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1 — 50 / 69
  1. added 2017-01-18
    Behaviour and the Concept of “Heritability” Axioms of an Ethological Refutation.Adolf Heschl - 1992 - Acta Biotheoretica 40 (1):23-30.
    This paper discusses the widespread use of heritability calculations in recent behaviour research including behaviour genetics. In the sequel, a radical criticism concerning the basic axioms of the underlying, more general concept itself is presented. The starting point for testing the proclaimed universal validity of this concept stems from a fictitious yet realistic example taken from learning research. The theoretical result, based on the application of the conventional reasoning in this field, states that developmental processes — and learning is only (...)
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  2. added 2017-01-17
    Heritability and Causal Reasoning.Kate E. Lynch - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (1):25-49.
    Gene–environment covariance is the phenomenon whereby genetic differences bias variation in developmental environment, and is particularly problematic for assigning genetic and environmental causation in a heritability analysis. The interpretation of these cases has differed amongst biologists and philosophers, leading some to reject the utility of heritability estimates altogether. This paper examines the factors that influence causal reasoning when G–E covariance is present, leading to interpretive disagreement between scholars. It argues that the causal intuitions elicited are influenced by concepts of agency (...)
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  3. added 2017-01-17
    Person-Specific Non-Shared Environmental Influences in Intraindividual Variability: A Preliminary Case of Daily School Feelings in Monozygotic Twins.Yao Zheng, Peter C. M. Molenaar, Rosalind Arden, Kathryn Asbury & David M. Almeida - unknown
    Most behavioural genetic studies focus on genetic and environmental influences on inter-individual phenotypic differences at the population level. The growing collection of intensive longitudinal data in social and behavioural science offers a unique opportunity to examine genetic and environmental influences on intra-individual phenotypic variability at the individual level. The current study introduces a novel idiographic approach and one novel method to investigate genetic and environmental influences on intra-individual variability by a simple empirical demonstration. Person-specific non-shared environmental influences on intra-individual variability (...)
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  4. added 2017-01-16
    Heritability Estimates Versus Large Environmental Effects: The IQ Paradox Resolved.William T. Dickens & James R. Flynn - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):346-369.
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  5. added 2017-01-16
    Heritability and Biological Explanation.Eric Turkheimer - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (4):782-791.
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  6. added 2017-01-16
    The Importance of Heritability in Psychological Research: The Case of Attitudes.Abraham Tesser - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (1):129-142.
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  7. added 2017-01-15
    Making Sense of Heritability.Neven Sesardic - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Neven Sesardic defends the view that it is both possible and useful to measure the separate contributions of heredity and environment to the explanation of human psychological differences. He critically examines the view - very widely accepted by scientists, social scientists and philosophers of science - that heritability estimates have no causal implications and are devoid of any interest. In a series of clearly written chapters he introduces the reader to the problems and subjects the arguments to (...)
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  8. added 2017-01-14
    IQ, Heritability and Racism by James M. Lawler.Kenneth Kaye - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (3):493-498.
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  9. added 2016-12-12
    What is a Mutation? Identifying Heritable Change in the Offspring of Survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.M. Susan Lindee - 1992 - Journal of the History of Biology 25 (2):231-255.
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  10. added 2016-12-08
    Darwin and Inheritance: The Influence of Prosper Lucas.Ricardo Noguera-Solano & Rosaura Ruiz-Gutiérrez - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):685-714.
    An important historical relation that has hardly been addressed is the influence of Prosper Lucas's Treatise on Natural Inheritance on the development of Charles Darwin's concepts related to inheritance. In this article we trace this historical connection. Darwin read Lucas's Treatise in 1856. His reading coincided with many changes concerning his prior ideas on the transmission and expression of characters. We consider that this reading led him to propose a group of principles regarding prepotency, hereditary diseases, morbid tendencies and atavism; (...)
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  11. added 2015-09-03
    Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. A Cultural History of Heredity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012. Pp. Xiii+218. $45.00. [REVIEW]Charles H. Pence - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (1):168-172.
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  12. added 2015-04-04
    Making Sense of Heritability. [REVIEW]Dario Pavic - 2006 - Prolegomena 5 (2):268-275.
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  13. added 2015-03-24
    How to Read ‘Heritability’ in the Recipe Approach to Natural Selection.Pierrick Bourrat - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):883-903.
    There are two ways evolution by natural selection is conceptualized in the literature. One provides a ‘recipe’ for ENS incorporating three ingredients: variation, differences in fitness, and heritability. The other provides formal equations of evolutionary change and partitions out selection from other causes of evolutionary changes such as transmission biases or drift. When comparing the two approaches there seems to be a tension around the concept of heritability. A recent claim has been made that the recipe approach is flawed and (...)
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  14. added 2015-03-23
    Neven Sesardic, Making Sense of Heritability.T. A. C. Reydon - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27 (3):218.
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  15. added 2015-03-23
    O, Brave New World: Heritability and Schizophrenia.Paul J. Dawson - 1997 - Nursing Inquiry 4 (3):202-202.
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  16. added 2015-03-23
    New Questions About Old Heritability Estimates.Peter H. Sch&öNemann - 1989 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (2):175-178.
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  17. added 2015-03-19
    Implications of Recent Advances in the Understanding of Heritability for Neo-Darwinian Orthodoxy.Martin H. Brinkworth, David Miller & David Iles - 2012 - In Martin H. Brinkworth & Friedel Weinert (eds.), Evolution 2.0: Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences. Springer.
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  18. added 2015-03-18
    IQ, Heritability, and Human Nature.Norman Daniels - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:143 - 180.
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  19. added 2014-04-02
    How Heritability Misleads About Race.Ned Block - 1996 - In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Boston Review. Oxford University Press. pp. 99-128.
    According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have (...)
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  20. added 2014-04-01
    The Spectre of Inbreeding in the Early Investigation of Heredity.Vítĕzlav Orel - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):315 - 330.
    Inbreeding introduced by R. Bakewell (1725-1795) in England for creating new animal races, was opposed by animal breeders on the Continent on religious grounds, and was soon introduced in sheep breeding for wool production in Moravia. In 1790-1840 the protagonists repeatedly rejected 'the spectre of inbreeding' and included consanguineous matching in scientific breeding. In 1836 they even formulated the research question of heredity and next year proposed the inductive method for its investigation. The achievements of sheep breeders instigated German breeders (...)
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  21. added 2014-03-27
    Populational Heritability: Extending Punnett Square Concepts to Evolution at the Metapopulation Level. [REVIEW]James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):1-17.
    In a previous study, using experimental metapopulations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we investigated phase III of Wright's shifting balance process (Wade and Griesemer 1998). We experimentally modeled migration of varying amounts from demes of high mean fitness into demes of lower mean fitness (as in Wright's characterization of phase III) as well as the reciprocal (the opposite of phase III). We estimated the meta-populational heritability for this level of selection by regression of offspring deme means on the weighted (...)
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  22. added 2014-03-26
    Initial Theoretical Framework and Problem Solving Concerning the Enigma of Heredity.Vitězslav Orel & Gerhard Czihak - 2001 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):125 - 136.
    The difference in formulation of the question of heredity on a different level of knowledge in Brno in the 1830s and after 1850 is discussed in this article. In order to solve the problem the most important source is forshown in the new philosophy of plant physiology and in physics. Mendel was pleased to have met excellent teachers of both these fields. This explanation is an example of Mirko Grmek's thesis: 'l'histoire des sciences est le laboratoire de l'épistomologie'.
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  23. added 2014-03-24
    The Return of the Replicator: What is Philosophically Significant in a General Account of Replication and Selection? [REVIEW]Bence Nanay - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):109-121.
    The aim of this paper is to outline a typologyof selection processes, and show that differentsub-categories have different explanatorypower. The basis of this typology of selectionprocesses is argued to be the difference ofreplication processes involved in them. Inorder to show this, I argue that: 1.Replication is necessary for selection and 2.Different types of replication lead todifferent types of selection. Finally, it isargued that this typology is philosophicallysignificant, since it contrasts cases ofselection (on the basis of the replicationprocesses involved in them) (...)
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  24. added 2014-03-23
    The Concept of Group Heritability.Samir Okasha - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):445-461.
    This paper investigates the role of the concept of group heritability in group selection theory, in relation to the well-known distinction between type 1 and type 2 group selection (GS1 and GS2). I argue that group heritability is required for the operation of GS1 but not GS2, despite what a number of authors have claimed. I offer a numerical example of the evolution of altruism in a multi-group population which demonstrates that a group heritability coefficient of zero is perfectly compatible (...)
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  25. added 2014-03-21
    From Replicators to Heritably Varying Phenotypic Traits: The Extended Phenotype Revisited. [REVIEW]E. Jablonka - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):353-375.
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  26. added 2014-03-18
    Is Heritability Explanatorily Useful?Christopher H. Pearson - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):270-288.
    The paper addresses the question of whether heritability can be useful in establishing genetics as an explanation for an individual’s display of some trait or behavior. After reviewing the fundamental philosophical challenge to heritability—that heritability is a population level measure—an argument is presented for rethinking the role heritability occupies in both causal and explanatory claims. It is argued that heritability can be useful for genetically based explanations of individual traits, if the conditions for proper genetic explanation are modestly reconceived, and (...)
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  27. added 2014-03-17
    Imagination and the Problem of Heredity in Mechanist Embryology.Justin E. H. Smith - 2006 - In The Problem of Animal Generation in Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  28. added 2014-03-14
    Heritability and Indirect Causation.Neven Sesardic - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1002-1014.
    Genetic differences can lead to phenotypic differences either directly or indirectly (via causing differences in external environments, which then affect phenotype). This possibility of genetic effects being mediated by environmental influences is often used by scientists and philosophers to argue that heritability is not a very helpful causal or explanatory notion. In this paper it is shown that these criticisms are based on serious misconceptions about methods of behavior genetics.
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  29. added 2014-03-12
    Underlying Heterogeneity: A Problem for Biological, Philosophical, and Other Analyses of Heritability?Peter Taylor - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):587-589.
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  30. added 2014-03-09
    From Heritability to Probability.Omri Tal - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):81-105.
    Can a heritability value tell us something about the weight of genetic versus environmental causes that have acted in the development of a particular individual? Two possible questions arise. Q1: what portion of the phenotype of X is due to its genes and what portion to its environment? Q2: what portion of X’s phenotypic deviation from the mean is a result of its genetic deviation and what portion a result of its environmental deviation? An answer to Q1 provides the full (...)
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  31. added 2014-03-09
    Heritability and Genetic Causation.Gry Oftedal - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):699-709.
    The method in human genetics of ascribing causal responsibility to genotype by the use of heritability estimates has been heavily criticized over the years. It has been argued that these estimates are rarely valid and do not serve the purpose of tracing genetic causes. Recent contributions strike back at this criticism. I present and discuss two opposing views on these matters represented by Richard Lewontin and Neven Sesardic, and I suggest that some of the disagreement is based on differing concepts (...)
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  32. added 2014-03-07
    Three Puzzles and Eight Gaps: What Heritability Studies and Critical Commentaries Have Not Paid Enough Attention To.Peter Taylor - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):1-31.
    This article examines eight “gaps” in order to clarify why the quantitative genetics methods of partitioning variation of a trait into heritability and other components has very limited power to show anything clear and useful about genetic and environmental influences, especially for human behaviors and other traits. The first two gaps should be kept open; the others should be bridged or the difficulty of doing so should be acknowledged: 1. Key terms have multiple meanings that are distinct; 2. Statistical patterns (...)
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  33. added 2014-03-07
    Nature, Nurture, and Politics.Neven Sesardic - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):433-436.
    Political imputations in science are notoriously a tricky business. I addressed this issue in the context of the nature–nurture debate in the penultimate chapter of my book Making Sense of Heritability (Cambridge U. P. 2005). Although the book mainly dealt with the logic of how one should think about heritability of psychological differences, it also discussed the role of politics in our efforts to understand the dynamics of that controversy. I first argued that if a scholar publicly defends a certain (...)
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  34. added 2014-03-06
    Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912. [REVIEW]Lisa Onaga - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):215 - 264.
    Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia (...)
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  35. added 2014-03-06
    The Nurture of Nature: Hereditary Plasticity in Evolution.Ehud Lamm & Eva Jablonka - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):305 – 319.
    The dichotomy between Nature and Nurture, which has been dismantled within the framework of development, remains embodied in the notions of plasticity and evolvability. We argue that plasticity and evolvability, like development and heredity, are neither dichotomous nor distinct: the very same mechanisms may be involved in both, and the research perspective chosen depends to a large extent on the type of problem being explored and the kinds of questions being asked. Epigenetic inheritance leads to transgenerationally extended plasticity, and developmentally-induced (...)
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  36. added 2014-03-04
    What's Transmitted? Inherited Information.Nicholas Shea - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):183-189.
    Commentary on Bergstrom and Rosvall, ‘The transmission sense of information’, Biology and Philosophy. In response to worries that uses of the concept of information in biology are metaphorical or insubstantial, Bergstrom and Rosvall have identified a sense in which DNA transmits information down the generations. Their ‘transmission view of information’ is founded on a claim about DNA’s teleofunction. Bergstrom and Rosvall see their transmission view of information as a rival to semantic accounts. This commentary argues that it is complementary. The (...)
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  37. added 2014-02-12
    L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin (pdf: Introduzione).Marco Solinas - 2012 - ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  38. added 2014-01-20
    Models of Biological Change: Implications of Three Cases of "Lamrckian" Change.Gillian Barker - 1993 - In Perspectives in Ethology 10: Behavior and Evolution. pp. 229-248.
  39. added 2013-11-17
    Heredity and the Origin of Species.Daniel Trembly MacDougal - 1906 - The Monist 16 (1):32-64.
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  40. added 2013-11-15
    Gene-Independent Heritability of Behavioural Traits: Don't We Also Need to Rethink the “Environment”?Christian P. Müller, Bernd Lenz & Johannes Kornhuber - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):374-375.
    Behavioural phenotypes have been explained by genetic and environmental factors (E) and their interaction. Here we suggest a rethinking of the E factor. Passively incurred environmental influences (E pass) and actively copied information and behaviour (E act) may be distinguished at shared and non-shared level. We argue that E act underlies mutation and selection and is the base of gene-independent heritability.
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  41. added 2013-11-14
    Gemmules and Elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's Concepts and Methods in Heredity. [REVIEW]Ute Deichmann - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):85-112.
    Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin’s studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin’s highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to explain many (...)
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  42. added 2013-11-13
    Agassiz, Mendel, and Heredity.J. A. Weir - 1968 - Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):179 - 203.
  43. added 2013-11-11
    The Under-Recognized Implications of Heterogeneity: Opportunities for Fresh Views on Scientific, Philosophical, and Social Debates About Heritability.Peter J. Taylor - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (3-4):431 - 456.
    Despite a long history of debates about the heritability of human traits by researchers and other critical commentators, the possible heterogeneity of genetic and environmental factors that underlie patterns in observed traits has not been recognized as a significant conceptual and methodological issue. This article is structured to stimulate a wide range of readers to pursue diverse implications of underlying heterogeneity and of its absence from previous debates. Section 1, a condensed critique of previous conceptualizations and interpretations of heritability studies, (...)
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  44. added 2013-11-05
    Proteins, the Chaperone Function and Heredity.Valeria Mosini - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):53-74.
    In this paper I use a case study—the discovery of the chaperon function exerted by proteins in the various steps of the hereditary process—to re-discuss the question whether the nucleic acids are the sole repositories of relevant information as assumed in the information theory of heredity. The evidence I here present of a crucial role for molecular chaperones in the folding of nascent proteins, as well as in DNA duplication, RNA folding and gene control, suggests that the family of proteins (...)
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  45. added 2013-11-04
    The Impact of Gene–Environment Interaction and Correlation on the Interpretation of Heritability.Omri Tal - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):225-237.
    The presence of gene–environment statistical interaction and correlation in biological development has led both practitioners and philosophers of science to question the legitimacy of heritability estimates. The paper offers a novel approach to assess the impact of GxE and rGE on the way genetic and environmental causation can be partitioned. A probabilistic framework is developed, based on a quantitative genetic model that incorporates GxE and rGE, offering a rigorous way of interpreting heritability estimates. Specifically, given an estimate of heritability and (...)
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  46. added 2013-11-03
    Héréditaire, Inné, Génétique, Etc.André Pichot - 1993 - Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2):127-138.
    Heriditary, innate, genetical are three different concepts of which the meanings are different but, since obviously related, are often used one for the other, for they are all three used in opposition to acquired or what is called environmental factors. What is acquired is linked to the environment: what is not innate (hereditary, genetical, ...) is acquired and what is acquired cannot be so but through the environment. Thus,innate (hereditary, genetical, ...) andacquired correspond to the usual opposition betweeninside andoutside.This is (...)
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  47. added 2013-11-01
    Exploring Heredity: Diachronic and Synchronic Connections.Carlos López-Beltrán - 2012 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):45-50.
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  48. added 2013-06-06
    Indirect Reciprocity, Golden Opportunities for Defection, and Inclusive Reputation.Max Albert & Hannes Rusch - 2013 - MAGKS Discussion Paper Series in Economics.
    In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, reputation mechanisms can stabilize cooperation even in severe cooperation problems like the prisoner’s dilemma. Under certain circumstances, conditionally cooperative strategies, which cooperate iff their partner has a good reputation, cannot be invaded by any other strategy that conditions behavior only on own and partner reputation. The first point of this paper is to show that an evolutionary version of backward induction can lead to a breakdown of this kind of indirectly reciprocal cooperation. Backward induction, (...)
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  49. added 2012-10-06
    Replication Without Replicators.Bence Nanay - 2011 - Synthese 179 (3):455-477.
    According to a once influential view of selection, it consists of repeated cycles of replication and interaction. It has been argued that this view is wrong: replication is not necessary for evolution by natural selection. I analyze the nine most influential arguments for this claim and defend the replication–interaction conception of selection against these objections. In order to do so, however, the replication–interaction conception of selection needs to be modified significantly. My proposal is that replication is not the copying of (...)
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  50. added 2012-05-13
    Universal Darwinism: Its Scope and Limits.James Maclaurin - 2012 - In Defensor Rationes: Essays in Honour of Colin Cheyne. Springer.
    Many things evolve: species, languages, sports, tools, biological niches, and theories. But are these real instances of natural selection? Current assessments of the proper scope of Darwinian theory focus on the broad similarity of cultural or non-organic processes to familiar central instances of natural selection. That similarity is analysed in terms of abstract functional descriptions of evolving entities (e.g. replicators, interactors, developmental systems etc). These strategies have produced a proliferation of competing evolutionary analyses. I argue that such reasoning ought not (...)
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