted a single booster dose for adults aged 65 years or older and adults aged 18 to 64 years at high-risk for severe COVID-19 or at high risk for occupational or institutional COVID-19 exposure. For the single-dose Johnson & Johnson (...)
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  24. Respecting Older Adults: Lessons From the COVID-19 Pandemic.Cristina Voinea, Tenzin Wangmo & Constantin Vică - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):213-223.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated many social problems and put the already vulnerable, such as racial minorities, low-income communities, and older individuals, at an even greater risk than before. In this paper we focus on older adults’ well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and show that the risk-mitigation measures presumed to protect them, alongside the generalization of an ageist public discourse, exacerbated the pre-existing marginalization of older adults, disproportionately affecting their well-being. This paper shows that states have duties to adopt and (...)
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  25. How the Past Matters for the Future: A Luck Egalitarian Sustainability Principle for Healthcare Resource Allocation.Andreas Albertsen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):102-103.
    Christian Munthe, David Fumagalli and Erik Malmqvist argue that well-known healthcare resource allocation principles, such as need, prognosis, equal treatment and cost-effectiveness, should be supplemented with a principle of sustainability.1 Employing such a principle would entail that the allocation of healthcare resources should take into account whether a specific allocation causes negative dynamics, which would limit the amount of resources available in the future. As examples of allocation decisions, which may have such negative dynamics, they mention those who cause a (...)
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  26. What’s the Appropriate Target of Allocative Justification?Zara Anwarzai & Ricky Mouser - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):167-168.
    Building on work by Peterman, Aas, and Wasserman (2021), we modify their prospective benefit analysis to include only medically-relevant information about patients as persons without reference to their broader lives. Because patients (not their lives) must be treated equally, we argue that patients are the appropriate targets of allocative justification. We go on to challenge some of our current data-collection practices on this basis.
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  27. Approaches to Critical Care Resource Allocation and Triage During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Examination From a Developing World Perspective.Saurav Basu - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 14.
    The distribution of scarce critical care resources during public health emergencies in an ethically justified manner has been widely acknowledged as a major bioethics concern. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that critical care allocation during a pandemic emergency should uphold basic biomedical principles through maintenance of procedural justice which requires decision-making that is consistent, impartial, neutral, and nondiscriminatory. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health systems, even in developed countries with robust existing health infrastructure, have experienced sustained demands that (...)
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  28. Precautionary Personhood: We Should Treat Patients with Disorders of Consciousness as Persons.Matthew Braddock - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):162-164.
    Should we allocate costly health care to patients diagnosed with disorders of consciousness (DoC), such as patients diagnosed as being in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state? Peterson, Aas, and Wasserman (2021) argue that we should in their paper “What justifies the allocation of health care resources to patient with disorders of consciousness?” Their key insight is that the expected benefits to this patient population helps to justify such allocations. However, their insight is attached to a consequentialist framework aimed (...)
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  29. Mistrust and Inconsistency During COVID-19: Considerations for Resource Allocation Guidelines That Prioritise Healthcare Workers.Alexander T. M. Cheung & Brendan Parent - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):73-77.
    As the USA contends with another surge in COVID-19 cases, hospitals may soon need to answer the unresolved question of who lives and dies when ventilator demand exceeds supply. Although most triage policies in the USA have seemingly converged on the use of clinical need and benefit as primary criteria for prioritisation, significant differences exist between institutions in how to assign priority to patients with identical medical prognoses: the so-called ‘tie-breaker’ situations. In particular, one’s status as a frontline healthcare worker (...)
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  30. Afro-Communitarianism and the Role of Traditional African Healers in the COVID-19 Pandemic.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues & Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (1):59-71.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant challenges to healthcare systems worldwide, and in Africa, given the lack of resources, they are likely to be even more acute. The usefulness of Traditional African Healers in helping to mitigate the effects of pandemic has been neglected. We argue from an ethical perspective that these healers can and should have an important role in informing and guiding local communities in Africa on how to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Particularly, we argue not only (...)
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  31. Bounded Justice and the Limits of Health Equity.Melissa S. Creary - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):241-256.
    Programs, policies, and technologies — particularly those concerned with health equity — are often designed with justice envisioned as the end goal. These policies or interventions, however, frequently fail to recognize how the beneficiaries have historically embodied the cumulative effects of marginalization, which undermines the effectiveness of the intended justice. These well-meaning attempts at justice are bounded by greater socio-historical constraints. Bounded justice suggests that it is impossible to attend to fairness, entitlement, and equity when the basic social and physical (...)
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  32. There is No Race Problem: Theorizing the Absence of Racial and Ethnic Disparity Data in Scotland After COVID-19.Tommy J. Curry - 2021 - In Scotland After the Virus. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 195-202.
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  33. Grow the Pie, or the Resource Shuffle? Commentary on Munthe, Fumagalli and Malmqvist.Ben Davies - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):98-99.
    John Rawls’s ‘just savings’ principle is among the better-known attempts to outline how we should balance the claims of the present with the claims of the future generations on resources. A central element of Rawls’s approach involves endorsing a sufficientarian approach, where our central obligation is to ensure ‘the conditions needed to establish and to preserve a just basic structure’.1 This engaging paper by Christian Munthe, Davide Fumagalli and Erik Malmqvist does not explicitly mention Rawls’s work on this issue.2 Still, (...)
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  34. ‘Personal Health Surveillance’: The Use of mHealth in Healthcare Responsibilisation.Ben Davies - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (3):268-280.
    There is an ongoing increase in the use of mobile health technologies that patients can use to monitor health-related outcomes and behaviours. While the dominant narrative around mHealth focuses on patient empowerment, there is potential for mHealth to fit into a growing push for patients to take personal responsibility for their health. I call the first of these uses ‘medical monitoring’, and the second ‘personal health surveillance’. After outlining two problems which the use of mHealth might seem to enable us (...)
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  35. Healthcare, Responsibility and Golden Opportunities.Gabriel De Marco, Thomas Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (3).
    When it comes to determining how healthcare resources should be allocated, there are many factors that could—and perhaps should—be taken into account. One such factor is a patient’s responsibility for his or her illness, or for the behavior that caused it. Policies that take responsibility for the unhealthy lifestyle or its outcomes into account—responsibility-sensitive policies—have faced a series of criticisms. One holds that agents often fail to meet either the control or epistemic conditions on responsibility with regard to their unhealthy (...)
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  36. Priority, Ethical Principle, and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources. Di Wu - 2021 - Studies in Dialectics of Nature 11 (37):62-68.
    Aiming at the allocation of scarce medical resources, Immanuel and other scholars have put forward a set of influential ethical values and guiding principles. It assigns the priority of resource allocation to those whose lives can be saved and maximized, those who can bring the greatest instrumental value, and those who are the worse off. For other members of society, random selection under the same conditions is adopted. Following the Rawlsian "lexical order, lexicographical" rule, this priority arrangement requires that the (...)
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  37. Radical Responsibility Beyond Empathy: Interreligious Resources Against Liberal Distortions of Nursing Care.Nathan Eric Dickman - 2021 - Nursing Philosophy 1 (1 Online first).
    In this paper, I bring together Jewish and Buddhist philosophical resources to develop a notion of radical responsibility that can confront a complicity within nursing and health care between empathy and (neo)liberal white supremacist hegemony. My inspiration comes from Angela Davis's call for building coalitions to advance struggles for peace and justice. I proceed as follows. First, I note ways phenomenology clarifies empathy's seeming foundational role in nursing care, and how such a formulation can be complicit with assumptions about private (...)
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  38. Nursing is Never Neutral: Political Determinants of Health and Systemic Marginalization.Nathan Eric Dickman & Roxana Chicas - 2021 - Nursing Inquiry 1 (Online First e12408):1-13.
    The nursing community in the United States polarized in September 2020 between Dawn Wooten's whistleblowing about forced hysterectomies at an immigration center in Georgia and the American Nurses Association's refusal to endorse a presidential candidate despite the Trump administration's mounting failures to address the public health crisis posed by the COVID‐19 pandemic. This reveals a need for more attention to political aspects of health outcome inequities. As advocates for health equity, nurses can join in recent scholarship and activism concerning the (...)
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  39. Understanding Government Decisions to De-Fund Medical Services Analyzing the Impact of Problem Frames on Resource Allocation Policies.Mark Embrett & Glen E. Randall - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (1):78-98.
    Many medical services lack robust evidence of effectiveness and may therefore be considered “unnecessary” care. Proactively withdrawing resources from, or de-funding, such services and redirecting the savings to services that have proven effectiveness would enhance overall health system performance. Despite this, governments have been reluctant to discontinue funding of services once funding is in place. The focus of this study is to understand how the framing of an issue or problem influences government decision-making related to de-funding of medical services. To (...)
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  40. Phantom Premise and a Shape-Shifting Ism: Reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11).
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  41. Love Thy Neighbour? Allocating Vaccines in a World of Competing Obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):20-20.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  42. Solidarity, Sustainability and Medical Ethics.Zoë Fritz - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):63-64.
    In this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics arguments are cogently made that sustainability and solidarity should be considered as core medical ethical principles, and that more explicit attention should be given to the complex context in which a decision is made.
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  43. Medical Cosmopolitanism: The Global Extension of Justice in Healthcare Practice.Luvuyo Gantsho & Christopher S. Wareham - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (3):131-138.
    Developing World Bioethics, Volume 21, Issue 3, Page 131-138, September 2021.
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  44. Ordeals, Women and Gender Justice.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (1):8-22.
    Rationing health care by ordeals is likely to have different effects on women and men, and on distinct groups of women. I show how such putative effects of ordeals are relevant to achieving gender justice. I explain why some ordeals may disproportionately set back women’s interest in discretionary time, health and access to health care, and may undermine equality of opportunity for positions of advantage. Some ordeals protect the interests of the worse-off women yet set back the interests of better-off (...)
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  45. Rawlsian Contractualism and Healthcare Allocation: A Response to Torbjörn Tännsjö.Quinn Hiroshi Gibson - 2021 - Diametros 18 (68):9-23.
    The consideration of the problem of healthcare allocation as a special case of distributive justice is especially alluring when we only consider consequentialist theories. I articulate here an alternative Rawlsian non-consequentialist theory which prioritizes the fairness of healthcare allocation procedures rather than directly setting distributive parameters. The theory in question stems from Rawlsian commitments that, it is argued, have a better Rawlsian pedigree than those considered as such by Tännsjö. The alternative framework is worthy of consideration on its own merits, (...)
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  46. Health Justice for Unjust Combatants.Blake Hereth - 2021 - Journal of Military Ethics 20 (1):67-81.
    Are field medics morally permitted to treat unjust combatants? I distinguish between two kinds of enemy combatants: reactivated ones who will rejoin the fight, and deactivated ones who will not rejoin the fight. Helen Frowe has argued that field medics are not permitted to treat reactivated combatants but is silent about deactivated ones. First, I argue that Frowe’s account plausibly extends to a moral prohibition on treating deactivated combatants in addition to reactivated ones. Second, I argue that the best argument (...)
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  47. Health Justice and Rawls's Theory at Fifty: Will New Thinking About Health and Inequality Influence the Most Influential Account of Justice?Johannes Kniess - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (6):44-50.
    This year marks the centenary of John Rawls's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of A Theory of Justice. The influence of Rawls's landmark book on the general fields of moral and political philosophy is undisputed and well-documented. It has also left a significant imprint on debates surrounding health policy, health care, and health inequalities. This article traces the changing ways in which Rawls's theory influenced debates about justice in health over the last five decades. Just as Rawls's (...)
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  48. Continuous Glucose Monitoring as a Matter of Justice.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (4):345-370.
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic illness that requires intensive lifelong management of blood glucose concentrations by means of external insulin administration. There have been substantial developments in the ways of measuring glucose levels, which is crucial to T1D self-management. Recently, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has allowed people with T1D to keep track of their blood glucose levels in near real-time. These devices have alarms that warn users about potentially dangerous blood glucose trends, which can often be shared with (...)
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  49. Incorporating Health Equity Into COVID-19 Reopening Plans: Policy Experimentation in California.Emily A. Largent, Govind Persad, Michelle M. Mello, Danielle M. Wenner, Daniel B. Kramer, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds & Monica Peek - 2021 - American Journal of Public Health 1 (1):e1-e8.
    California has focused on health equity in the state’s COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California’s 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier’s test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 residents must (...)
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  50. Social Exclusion, Epistemic Injustice and Intellectual Self-Trust.Jon Leefmann - 2021 - Social Epistemology 22 (ahaed of print):1-11.
    This commentary offers a coherent reading of the papers presented in the special issue ‘Exclusion, Engagement, and Empathy: Reflections on Public Participation in Medicine and Technology’. Focusing on intellectual self-trust it adds a further perspective on the harmful epistemic consequences of social exclusion for individual agents in healthcare contexts. In addition to some clarifications regarding the concepts of ‘intellectual self-trust’ and ‘social exclusion’ the commentary also examines in what ways empathy, engagement and participatory sense-making could help to avoid threats to (...)
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