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  1. Prior's Puzzle Generalized.Justin D'Ambrosio - manuscript
    Prior’s puzzle is standardly taken to be the puzzle of why, given the assumption that that-clauses denote propositions, substitution of “the proposition that P” for “that P” within the complements of many propositional attitude verbs is invalid. I show that Prior’s puzzle is much more general than is ordinarily supposed. There are two variants on the substitutional form of the puzzle—a quantificational variant and a pronominal variant—and all three forms of the puzzle arise in a wide range of grammatical positions, (...)
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  2. We Belong Together? A Plea for Modesty in Modal Plural Logic.Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    It is often assumed that pluralities are rigid, in the sense of having all and only their actual members necessarily. This assumption is operative in standard approaches to modal plural logic. I argue that a sceptical approach towards the assumption is warranted.
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  3. In Defence of Higher-Level Plural Logic: Drawing Conclusions From Natural Language.Berta Grimau - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Plural Logic is an extension of First-Order Logic which has, as well as singular terms and quantifiers, their plural counterparts. Analogously, Higher-Level Plural Logic is an extension of Plural Logic which has, as well as plural terms and quantifiers, higher-level plural ones. Roughly speaking, higher-level plurals stand to plurals like plurals stand to singulars; they are pluralised plurals. Allegedly, Higher-Level Plural Logic enjoys the expressive power of a simple type theory while committing us to nothing more than the austere ontology (...)
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  4. Unrestricted Quantification and the Structure of Type Theory.Nicholas K. Jones & Salvatore Florio - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 102 (1):44-64.
    Semantic theories based on a hierarchy of types have prominently been used to defend the possibility of unrestricted quantification. However, they also pose a prima facie problem for it: each quantifier ranges over at most one level of the hierarchy and is therefore not unrestricted. It is difficult to evaluate this problem without a principled account of what it is for a quantifier to be unrestricted. Drawing on an insight of Russell’s about the relationship between quantification and the structure of (...)
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  5. Composition of Deductions Within the Propositions-As-Types Paradigm.Ivo Pezlar - 2020 - Logica Universalis (4):1-13.
    Kosta Došen argued in his papers Inferential Semantics (in Wansing, H. (ed.) Dag Prawitz on Proofs and Meaning, pp. 147–162. Springer, Berlin 2015) and On the Paths of Categories (in Piecha, T., Schroeder-Heister, P. (eds.) Advances in Proof-Theoretic Semantics, pp. 65–77. Springer, Cham 2016) that the propositions-as-types paradigm is less suited for general proof theory because—unlike proof theory based on category theory—it emphasizes categorical proofs over hypothetical inferences. One specific instance of this, Došen points out, is that the Curry–Howard isomorphism (...)
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  6. Grounding, Essence, And Identity.Fabrice Correia & Alexander Skiles - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (3):642-670.
    Recent metaphysics has turned its focus to two notions that are—as well as having a common Aristotelian pedigree—widely thought to be intimately related: grounding and essence. Yet how, exactly, the two are related remains opaque. We develop a unified and uniform account of grounding and essence, one which understands them both in terms of a generalized notion of identity examined in recent work by Fabrice Correia, Cian Dorr, Agustín Rayo, and others. We argue that the account comports with antecedently plausible (...)
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  7. A Note on Algebraic Semantics for $Mathsf{S5}$ with Propositional Quantifiers.Wesley H. Holliday - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (2):311-332.
    In two of the earliest papers on extending modal logic with propositional quantifiers, R. A. Bull and K. Fine studied a modal logic S5Π extending S5 with axioms and rules for propositional quantification. Surprisingly, there seems to have been no proof in the literature of the completeness of S5Π with respect to its most natural algebraic semantics, with propositional quantifiers interpreted by meets and joins over all elements in a complete Boolean algebra. In this note, we give such a proof. (...)
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  8. Eta-Rules in Martin-Löf Type Theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 25 (3):333-359.
    The eta rule for a set A says that an arbitrary element of A is judgementally identical to an element of constructor form. Eta rules are not part of what may be called canonical Martin-Löf type theory. They are, however, justified by the meaning explanations, and a higher-order eta rule is part of that type theory. The main aim of this paper is to clarify this somewhat puzzling situation. It will be argued that lower-order eta rules do not, whereas the (...)
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  9. Explicitní/implicitní přesvědčení a derivační systémy [Explicit/Implicit Belief and Derivation Systems].Jiri Raclavsky & Ivo Pezlar - 2019 - Filosoficky Casopis 67 (1): 89-120.
    The problem of hyperintensional contexts, and the problem of logical omniscience, shows the severe limitation of possible-worlds semantics which is employed also in standard epistemic logic. As a solution, we deploy here hyperintensional semantics according to which the meaning of an expression is an abstract structured algorithm, namely Tichý's construction. Constructions determine the denotata of expressions. Propositional attitudes are modelled as attitudes towards constructions of truth values. Such a model of belief is, of course, inferentially restrictive. We therefore also propose (...)
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  10. The Concept Horse is a Concept.Ansten Klev - 2018 - Review of Symbolic Logic 11 (3):547-572.
    I offer an analysis of the sentence "the concept horse is a concept". It will be argued that the grammatical subject of this sentence, "the concept horse", indeed refers to a concept, and not to an object, as Frege once held. The argument is based on a criterion of proper-namehood according to which an expression is a proper name if it is so rendered in Frege's ideography. The predicate "is a concept", on the other hand, should not be thought of (...)
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  11. On Two Notions of Computation in Transparent Intensional Logic.Ivo Pezlar - 2018 - Axiomathes 29 (2):189-205.
    In Transparent Intensional Logic we can recognize two distinct notions of computation that loosely correspond to term rewriting and term interpretation as known from lambda calculus. Our goal will be to further explore these two notions and examine some of their properties.
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  12. Existential Import and Relations of Categorical and Modal Categorical Statements.Jiri Raclavsky - 2018 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 27 (3): 271-300.
    I examine the familiar quadruple of categorical statements “Every F is/is not G.”, “Some F is/is not G.” as well as the quadruple of their modal versions “Necessarily, every F is/is not G.”, “Possibly, some F is/is not G.”. I focus on their existential import and its impact on the resulting Squares of Opposition. Though my construal of existential import follows modern approach, I add some extra details which are enabled by framing my definition of existential import within expressively rich (...)
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  13. The Typing Approach to Church-Fitch's Knowability Paradox and its Revenge Form.Jiri Raclavsky - 2018 - Prolegomena 17 (1):31-49.
    Williamson, Linsky, Paseau and others proposed a solution to Church- Fitch's knowability paradox that is based on typing knowledge; however, it received some criticism. Carrara and Fassio objected that the approach has no paradox-independent motivation, it is thus ad hoc. In the first part of the paper, I dismiss such criticism by carefully stating typing approach principles that are based on non-circular formation of propositions and intensional operators operating on them. In the second part of the paper, I demonstrate that (...)
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  14. Russellian Typing Knowledge and Fitch's Paradox of Knowability.Jiri Raclavsky - 2017 - In Jean-Yves Beziau, Alexandre Costa-Leite & Itala M. Loffredo D’Ottaviano (eds.), Aftermath of the Logical Paradise. Campinas, São Paulo, Brazílie: pp. 401-423.
    It is already known that Fitch's paradox of knowability can be solved by typing knowledge. I differentiate two kinds of such typing, Tarskian and Russellian, and focus on the latter which is framed within the ramified theory of types. My main aim is to other a defence of the approach against recently raised criticism. The key justification is provided by the Vicious Circle Principle which governs the very formation of propositions and thus also intensional operators, including the operator of knowledge.
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  15. Two Standard and Two Modal Squares of Opposition.Jiri Raclavsky - 2017 - In The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. 93413 Cham, Německo: pp. 119-142.
    In this study, we examine modern reading of the Square of Opposition by means of Tichý's Transparent intensional logic. Explicit use of possible world semantics helps us to sharply discriminate between standard and modal readings of categorial statements. We thus get two basic versions of the Square, whereas the Modal Square has not been fully introduced in the contemporary debate yet. Some properties ascribed by mediaeval logicians to the Square require a shift from its Standard to Modal version. Not inevitably, (...)
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  16. Higher-Order Free Logic and the Prior-Kaplan Paradox.Andrew Bacon, John Hawthorne & Gabriel Uzquiano - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):493-541.
    The principle of universal instantiation plays a pivotal role both in the derivation of intensional paradoxes such as Prior’s paradox and Kaplan’s paradox and the debate between necessitism and contingentism. We outline a distinctively free logical approach to the intensional paradoxes and note how the free logical outlook allows one to distinguish two different, though allied themes in higher-order necessitism. We examine the costs of this solution and compare it with the more familiar ramificationist approaches to higher-order logic. Our assessment (...)
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  17. On the Innocence and Determinacy of Plural Quantification.Salvatore Florio & Øystein Linnebo - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):565–583.
    Plural logic is widely assumed to have two important virtues: ontological innocence and determinacy. It is claimed to be innocent in the sense that it incurs no ontological commitments beyond those already incurred by the first-order quantifiers. It is claimed to be determinate in the sense that it is immune to the threat of non-standard interpretations that confronts higher-order logics on their more traditional, set-based semantics. We challenge both claims. Our challenge is based on a Henkin-style semantics for plural logic (...)
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  18. Higher-Order Contingentism, Part 1: Closure and Generation.Peter Fritz & Jeremy Goodman - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (6):645-695.
    This paper is a study of higher-order contingentism – the view, roughly, that it is contingent what properties and propositions there are. We explore the motivations for this view and various ways in which it might be developed, synthesizing and expanding on work by Kit Fine, Robert Stalnaker, and Timothy Williamson. Special attention is paid to the question of whether the view makes sense by its own lights, or whether articulating the view requires drawing distinctions among possibilities that, according to (...)
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  19. Reply to Goodman.Timothy Williamson - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):640-653.
  20. Reply to Linnebo.Timothy Williamson - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):677-682.
  21. On the Ordered Dedekind Real Numbers in Toposes.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Luís A. Sbardellini - 2015 - In Edward H. Haeusler, Wagner Sanz & Bruno Lopes (eds.), Why is this a Proof? Festschrift for Luiz Carlos Pereira. College Publications. pp. 87-105.
    In 1996, W. Veldman and F. Waaldijk present a constructive (intuitionistic) proof for the homogeneity of the ordered structure of the Cauchy real numbers, and so this result holds in any topos with natural number object. However, it is well known that the real numbers objects obtained by the traditional constructions of Cauchy sequences and Dedekind cuts are not necessarily isomorphic in an arbitrary topos with natural numbers object. Consequently, Veldman and Waaldijk's result does not apply to the ordered structure (...)
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  22. Semantics and the Plural Conception of Reality.Salvatore Florio - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-20.
    According to the singular conception of reality, there are objects and there are singular properties, i.e. properties that are instantiated by objects separately. It has been argued that semantic considerations about plurals give us reasons to embrace a plural conception of reality. This is the view that, in addition to singular properties, there are plural properties, i.e. properties that are instantiated jointly by many objects. In this article, I propose and defend a novel semantic account of plurals which dispenses with (...)
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  23. Untyped Pluralism.Salvatore Florio - 2014 - Mind 123 (490):317-337.
    In the semantic debate about plurals, pluralism is the view that a plural term denotes some things in the domain of quantification and a plural predicate denotes a plural property, i.e. a property that can be instantiated by many things jointly. According to a particular version of this view, untyped pluralism, there is no type distinction between objects and properties. In this article, I argue against untyped pluralism by showing that it is subject to a variant of a Russell-style argument (...)
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  24. Epistemology, Context, and Formalism.Franck Lihoreau & Manuel Rebuschi (eds.) - 2014 - Springer Verlag.
    Acknowledgements Five out of the 13 contributions to this volume originate from papers which were presented at the international workshop on “Epistemology, Context, Formalism” held at the MSH-Lorraine in Nancy, France, on November the ...
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  25. Reply to Florio and Shapiro.Øystein Linnebo & Agustín Rayo - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):175-181.
    Florio and Shapiro take issue with an argument in ‘Hierarchies Ontological and Ideological’ for the conclusion that the set-theoretic hierarchy is open-ended. Here we clarify and reinforce the argument in light of their concerns.
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  26. Explicating the Notion of Truth Within Transparent Intensional Logic.Jiri Raclavsky - 2014 - In Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic (Proceedings of Trends in Logic XI). pp. 167-177.
    The approach of Transparent Intensional Logic to truth differs significantly from rivalling approaches. The notion of truth is explicated by a three-level system of notions whereas the upper-level notions depend on the lower-level ones. Truth of possible world propositions lies in the bottom. Truth of hyperintensional entities – called constructions – which determine propositions is dependent on it. Truth of expressions depends on truth of their meanings; the meanings are explicated as constructions. The approach thus adopts a particular hyperintensional theory (...)
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  27. Quantified Multimodal Logics in Simple Type Theory.Christoph Benzmüller & Lawrence C. Paulson - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (1):7-20.
    We present an embedding of quantified multimodal logics into simple type theory and prove its soundness and completeness. A correspondence between QKπ models for quantified multimodal logics and Henkin models is established and exploited. Our embedding supports the application of off-the-shelf higher-order theorem provers for reasoning within and about quantified multimodal logics. Moreover, it provides a starting point for further logic embeddings and their combinations in simple type theory.
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  28. Properties and the Interpretation of Second-Order Logic.B. Hale - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (2):133-156.
    This paper defends a deflationary conception of properties, according to which a property exists if and only if there could be a predicate with appropriate satisfaction conditions. I argue that purely general properties and relations necessarily exist and discuss the bearing of this conception of properties on the interpretation of higher-order logic and on Quine's charge that higher-order logic is ‘set theory in sheep's clothing’. On my approach, the usual semantics involves a false assimilation of the logic to set theory. (...)
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  29. Lesniewski's Systems of Logic and Foundations of Mathematics.Rafal Urbaniak - 2013 - Springer.
    With material on his early philosophical views, his contributions to set theory and his work on nominalism and higher-order quantification, this book offers a uniquely expansive critical commentary on one of analytical philosophy’s great ...
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  30. The Logic of Finite Order.Simon Hewitt - 2012 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (3):297-318.
    This paper develops a formal system, consisting of a language and semantics, called serial logic ( SL ). In rough outline, SL permits quantification over, and reference to, some finite number of things in an order , in an ordinary everyday sense of the word “order,” and superplural quantification over things thus ordered. Before we discuss SL itself, some mention should be made of an issue in philosophical logic which provides the background to the development of SL , and with (...)
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  31. Hierarchies Ontological and Ideological.Øystein Linnebo & Agustin Rayo - 2012 - Mind 121 (482):269 - 308.
    Gödel claimed that Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory is 'what becomes of the theory of types if certain superfluous restrictions are removed'. The aim of this paper is to develop a clearer understanding of Gödel's remark, and of the surrounding philosophical terrain. In connection with this, we discuss some technical issues concerning infinitary type theories and the programme of developing the semantics for higher-order languages in other higher-order languages.
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  32. Semantic Paradoxes and Transparent Intensional Logic.Jiri Raclavsky - 2012 - The Logica Yearbook 2011 (College Publications):239-252.
    The paper describes the solution to semantic paradoxes pioneered by Pavel Tichý and further developed by the present author. Its main feature is an examination (and then refutation) of the hidden premise of paradoxes that the paradox-producing expression really means what it seems to mean. Semantic concepts are explicated as relative to language, thus also language is explicated. The so-called ‘explicit approach’ easily treats paradoxes in which language is explicitly referred to. The residual paradoxes are solved by the ‘implicit approach’ (...)
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  33. On the Possibility of a General Purge of Self-Reference.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2012 - Análisis Filosófico 32 (1):53-59.
    My aim in this paper is to gather some evident in favor of the view that a general purge of self-reference is possible. I do this by considering a modal-epistemic version of the Liar Paradox introduced by Roy Cook. Using yabloesque techniques, I show that it is possible to transform this circular paradoxical construction (and other constructions as well) into an infinitary construction lacking any sort of circularity. Moreover, contrary to Cook’s approach, I think that this can be done without (...)
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  34. Multimodal and Intuitionistic Logics in Simple Type Theory.Christoph Benzmueller & Lawrence Paulson - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (6):881-892.
    We study straightforward embeddings of propositional normal multimodal logic and propositional intuitionistic logic in simple type theory. The correctness of these embeddings is easily shown. We give examples to demonstrate that these embeddings provide an effective framework for computational investigations of various non-classical logics. We report some experiments using the higher-order automated theorem prover LEO-II.
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  35. On Partiality and Tichý's Transparent Intensional Logic.Jiri Raclavsky - 2010 - Magyar Filozofiai Szemle 54 (4):120-128.
    The paper focuses on treating partiality within Tichý’s logical system. Tichý’s logic is two-valued and type-theoretic. His simple theory of types (and the deduction system for it) accepts both total and partial functions. Tichý’s late framework is explicitly ramified. So-called constructions (roughly: algorithms) construct, e.g., values of functions at arguments; in some cases, however, they do not construct anything at all. This special partiality phenomenon is discussed in the second part of the paper.
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  36. Pragmatics, Montague, and “Abstracts From Logical Form”.Joseph S. Fulda - 2008 - Journal of Pragmatics 40 (6):1146-1147.
    In "Abstracts from Logical Form I/II," it was stated in the abstract that it remained necessary to put the pilot experiments into a "comprehensive theory." It is suggested here that the comprehensive theory is nothing other than classical logic modestly extended to include higher-order predicates, functions, and epistemic predicates, as well as a quantitative quantifier to deal with cases other than "all" (taken literally) or "some" in the sense of at least one. It is further suggested that up to a (...)
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  37. Aristotle’s Logic and the Quest for the Quantification of the Predicate.Bert Mosselmans - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (3-4):195-198.
    This paper examines the quest for the quantification of the predicate, as discussed by W.S. Jevons, and relates it to the discussion about universals and particulars between Plato and Aristotle. We conclude that the quest for the quantification of the predicate can only be achieved by stripping the syllogism from its metaphysical heritage.
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  38. Neutrosophy in Arabic Philosophy (Arabic version).Salah Osman & Florentin Smarandache - 2007 - Alexandria, Egypt: Al Maaref Establishment Press.
    لأننا نعيش في عالم يكتنفه الغموض من كل جانب؛ عالم تتسم معرفتنا لأحداثه ووقائعه بالتناقض واللاتحديد، وتُفصح قضايانا اللغوية الواصفة له عن الصدق تارة وعن الكذب تارة أخرى، فنحن في حاجة إلى فلسفة جديدة تعكس حقيقة رؤيتنا النسبية لهذا العالم وقصور معرفتنا به؛ ونحن في حاجة إلى نسقٍِ منطقي يُلائم معطياته غير المكتملة ويُشبع معالجاتنا لها، سواء على مستوى ممارسات الحياة اليومية أو على مستوى الممارسة العلمية بمختلف أشكالها. والفلسفة التي يقترحها هذا الكتاب هي «النيوتروسوفيا»؛ تلك النظرية التي قدمها الفيلسوف (...)
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  39. On Quantifying Into Predicate Position: Steps Towards a New (Tralist) Perspective.Crispin Wright - 2007 - In Mary Leng, Alexander Paseau & Michael Potter (eds.), Mathematical Knowledge. Oxford University Press. pp. 150--74.
  40. Abstracts From Logic Form: An Experimental Study of the Nexus Between Language and Logic I.Joseph S. Fulda - 2006 - Journal of Pragmatics 38 (5):778-807.
  41. Abstracts From Logical Form: An Experimental Study of the Nexus Between Language and Logic II.Joseph S. Fulda - 2006 - Journal of Pragmatics 38 (6):925-943.
    This experimental study provides further support for a theory of meaning first put forward by Bar-Hillel and Carnap in 1953 and foreshadowed by Asimov in 1951. The theory is the Popperian notion that the meaningfulness of a proposition is its a priori falsity. We tested this theory in the first part of this paper by translating to logical form a long, tightly written, published text and computed the meaningfulness of each proposition using the a priori falsity measure. We then selected (...)
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  42. Sets, Properties, and Unrestricted Quantification.Øystein Linnebo - 2006 - In Gabriel Uzquiano & Agustin Rayo (eds.), Absolute Generality. Oxford University Press.
    Call a quantifier unrestricted if it ranges over absolutely all things: not just over all physical things or all things relevant to some particular utterance or discourse but over absolutely everything there is. Prima facie, unrestricted quantification seems to be perfectly coherent. For such quantification appears to be involved in a variety of claims that all normal human beings are capable of understanding. For instance, some basic logical and mathematical truths appear to involve unrestricted quantification, such as the truth that (...)
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  43. Higher Order Modal Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2006 - In Patrick Blackburn, Johan Van Benthem & Frank Wolter (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier. pp. 621-653.
    A logic is called higher order if it allows for quantification over higher order objects, such as functions of individuals, relations between individuals, functions of functions, relations between functions, etc. Higher order logic began with Frege, was formalized in Russell [46] and Whitehead and Russell [52] early in the previous century, and received its canonical formulation in Church [14].1 While classical type theory has since long been overshadowed by set theory as a foundation of mathematics, recent decades have shown remarkable (...)
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  44. Absolute Generality.Agustín Rayo & Gabriel Uzquiano (eds.) - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    The problem of absolute generality has attracted much attention in recent philosophy. Agustin Rayo and Gabriel Uzquiano have assembled a distinguished team of contributors to write new essays on the topic. They investigate the question of whether it is possible to attain absolute generality in thought and language and the ramifications of this question in the philosophy of logic and mathematics.
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  45. Some Results on Ordered Structures in Toposes.Luís Sbardellini & Marcelo Coniglio - 2006 - Reports on Mathematical Logic:181-198.
    A topos version of Cantor’s back and forth theorem is established and used to prove that the ordered structure of the rational numbers (Q, <) is homogeneous in any topos with natural numbers object. The notion of effective homogeneity is introduced, and it is shown that (Q, <) is a minimal effectively homogeneous structure, that is, it can be embedded in every other effectively homogeneous ordered structure.
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  46. Many-Valued Logic between the Degrees of Truth and the Limits of Knowledge.Salah Osman - 2002 - Alexandria, Egypt: Al Maaref Establishment Press.
    هو أول كتاب باللغة العربية يعرض لمراحل وآليات تطور المنطق الرمزي المعاصر متعدد القيم بأنساقه المختلفة، مركزًا على مشكلة الغموض المعرفي للإنسان بأبعادها اللغوية والإبستمولوجية والأنطولوجية، والتي تتجلى – على سبيل المثال – فيما تحفل به الدراسات الفلسفية والمنطقية والعلمية من مفارقات تمثل تحديًا قويًا لثنائية الصدق والكذب الكلاسيكية، وكذلك في اكتشاف «هيزنبرج» لمبدأ اللايقين، وتأكيده وعلماء الكمّ على ضرورة التفسيرات الإحصائية في المجال دون الذري، الأمر الذي يؤكد عدم فعالية قانون الثالث المرفوع في التعامل مع معطيات الواقع الفعلي، واستحالة (...)
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  47. Classical Logic II: Higher-Order Logic.Stewart Shapiro - 2001 - In Lou Goble (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Philosophical Logic. Blackwell. pp. 33--54.
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  48. Topological Completeness for Higher-Order Logic.S. Awodey & C. Butz - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1168-1182.
    Using recent results in topos theory, two systems of higher-order logic are shown to be complete with respect to sheaf models over topological spaces- so -called "topological semantics." The first is classical higher-order logic, with relational quantification of finitely high type; the second system is a predicative fragment thereof with quantification over functions between types, but not over arbitrary relations. The second theorem applies to intuitionistic as well as classical logic.
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  49. Storrs McCall's Tree of The Universe and Counterfactuals شجرة الكون وقضايا مناقضة الواقع عند ستورس مكال.Salah Osman - 1999 - Journal of the Faculty of Arts, Menoufia University 2956-2090 39:83 – 128.
    لم يكن العلم يومًا غريبًا عن الفلسفة، بل لقد أدت العلاقة الجدلية المستمرة بينهما إلى مزيد من المصداقية والقبول لبعض النماذج التفسيرية، سواء منها ما كان في الأصل نموذجًا فلسفيًا ثم وجد دعمًا علميًا – كنموذج الذرات والفـراغ عند «ديمرقــريطس» وتبنى النظرية الذرية الحديثة لإطاره العام – أو ما كان منها نموذجًا علميًا تم تداوله فلسفيًا – كنموذج النقاط المادية المتجاذبة عند »نيوتن« وتبنى معظم فلاسفة الحقبة الحديثة له. وفي هذا المقال يهتم الدكتور صلاح عثمان بمناقشة نموذج شجرة الكون لفيلسوف (...)
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  50. The Limits of Higher-Order Logic and the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem.Jan Woleński - 1998 - Erkenntnis 49 (3):393-396.
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